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Two Polish Champions VJ/ -J Polishs Americans atthe Kosciuszko Monument in Humboldt Park, Chicaqo By ELMO SCOTT WATSON HE issuance by the post office de partment of a special five-cent stamp which will be placed on sale 1 In Chicago, Detroit and Boston on October 18 and at other post of ® flees on October 19 serves to re call the name of a distinguished foreigner who, In the words of Postmaster General Farley, “will be forever perpetuated In the hearts of the American people.” For this stamp commemorates the 150th anniver sary of the admission to American citizenship of Gen. Thaddeus Koscluszko, the Polish soldier w ho is known as “the great champion of liberty," and this stamp Is another tribute to his memory by the nation whose liberty he helped to estab lish. Monuments have been erected to him in Chicago, Boston and Washington, and at the United States Military academy at West Point, N. Y.; a county in Indiana and streets In sev eral of our cities bear his name; but the every day use of the commemorative stamp during Oc tober by thousands of Americans will recall his name and fame to more of our citizens than any of these other memorials have ever done. October Is a month which Is peculiarly asso ciated with the history of Koscluszko. It was on October 18, 177(5, that he came to Washington’s camp near New York, bearing a letter of intro duction from Benjamin Franklin to the com mander-in-chief; it was during October of that year that he was made a colonel of engineers in the Continental army, became a member of Washington’s military family and began the as sociation with the great American which enabled Kosciuszko in later years to call himself proudly “a friend of Washington’’; and it was on October 15. 1817, that the Polish champion met his death by a fall from his horse, an event which the Poet Campbell has made historic with his "Hope for a season bade the world farewell And Freedom shriek’d as Kosciuszko fell!” Also significant in the relationship of Washing ton and Koscluszko Is the fact that they were born in the same month, Washington on Feb ruary 11 (old style). 1732, and Kosciuszko on February 12, 1740. He grew up on his father’s estate, a remote spot In Lithuania. Though of noble birth, the elder Kosciuszko was a man of property, and his children lived like other chil dren of their class. Thaddeus seems to have been a diligent, conscientious boy. with a keen sense of responsibility. He attended the Jesuit college In his home town, nnd in 1704 entered the corps of cadets in the Itoyal School of Warsaw. he went to France, where he studied military engineering, especially French fortifi cations. Sketches made by Kosciuszko while he was studying architecture in Rrest nnd Paris are to be seen In Poland’s national museums. At the age of twenty-eight he returned home, to find the family fortunes sadly depleted. Just why at this time Kosciuszko made up his mind to go to America is not entirely clear. Some attribute It to an unhappy love affair; others assert he was stirred by the story of a young country fighting for Its independence. At all events, he sailed for the New world and landed at Philadelphia in the summer of 1776. having mortgaged his patrimony and borrowed 450 ducats to get there. He seems to have made the acquaintance of Franklin either In France or in Philadelphia, for we next hear of him presenting the letter of In troduction from Franklin, previously referred to, to Washington in October, 1776. “What can you do?” asked Washington, according to the familiar story. “Try me and we shall see!” was the Pole’s modest reply. So Washington made him a colonel of engineers and he soon proved what he could do. From October, 1776, to April, 1777, he was busy fortifying Philadelphia, continuing the work which he had undertaken upon his arrival there before his services had been accepted by Washington. Then he joined Gates’ army in the North and it was Kosciuszko who selected and planned the fortification of Bemis Heights, near Saratoga, and his contribution was a material one to the success of the operations which led to the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga. Shortly afterwards, Koscluszko planned the fortifications on the Hudson at West Point, gen eraily rated as his greatest achievement in the War for American Independence. Kosciuszko ar ( - •' .■ .* ' * . * , - yfS .