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THEY SOWED THE SEEDS K.NG HCNDn.CK £&* \$L By ELMO SCOTT WATSON Q. f^n N£V A VL W ' X JUI.Y 4 lb* American j*er>p!e will M. y \ celebrate the on* hundred sixty- Jw eighth anniversary «f the event . Aj which won them their liberty—the jaaeaaTMs adoption of the I>erlarnt!on of In r!tT< I dej>endence. On that day, officially called Independence day. bat het jKf ter known aa the ‘ Fourth of July,* they will honor the memory of thnee "V? Immortals'* who signed the document In which they held certain “truths to be self-evident.” In which they did "solemnly publish and declare that these united colonies •re. and of right ought to be. free and Inde pendent states - and In which “for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence.” they did “mu tually pledge to each other our lives, our for tunes and our sacred honor.” We know the names of most of them —the men who took the first decisive step toward winning Independence and forming a new nation. But how many Americana know the names of other men who, many years before, had Bowed the wesa of that liberty and of that new nation? How many of us know of Robert Livingston who. as early aa 1701, was proposing colonial co-operation and a colonial union? And to how many of us does the name of Teonlahagarawe. or King Hendrick, a chief of the Mohawk In dlana. have any significance In the struggle for liberty? It Is with these two men, but more particularly with King Hendrick, and with the events which foreshadowed the l*eclaratlon that this article deala Although the Itrltish Crown encouraged the Idea of a colonial union to aid In Its struggle with Francs for mattery of North America the colonies paid little heed to such an Idea coming from the Mother country and either disregarded or evaded directly her appeals to them to con tribute to the conduct of the wars So It seemed that the only possibility for co-operative effort lay In voluntary action on the part of the colo nies. Sensing this fact, Robert Uvlngston. a leading merchant of New York who was much Interested In opening up the rich resources of the hack country, came forward with a plan of colonial union In 1701. Livingston realised that tbs colony of New York alone could not carry out his ambitious scheme of development so In a long letter, dated May 13. 1701, he laid before the British Council of Trade and Plantations his scheme for uniting the colonies in “one form of government.*’ divided Into three groups, a southern, a central and a northern. Each year there was to be raised from this government a certain sum of m<>ney which would be administered fr»>m Albany by a board of commissioners selected from eacn of the groups. Tiie Crown was to send troops and equipment and the three groups were to supply labor, under a quota arrangement, for building and garrisoning forts which were to be built In the wilderness to protect settlers who were to be encouraged to take up lands Id the West. Every two year* the British government was to send out "two hundred youths” as replacements for 200 of the soldiers who were to lie mustered out of service but who. If they would remain In the country, were to receive free land. It was an excellent scheme and the British Crown was quick to realize Its advantages. But, as usual, a lack of co-operation among the colo nies prevailed and nothing came of Livingston’s plan. For another half century they went their serrate ways. By the middle of the Eighteenth century the menace of French expansion In the West and the tightening of their alliance with the Indians began to alarm the colonies seri ously. In 1753 young t«eorge Washington, sent by Virginia to the Ohio country to warn the French away from this region claimed by the British, returned with their flat refusal to go. Then Governor Dinwiddle of Virginia sent Captain Trent and his backwoodsmen to build a fort at the forks of the Monongahela, but before they could finish their work the French drove Trent away. On May 9. 1754. the Pennsylvania Gazette of Philadelphia contained an account of Trent's surrender of the fort and predicted that unless something were done, the French would "kill, seize and Imprison our Traders and confiscate their Effects at Pleasure (as they have done for several Years past), murder and scalp our Farmers, with their Wives and Children, and take an easy Possession of such parts of the British Territory as they find most convenient for them: which If they are permitted to do. mast end In the Destruction of the British In terest. Trade and Plantations In America.” Along with this appeal for concerted action there appeared In the Gazette the first real cartoon, drawn by the publisher of the Gazette. Benjamin Franklin. It showed a disjointed snake, each part labeled with the lnitals of one of the colonies, and under It the motto “Join, or Die." Later Franklin's graphic portrayal of the urgent necessity for colonial union was reprinted 1\ -f \ 111 3NAKJE cartoon yyT] I I rSSr I 1 r In other papera throughout the colonies, who soon htd au opportunity to put Into practical effect the lesson which It taught but who. as usual, muffed the chance. That was at the fa mous Albany congress of 1754. For aa Georg* M. Wrong, author