- . - ... *'■ - -V*. . .. .. p Kosciuszko Statue at west Point rived at West Point in March, 1778, and laid out additional forts to protect West Point, which then controlled the principal line of communica tion from New England to the central and the southern colonies, in case the British should send an exj>editionary force from New York. He also strengthened the existing defenses. So much general satisfaction was there with Kosciuszko’s work, that Washington in a dispatch says, “To his care and sedulous appreciation the American people are indebted for the defenses of West Point.” It was this Polish soldier who urged that West Point be chosen when It was later decided to found a training school for American youth. He spent two of the six years he was in this country at West Point, where a monument was erected in his memory in 1828. Kosciuszko’s next service was In the Carolinas campaign with General Greene and It is said that Greene's escape from Cornwallis during his memorable retreat was due largely to the work of the Polish officer in constructing pontoon bridges which allowed Greene’s army to cross rivers before the British could overtake IL The close of the Revolution found Koscluszko a brigadier-general and a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. By vote of congress American citizenship was conferred upon him In October, 1783, and he was granted 500 acres of land on the Scioto river in Perry county, Ohio, which he later sold. American liberty having been won Kosciuszko decided to return to his own land and fight again for its freedom. To follow the activities of the Po lish patriot after his return to his native land is to follow the stormy days of a Poland fight ing for freedom against heavy odds. In 1791 Poland, under a new constitution, became a lim ited monarchy with ministerial responsibility. Invidious class distinctions were done away with. But the new constitution could not stand against the old confederation. Polish territory was a desirable corridor for surrounding powers. The little Polish army under Kosciuszko and Prince Joseph Poniatowskl did what it could. For three months it kept back all Invaders. But King Stanislaus II of Poland, doubtful of suc cess, acceded to the demands of the confedera tion. Poland was again parceled out to her neigh bors and reduced to ODe-third her original di mensions. Undismayed, Kosciuszko and his followers withdrew to Leipsic. There they laid their plans for another battle. In this encounter they were partly victorious, recovering considerable lost territory. But the game of war against an enemy THE COOLIDGE EXAMINER whose numbers far exceeded their own proved disastrous. Koscluszko, seriously wounded, was taken prisoner on the battlefield. For two years he was confined In the famous Russian fortress of St Peter nnd Paul. He was released upon his request that he be allowed once more to visit America. After his second visit to America he settled down In a house near Paris. There he received many distinguished guests and worked for a fatherland he was never to see again. The last few years of his life were spent with .'fiends in Solothurn, Switzerland, where he died in 1817. Closely connected with the month of October is the story of another Polish champion of lib erty, a comrade in arms of Kosciuszko, and a man whom Americans delight to honor along with him —Count Casimir Pulaski. Pulaski was born In. Podolia, Poland, March 4. 1748. As a mere hoy he threw himself into the struggle for Polish liberty. At twenty-one he stirred up a revolt in Lithuania against the ty rannical Russians, who were gradually crushing out Poland's national life. Though elected commander-in-chief of the Po lish army of Independence In 1770, when hut twenty-two years old, he was defeated In battle and scored failure after failure. He is said to have made an unsuccessful attempt the next year to kidnap King Stanislas of Poland from the latter's Warsaw palace. As a result of various mishaps Pulaski was outlawed, his estates con fiscated and a price set on his head. Pulaski fled for his life to Turkey, finding his way thence to France, a patriot without a coun try. In Paris he met Benjamin Franklin, and heard from him the story of America’s struggle for liberty. Here at last was a chance for the fugitive to strike another blow for freedom. Armed with letters of Introduction from Frank lin, he sailed for Philadelphia in March, 1777, and joined Washington’s army as a volunteer. Washington appointed the Pole to a place on the general staff. Pulaski’s first American battle was at the Brandywine. There lie rallied companies of retreating Americans, and so deployed them as to protect the retreat of our main army. For this service congress made him a brigadier gen eral. He persuaded Washington to raise a body of light infantry and cavalry and enlist for it all classes of men, Including prisoners and de serters. The count was made leader of this corps of 359 troops, which was known as the Pulaski Legion. With ids odd following he har ried the British and won new fame. But he grew tired of holding so small a command. There was strife and discontent among the men. Pul aski gave up his office, and decided to go back to Europe. Washington persuaded him to stay in the army, and sent him South to find new scope for his energies. The southern summer’s unbearable heat and the steaming, unwholesome marshes where he was often forced to camp told upon the Pole’s health. He fell seriously 111 with ma laria fever. But as fast as he recovered