of the volume "The Conquest of New France” In “The Chronicles of America” aeries, says; "The English colonists showed a political blindness that amounted to Imbecility. Albany was the central point from which the clangers on all sides might l*e*t tie surveyed- Here rime together In the summer of 1754 gates from seven of the colonies to consider the common i»eriL The French were busy In win ning. as they did. the support of the many In dian tribes of the West; and the old allies of the English, the Iroquois, were nervous for their own safety. “The delegates to Albany, tied and bound by Instructions from their aaaetnbllea, had to listen to plain words from the savages. The one Eng lishman who. In dealing with the Indiana, had tact and skill equal to that of Frontenac of old was an Irishman. Sir William Johnson. To him the Iroquois made Indignant protests that the English were as ready aa the French to rob them of their lands. . . .* Outstanding among these native orators who spoke such plain words to the delegates waa Teonlahlgarawe or King Hendrick of the Mo hawks. Although he la not so well known to most Americana as that other Mohawk leader. Tbay endanegea or Joseph Brant. Hendrick was one of the most Important Indian figures In colonial history. He was born about 1072 near the pres ent site of Westfield. Mas*. Although he was the son of a M<‘began of the Wolf clan, his mother was a Mohawk woman, so he became a member of the latter tribe. Some time between 1090 and 1092 Teonlahlgarawe was converted to Chris tianity by a Dutch preacher named Godefridus Delllus and given the name of Hendrick Peters, later shortened to Hendrick. As a Christian preacher and a natural leader, Hendrick rapidly rose to a position of promi nence among the Mohawks as an orator and a councillor. After the failure of General Nichol son's expedition against Canada during Queen j Anne's war. the provincial authorities of New York became fearful that the Iroquois might Join forces with the French. To prevent this and to gain more active support from the Mother coun try In carrying on the war. Col. Peter Schuyler decided to make a Journey to England and to take with him several Iroquois leaders. Hendrick was one of the five chosen to go and In April. 1710, Schuyler and his Iroquois delegation ar rived In London where they were received with great ceremony as “native kings” of the Five Nations of the Iroquois confederacy. Upon their return to America King Hendrick took an active part In the preparations for the campaign against the French, but the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war before any Important results were accomplished. From that time on Hendrick was much In the limelight as a war leader of his people but more as an orator and a frequent speaker at councils with the pro vincial authorities In Albany. For a time he was swayed toward the cause of the French, but the influence of Sir William Johnson, with whom he later became such a firm friend, kept him loyal to the English. During the negotiations with the Iroquois at the Albany congress Hendrick was the chief speaker for the Indians. In answer to charges that the Iroquois were leaning to the French, he replied hotly: “You have asked us the reason of our being driven like leaves before the wind. The reason Is because of yoor neglect of us ’ these three years past You have thrown us i behind your back and disregarded us, whereas i the French are always turning this way and that. , with their eyes ever upon the trail, ever using i their utmost endeavors every day. walking softly like the wolf In winter to seduce and bring ■ our people over to them. Tls your fault, breth- I ren. that we are not strengthened by conquest, ■ for we would have gone and taken Crown Point but you hindered us. We had concluded to go and take It. but we were told It was too late and that the Ice would not bear us; Instead of this, you burnt your own forts at Seraghtcga i and run away from It, which was a shame and I a scandal to yoo. Look about your country and , see. You have no fortifications about you, no, , not even to this city. Look at the French. They • are men. They are fortifying everywhere. But, ‘ we are ashamed to say it. you are all like wom • en—weak and defenseless.” 1 But this stinging indictment of the faltering TIIK COOLIDOE EXA&IKFR 'w/v'l, \ J® y William \JF f M ft /■$ JXjohnson military policy of the English waa nvershad owed In importance by another of Hendrtck'a speeches at the congress, it was delivered on July 4. 