from one attack he continued his campaign against the British until another illness laid him low. His health wrecked, he fought on. The Americans were planning to march against the English forces that held Savannah, Ga. Pul aski. acting as advance guard, fell upon the un prepared enemy, captured some of their outer fortifications and opened the road for communi cation between the patriots and the reinforcing French fleet The Americans then laid regular siege to Sa vannah. Pulaski was made leader of both the American and the French cavalry and led an assault on the British lines on October 9, 1779, during which he was mortally wounded. He died two days later on the United States brig, the Wasp, and was buried at sea. The sesquicerftennial of Pulaski’s death was the occasion for a nation-wdde observance on October 11, 1929, when commemorative services were held in many places throughout the coun try and a tall shaft, honoring the Polish hero, was unveiled in Savannah. There was also a spe cial stamp issue in honor of the event. The next year a resolution was introduced into congress to make October 11 of each year “Pulaski Me morial day” and in 1931 this resolution was passed and President Hoover issued a proclama tion calling for its observance. (© by Western Newspaper Union.) Southwestern Briefs Seventy-four cases of communicable diseases were reported to the Arizona state board of health during the week ended Sept. 16. Pascual Barela, 19, son of August Barela of Tonuco, N. M., was drowned in the Rio Grande near Tonuco while swimming with his brother. Governor Moeur announced appoint ment of Mrs. Kathryn C. Hutchinson of Bisbee, and Miss Chrlstin Ballman, of Phoenix, to fill unexpired terms on the state board of nurse examiners. The New Mexico state highway de partment has approved plans for in cluding roads to three Indian agencies near Gallup in the state's appropria tiou for roads under the public works programs. Governor Moeur asked cities and towns in Arizona, which do not now have planning commissions, to outline programs which will accomplish the most good for the greatest number of people in the community. Twenty young attorneys were ad mitted to practice when they took their oaths at the Supreme Court in Arizona. They were the successful candidates who passed the state bar examinations in June. Walter Londagin, 30, of Vado, N. M., was instantly killed when the steering apparatus on his automobile broke and permitted his car to plunge into the Rio Grande River as he was crossing the bridge at Berino. University of Arizona enrollment for the first semester has passed the 14(H) mark. Registration had been com pleted by 1363 students. This number exceeds by 200 the corresponding day's registration figure of last year. Fulton F. Caldwell, 45-year-old ex service man, charged with murder of his wife, Bessie May Caldwell, 35, sought to plead guilty before Supe rior Court Judge Richard Lamson in Prescott and asked that he be sen tenced to die. Miss Bess Householder, executive secretary of the Dona Ana County, New Mexico, Welfare Association for the past two years, left Las Cruces for Santa Fe, where she will succeed Mrs. Haystead In the state child welfare bureau. Drilling of a new well in wildcat ter ritory northeast of Artesia, N. M., has given indications that a new oil field may be developed. Van C. Welch of Artesia has spudded in a well at 1,000 feet to get a high grade oil running fifty barrels a day. The Lee Moor Construction Com pany of El Paso, Texas, submitted to the state highway department a low bid of J 98.653.46 for construction of a bridge over the Salt River, forty-three miles northeast of Globe on United States Highway No. 60: Justus S. Wardell, of San Francis co, regional adviser of the federal public works administration, conferred with the Arizona public works board. The discussion was devoted chiefly to administrative problems as related to speeding up re-employment. Over 200 cotton pickers from An thony, Dona Ana and I.as Cruces, N. M., paraded the streets of Las Cruces carrying banners protesting against the pickers' wage scale of 50 cents a hundred pounds. The pickers want 75 cents a hundred on nine cent cot ton. Less than half an hour after he had urged fellow members of the New Mexico Bankers’ Association to justify their existence by “giving the utmost of service to our customers and the nation,” Governor Arthur Seligman of New Mexico died in Albuquerque, the result of a sudden heart attack. C. E. Kennemer of Dallas, Texas, general manager of the Western Ice and Utilities Company, announced that construction of a $300,000 brew ery plant to employ 100 persons would get under way at Albuquerque within the next thirty days. The brewery will have a capacity of 19,300 gallons per day. The recent repeal vote apparently opened the way to legal sale of medic inal liquor on doctor’s prescriptions in New Mexico. Under the federal law, physicians are allowed to pre scribe as much whisky