1754. and in It he anticipated by 22 year# to the day some of the Ideas expressed In the Declaration of Independence. He said: "Brethren. It Is very true, aa yon told us. thnt the clouds hang heavy over us snd It la not very pleasant to look ap; hut we give this belt to clear away all the clouds, that we may all live In bright sunlight, and keep together In strict union -and friendship. Then we shall become strong and nothing can hurt us "Brethren. | will Jus! tell you what a people we were formerly. If any enemies arose against us. »« had no occasion to lift up our whole band against them, for oar little finger was suffi cient; and as »e have now made a strong con federacy if we are truly In earnest therein, we may retrieve the ancient glory of the Five Nations.” It la easy to imagine how attentively one delegate to that congress listened to the words of the Mohawk chieftain as be told of the an cient power of the Iroquois confederacy, a power gained so many years before because these "sav ages" realized that "In union there is strength” and put that realization Into practical effect That delegate waa Benjamin Franklin of Penn sylvania. who had In his pocket a plan for a union of the colonies which he had brought from Philadelphia with him. Ills plan provided for the appointment of a president-general for the colonies, appointed by the Crown, ami the election by the various colonial assemblies of a legislative body to be called the grand council. The powers which they were to exercise resembled In many ways those conferred upon the President and congress by our federal Constitution. The delegates to the Albany congress unanimously adopted Franklin's plan, but It was defeated when brought to a vote In the colonial assemblies. So the colonies and the Mother country turned deaf ears to the wisdom that came from the lips of such men as King Hendrick of the Mo hawks and Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and went bnrk to their policy of "blundering through.” They blundered seriously several times In the campaign against Crown Point the next year. One of their blunders was In disre garding the advice of King Hendrick who had led his Mohawks to aid his friend. Sir William Johnson, who commanded the expedition. When It was proposed to send a detachment of 1.000 troops and 300 Indians to the aid of besieged Fort Edward, the Mohawk chief ob jected. "If they are to fight, they are too few," he said. “If they are to die, they are too many.” But the council of war overrode him. Then"when It was proposed to send the detachment against the enemy In three parties, Hendrick again preached bis message of “In union there is strength.” Picking up three sticks from the ground, he said: "Put these together and you cannot break them; take them one by one and yon will do It easily.” But again his advice was disregarded and the detachment started against the gallant and able commander. Dleskau. The result was the ambush at Bloody Pond, the defeat of the colonials with the loss of 100 men. Including the leader of the detachment. CoL Ephraim Williams, and stout old Hendrick. His horse was shot down at the first volley and before he could extricate him self a French bayonet pierced his heart So the great Mohawk died before he could see his English allies blunder through the French and Indian war to a successful conclusion. But his oft-repeated "in union there Is strength” was not utterly lost Another man who had preached the same message at the Albany congress con tinued to preach It —through his snake cartoon, through his writings and In his speeches In the Continental congress. So Benjamin Franklin lived to sea It become an accomplished fact He helped write a pledge to such a union In the Declaration of Independence and even though during the dark days of the Revolution the bonds of that onion seemed about to be broken, they survived long enough to win American liberty. But before he died he saw that union imper- Ishably preserved in the Constitution of the United States of America. £ br Western Newapsper Union. Southwestern Briefs Hall recently completely destroyed wheat fields two miles north of Clovis, N. M., during a severe storm. The hailstones were not large but were of sufficient size to mow the crop down. There Is every indication that the enrollment for summer school this year at the New .Mexico Normal, in Las Vegas, will exceed that of last year. The enrollment last year reached the 850 mark. The 51 35.000 teachers’ relief alloca tlon made to Arizona by the govern ment will be used to pay rural teach ers’ salaries for April and May. it has been announced by Herman Hendrix state superintendent of public Instruc tion. Revenues from the New Mexico liquor stamp tax. which became es fectlve June 1. totaled more than $14.- 000 the first three days of the month. J. C. Pillow, executive secretary of the State Liquor Control Board, an nounced. The Department of Agriculture re cently advised United States Senator Bronson Cutting of New Mexico that It will start a cattle buying program in the drouth stricken New Mexico counties of Union, Harding, Quay and Curry soon. The executive board meeting of the New Mexico Cattle Growers' Associa tlon. held at Las Vegas June 18. was of unusual interest to the livestock men. as reports were made of the status of bills brought before Con gress which affect the livestock In dustry. According to word reaching Santa Fe. the Senate has reduced the SIOO.