or other liquor as they believe their patients need, in states which do not have laws in conflict with this federal statute. The Arizona corporation commis sion directed the Southern Pacific Company and the Magma Arizona Railroad Company, respectively, to continue operations on the Phoenix- Winkleman branch and the Magma Company’s line from Magma to Su perior. Both companies had sought permission to abandon service. New motor cars being hauled over the New Mexico state highways in caravans will have to be licensed, C. R. Sebastian, chief assistant state comptroller, asserted. The leading car in each caravan will have to have a regular annual license, according to the new rule. A flat rate of $5 will be charged for every other car in the caravan. The state tax commission, in a state ment, said sales tax revenue for July and August indicated the August re tail sales volume in Arizona was about $500,000 greater than in July. George (Machine Gun) Kelly, who has been staging a one-man crime wave in connection with the trial in Oklahoma City of seven defendants charged with kidnaping Charles F Urschel, millionaire oil man, is al leged by prison records to have begun his criminal career in New Mexico and to have served his first time in the sta penitentiary at Santa Fe. London-Bound for Love By KAYE WOODROY/ ifi). by McClure Newspaper Syndicate. WNU Service f_J ELEN HOLMES didn’t feel so 1 happy. She had a romantic nature and she longed for a cozy, rose-covered cottage in the suburbs, a flower garden to cultivate, and a tall, broad-shouldered, tanned man to welcome home each night. It so happened that Helen was really what some old maids would call a model young girls—that is, she didn’t smoke or drink, nor did she enjoy petting. But every night—at least almost every night she dreamed some modern specimen of Lochinvar would appear from some where and claim her as his bride. Os course it was only a dream. Day after day she conscientious ly typed away in a Wall Street brokerage firm and calmly refused the dinner invitations tendered her by one of the elder men of the of fice. She felt pretty bitter about life in general when a friend. Blanche Young, returned from a cruise to Bermuda with an engagement ring in the proper place. And to make it worse Blanche informed every one that the newly discovered male —one Eddie Williams—and she were to be married within a month. Blanche Young’s luck at catching a good-looking and sensible man had exerted a great influence over Helen. She realized that Blanche had really taken the right way. She knew that if she continued working year after year in torrid New York, she would soon lose al) hopes of marrying. Her attractive ness and her disposition as well, would be all shot So, one day, when she was feel ing exceptionally carefree and jubi lant, she asked the office manager for a six weeks’ leave of absence for a long cruise. As luck would have it, her request was granted. Immediately she withdrew all her savings—six hundred dollars. For two hundred dollars she secured passage to London on a small but respectable merchant steamer. The first day at sea was ideal. Helen was so happy and relaxed after years of w r ork in an office that she almost forgot the main reason why she had staked her all on the trip to London and back. Nevertheless, as she watched the deck tennis and shuffle-board games on the deck, Helen took ac curate regard of all the young men present Os the ones she scrutln ized there were only two, she de cided with a woman’s Intuition, that would take the place of all the Lochinvars she had dreamed of And only one of the eligible males. Helen decided, was the type that would want a home with a pretty wife to prepare his meals. He was a serious looking man of about thirty-five, tanned, well built and genial in appearance. The other man who qualified was busy play ing deck tennis. He had all the appearance of a college athlete, in tent upon having a swell vacation at his father’s expense. But the fact must be told, that he alone of all the men on deck, had seemed to notice Helen and be Impressed by her appearance. Then, all of a sudden, the other man whose appearance Helen had admired, turned to her and said: “Shall we take the winners on for a game of deck tennis?” “I’d love to!” replied Helen, say ing to herself that Lady Luck at last was her good friend. As the trip progressed Helen and her newly found, tanned, thirty five-year-old male acquaintance played deck tennis together every day. He was always polite and courteous—yes, even friendly. Bui that was as far as things went. Nights, instead of being with the older man, she danced and walked on deck with the young, sentimen tal college youth. Things went along like that un til the night before they docked at London. On that night Helen missed her college student-dancer at the farewell dance. Feeling a little disappointed, she retired to the deck where she sat in a deck chair and admired the stars and the