- 000.000 request for continuation of higbwuy construction work In the United States to $200,000,000, which means that New Mexico's share will be cut to $3,000,000 from the approxi mately $5,000,000 obtained last year. Arizona's emergency relief admin Istratlon allotment for June is one ftf#h less than received for May. It was said by H. L. Ryder, chief audi tor. For the work and relief program In June. $400,000 has been apportioned. Ryder said the curtailment would not result In curtailment of the present work. Fire recently burned out the heart of the Duncan. Arts., business district, destroying seven buildings, causing an estimated loss of $20,000, and for a time threatening the entire city. Vol unteer fighters, handicapped by lack of fire protection, were compelled to obtain water from the Southern Pa cific, Cotton growers In the Salt river valley in Arizona signing the govern ment crop reduction programs have received SIOO,OOO and an additional $50,000 is on the way. Harry A. Stew art. county agricultural agent, an nounced. The payments represent sums of S2O to $2,000 paid to 474 growers. A copy of the pamphlet Issued by Oklahoma City University concerning the Taos summer tour, which brings Oklahoma students through Raton, has been received at the Chamber of Commerce. The pamphlet contains pictures of Raton and vicinity and Is another of ways In which Raton Is be ing advertised. Miss Rose Azar, daughter of Mr and Mrs. R. H. Azar of Raton, has Just received word from the dean of New York University that she has been awarded a fellowship to their university In the school of retailing. She has also received a fellowship from the University of Pittsburgh, but has decided to accept the offer at New York. Phoenix will send one of the “young est" bands In the nation to the na tional convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars In Louisville, Ky. t Aug. 29 to Sept. 1. The Juvenile band. Its membership made up of boys from 4 to 12 years of age, will parade with the veterans of Louisville, and later will be guests of Gov. Eugene Tal madge of Georgia at Atlanta. Representatives of the 79 Highway Association from Yavapai and Coco nino counties appeared before the Ari zona highway commission recently and asked that action be taken in the 1934-35 budget to improve that route. Grace Sparkes, secretary of the Yavapai County Chamber of Com merce, pointed out to the commission that the road is the gateway to nine national monuments and other scenic attractions. Ruins of the old Franciscan mission, built in 1630 at Quaral, eight miles northwest of Mountainair, N. M., are to be preserved by the work of twen ty civilian conservation corps men. Built of red sandstone, the walls of the old mission stand forty to fifty feet high on a forty-acre tract owned by the University of New Mexico. Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, head of the depart ment of archeology at the University of New Mexico and director of the School of American Research, said archeologists believe Quaral is one of the largest prehistoric pueblos in the southwest The condition of ranges over New Mexico on June 1 was lower than at any time since 1925, according to Fred Daniels, federal agricultural statlstl cian, in his monthly crop and livestock report, which declared ranges suf fered during May from drought and the condition of cattle and sheep de clined. The need for moisture Is gen eral throughout the state, as most sec tions have received little rain since last fall. Ranges have been grazed short of old grass during the past win ter. Green grass has made slow growth, due to lack of soil moisture. BusuNeu’Jerseu Making Shaving Cream Tubes In a Bloomfield Factory. by Nations) Ovnfmphtc Society. W*.»hlr.f ton. V C.—-WNU Service. MANY cities of northern New Jersey owe their growth largely to the fact that they block the southern and western gates of New York city and receive its overflow. Newark is the most important air door to the metropolis. Opened to air traffic In September, 1981, the Newark airport has grown rapidly. When airplane traffic was at a peak In 1932 several transport companies and local airlines scheduled 89 planes dally in and out of Newark, and In addition a constant stream of unscheduled private planes used this municipal field. Newark today Is In a state of flux, but the changes that are taking place point to a vast metropolitan center. Newark, since the World war, has changed amazingly. New high buildings have cut through its skyline; In them one finds the clerl oui forces of many firms whose office address Is New York. And again Newark has become a seaport. Whalers once sailed up to the city docks on Passaic river, but when ships of deeper draft began to carry world trade Newark had to be content with lighters and small coastwise vessels. Now Port Newark, a municipal development on the upper part of Newark bay, has again brought ocean-going ves sels to the gates of the city. Only Newark itself can list all the thousands of different products which pour out of Its factories. The most Important In order of produc tion value are: electrical machin ery and supplies, [mints and var nishes, leather, meats, foundry and machine-shop products, chemicals, and Jewelry. Here are some odd trades, as well as highly specialized Industries. Electrical Instruments are made with counterbalancing pointers that are miracles of craftsmanship. One of these has an arm of aluminum tubing with walls one ten-thou sandth of an Inch thick, and balance threads (for tiny brass nuts) are cut 500 to the inch. This work must be done under u magnifying glass. In Newark, too, many of the world’s largest air-conditioning plants are designed and constructed. Newark’s Library and Trolley. Newark library today is the larg