moon. Suddenly from nowhere came “Hello, Helen!” She lifted her glance from the stars to discover who had approached her. And It was her deck tennis partner. “Helen,” he said, as he dragged her out of the deck chair and over to the rail, “I’ve been looking for you. It’s too late for deck tennis —so I thought we might play a game of love. I want you for my partner always.” “Do you like rose-covered cot tages with gardens, and with a wife waiting there nights with a home cooked meal for you?” whispered Helen, as she edged closer to her friend. “Darned right 1 do,” was his ready response. “Well, I guess this game of love Is all right, then. But let's make it soon.” "Tomorrow we’ll be in London, and that’s where I’m stationed for a year or so. You won’t mind liv ing in London, will you, Helen darling?” “Never —you see, I only pur chased a one-way ticket.” EGG-GRADING LAW TO AID PRODUCER Colorado Plan Intended to Improve Quality. Colorado’s new egg-grading law will benefit poultry producers of the state by standardizing and improv ing the quality of eggs sold, says O. C. Ufford, extension poultryman for the Colorado Agricultural college. Improved standards will create a demand for quality eggs, for which producers should be paid according ly, he adds. At present there is no restriction against selling eggs of any quality, grade or condition. The dumping of low-grade eggs Into Colorado from surrounding states, causing sudden breaks in market prices, will be prevented by the new law, which specifies that eggs shipped into the state “must be candled and meet at least the quality and grade of ‘standards.’ ” Grades to be used under the law include “Specials,” “Extras,” “Standards,” “Trades,” and also “Checks.” Grocers, dealers and wholesalers, are required to obtain licenses from the office of the director of mar kets, Denver. It Is unlawful to sell inedible eggs. All eggs sold to consumers must be candled and graded. Pro ducers selling eggs direct to con sumers must candle and grade them and may get their licenses free of charge If they are selling only their own eggs. If selling direct to deal ers, it is not necessary for pro ducers to candle and grade or have licenses. If a producer buys eggs to sell with his own he must se cure a dealer’s license. 1 Range Best Place for the Health of Pullet« The range is still one of the best places for the growing of sturdy, healthy pullets, In the opinion of Prof. W. C. Thompson, poultry hus bandman at the New Jersey agri cultural experiment station. Fresh air, sunshine, protection from ex cessive heat, green food and work ing space are essential to the effi cient development of good poultry, while overcrowding of the ranges is the most frequent cause of trou ble. The desirable conditions can be provided on farms where not more than 300 pullets need be ranged on an acre and rotation of crops practiced. Colony houses for grow ing pullets should be movable so that they may be shifted at least twice during the season. If the ranges are so managed that they have a green crop growing on them they will probably be in a sanitary condition. Professor Thompson recommends a four-year ration plan, in which any given range is used once dur ing the period for the pullet crop. In the year following the use of the land for birds, some cultivated crop should be grown such as corn, potatoes or cabbage. In the second year, wheat, oats, barley, rye or some other small grain crop can be planted in the early part of the sea son and after the harvesting al falfa may be sown. In the third year the alfalfa is managed as a money crop and in the fourth year the poultry ranges over the second year alfalfa growth. POULTRY CHATTER A pullet can withstand a range in temperature from nearly zero to about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. * • * One reason w%, some farm flocks do not lay more eggs is because they are not given sufficient water to drink. * • * A Black Minorca hen owned by Mrs. Laura Hill Artega of Lompoc, Calif., lays two-color eggs, half of which are white and half brown. * • * All cockerels raised each season except those selected to keep for breeders should be eaten, canned or marketed just as soon as they are large enough. * • * Chicks multiply thei. size eight or twelve times during the first eight or ten weeks of their lives. Therefore It is essential in good management to provide plenty of space. • * * Os eggs In the shell the United States is an exporter rather than an Importer, having imported in 1930 only 317,000 dozen, while the exports for the same year were 18,- 579,000 dozen. • • • A machine which automatically candles and then grades eggs ac cording to weight has been devel oped. Eggs of the same weight are deposited in bins, ten classifications being provided. * • * An egg canning plant at Norfolk, Neb., Is operating at full speed fill- • ing orders for eastern candy, may onnaise and baking manufacturers. The average daily output is G,OOO to 7,000 pounds of eggs.