est in the state, and one of the na tion's finest. Libraries throughout the United States and in many for eign countries have adopted meth ods originating in this Newark in stitution. Only London has a larger co-ordi nated bus and trolley system than one Newark company, which serves 421 New Jersey municipalities, reaching all but one county In the state. In 1931 it transported a total of nearly 400,000,000 passengers, the equivalent of more than three times the population of the United States. Strangers are confused by the in terlocking huddle of municipalities around Newark. Essex county Is really one city with nearly a mil lion people. Once isolated villages have expanded so rapidly that out siders cannot tell where one ends and another begins. Bloomfield offers an example of an Intensely diversified community in a state noted for variety. With a population of only 38,000, many of them commuters. It embraces some forty Industries, large and small, which run the gamut from safety pins and horse radish to books, electric lights, and woolens. In a Bloomfield lamp works were made the bulbs that shine from the Statue of Liberty, and those that Il luminate the Washington monu ment, Holland tunnels, Natural Bridge, Virginia, and the Bermuda caves. Here is made every type of lamp, from the "grain of wheat" used by dentists and physicians, to the giant bulb for movie and out door Illumination. Although we may not realize it when we pay a small coin for an electric-light bulb, we are purchas ing a commodity that requires more delicate craftsmanship than any thing else sold In bulb. The tung- sten filament is one of the finest drawn commercial wires, pulled through n diamond die to a thick ness of 0.0004 of an Inch. Com pared to a lamp filament, a human hair resembles a piece of heavy rope. It is all part of the day’s work In this Bloomfield factory to deal with argon, helium, and neon* an atmospheric pressure of O.OUOOI per cent, and pressures up to 25- tong per square inch! With par donable pride this plant adopts the slogan used by the United States Engineers in France, “It can't be done—but here It Is!" In an unpretentious red-brick building that faces on one of the principal streets of West Orange, an empty chair sits before an old-fashioned rolltop desk. Here Thomas A. Edison spent the last years of his life. His library nnd study have been maintained Just as he left them. Traffic of Jersey City. Jersey City, largest of the Hudson river cities opposite New York, has industries ranging from soap to printing and type-making. Oddly enough, It is one of Jersey’s “least known" cities to outsiders. Rail roads skirt its business district or pnss through it underground, while the main motor highway to the Hol land tunnels runs In a subsurface roadway through the residential dis tricts. Many doughboys recall Jersey City’s water front, a major embark ing and disembarking points during: the World war. “Where do we go from here, boys, where do we go from here? Anywhere from Harlem to a Jersey City pier,” ran the words of a popular war song. Today Jersey City handles most of the freight-car traffic that comes into the port of New Y’ork from the- South and West. One of Its print ing plants turns out tons of tele phone directories annually for New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and other large east ern cities. In the same plant litho graphing for several widely circu lated magazines is also prepared. From Jersey City northward along the Hudson to Weehnwken Is one of the highest concentrations of railroad traffic in the world. New Jersey leads the nation In railroad trackage per square mile, and the focus of Its busiest lines Is this short bit of territory along the Hud son opposite Manhattan island. Freight-car contents are trans ferred here into the holds of liners, and recently a terminal was estab lished which places loaded cars, themselves within huge vessels called “seatralns.” More interesting than the man ner in which commodities are trans shipped from rails to boats, how ever, are the split-second schedules devised for the waves of commuters that sweep twice daily through the half-dozen terminals in the New Jersey side of the Hudson. It is es timated that 2,000,000 people pour Into and out of Manhattan on a typ ical business day, and that more than 15 per cent of them arrive from New Jersey. Stand in the Hoboken terminal tower of the Lackawanna and watch tha “big rush” of commuters home ward bound. No major offensive of the World war was timed to a great er nicety than this daily event which has become as much a part of the commuter’s life as his meals and sleep. Crowded ferry boats and tube trains from Manhattan have brought armies of men and women to the train shed, where long ex presses are waiting to hurry them to scores of suburban stations. “Zero Hour” comes from 5:25 to 5:35 p. m., when every commuter wants an express that will get him home about six o’clock. Commut ing railroads perform the seemingly impossible by sending several trains to the same destination at almost the same time, one making stops that another skips. Newark, a metropolis of 442,000, may not be even a flag-stop on an express hur rying through-passengers on to Mill burn or Morristown.