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Demos Mmim == l ' JSVtffnun.Tpl • By ELMO SCOTT WATSON XIIK Increasing popularity of “H‘*bbj Shows'" through the country l* bringing Into the limelight once N. more a type of native literature to \ which an older generation of Atwr- I leans looks hack with fond memo r:<•*. I r n<ar|> a 1 “-h exhlM S lions display examples of the little >» !»<'« ttacked te-*ks wMd the I»'?h of yesteryear read in secret with avid Interest, their enjoyment 4 heightened by the almost-certa In knowledge that discovery meant a stern "‘What's this! . . . Heading a dime novel 211! . . from disapproving parent or teacher. Those of a later generation who get their vicarious thrills from watching movie melo dramas or listening to radio murder mysteries, are likely to he acornful of the blood and thunder heroes whose des|»erate deeds and hairbreadth esca|>es so enthralled lutd. “Aw. hunk they say, “I betcha there never was any such fella as l>aredeath I ‘irk. the King of the Cowboys, or Captain Cool ltlade. the Man Shark of the Mississippi !" Maybe not! But ask Dud about anme of the other dime novel heroes. . . . Didn't he smuggle a copy of “Buffalo Bill. The Bonier King" up to hed with him one night and l there, by the dim light of the old coal-oil lamp, read how “with one leap the Bonier King sprang up behind his disguised pard, hack to back, and opened fire with his trusty revolvers on the yelp ing red«klns”? And. s few months later, didn't he go down to the county seat towrn and with bis own eyes see that same “Border King" enter the arena of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, ttah ered In by a blaring band and the excited yells of several hundred young Americans like him self? That tall, long-haired, buckskin clad fig tire, sitting on his white horse with regal grace-- wasn't he a story book hero coroe to life? Yes, sir! I ‘••spite the fact that many a Bloody Pete and liead-Shot Dick and Heckle** Halph existed only In the fertile Imagination of oid Erast ns F. Bid dies scribblers, some of the characters Immor talised In that prolific publisher's “Dime Novels.*’ “Half-Dime Library," “Pocket Novels," or “Boys Library" were real person*, even though they never bad ooetenth of the adventures ascribed to them. Chief among tjem. of course, was this same “Border King.” William Frederick Cody, youthful guide for army officers in Kansas in IWXMJ7 and hunter who supplied meat for builders of the Kansas Pacific railroad, may have been dubbed “Buffalo Bill" by the grateful K. P. workers, or he may have won that sobriquet in a buffalo-shooting match with Billy Comstock. But It remained for two dime novelists, Kdward Zone Carroll Judson, who wrote under the name of "Ned Buntline.'' and CoL Prentiss Ingraham, to make it world famous Other dime novel heroes who had counterparts In real life were “Wild Bill." “California Joe,* “Texas Jack." “Pawnee Bill.'’ “Capt Jack." “Art sons Joe." “Buckskin Sam," “Moving Joe." “Fan cy Frank." "Deadwood Dick. “Diamond Dick." “Calamity Jane." "The Evil Spirit of the Plains" and “Old Grizzly." James Butler Hlckok. a native of Illinois, a soldier and scout In the Union army In Missouri during the Civil war. Overland stage driver, mar shal of roaring Kansas cow towns, gambler and gunman par excellence, was already famous as “Wild Bill" before ever Ituntllne multiplied his adventures tenfold In the little yellow back books Even after his assassination In Deadwood, S- D.. In 1876, he was still good "copy" for the dime novelists, as he has been for the more serious historians, several of whom have tried to aort out the fiction from fact and write authentic biographies of him in recent years. However. “Texas Jack" was a name of Bunt line's manufacture for John B. Omohundro. a native of Virginia who emigrated to Teias be fore the Civil war. became a mustang-breaker and rancher, a soldier In the Confederate army and afterwards a hunter, scout and Indian fighter until hi* death In Leariville. Colo., in ISSO. In 1875 Buntline brought Cody. Hlckok and Omohundro to Chicago, wrote a play. "Scouts of the Plains” for them In less than four hours (which prompted the classic remark of one re viewer: "One wonders * hy It took him so long!") and presented them in it to the public next day. The case of “California Joe" Is similar to that of “Wild Bill" In that he was famed under that name before ever the dime novelists took him up. Although one of Ingraham's novels char acterized him as “The Mysterious Plainsman. An Unknown Man, whose real identity, like that of the ‘Man of the Iron Mask" is still unsolved" there was no real mystery about his identity He was Moses El Milner, a Kentuckian, who flnu crossed the Plains in t v .e Golden Days of ’49, was if im. ik*', ■ ■■■■ aaur, z—.— - pgUVSpBq MtCkZiL-iid JMi Td. r .nr **-y: r ".r.tr m*— * -wo- m*.u CALIFORNIA JOE, ftie Mysterious Plainsman sr col. rmjtwrtm onsius ■»» mm mm mm mmm m% m mm m mm m mmmm m mm* (Reproductions of dims novels from tbs col lection of Charles Bragin. Brooklyn, N. Y.) *■— - ' ■ ■' ■ » a miner in Montana and the Pacific Northwest and for a brief time chief of acouta for Gen. George A. Custer during the campaign of 18*57- Oh against the tribes of the .Southern Plain* He also served aa a scout and guide for army officer* In Wyoming and Montana in the Tits, was a pros pert or In the Black 11 Ilia goid rush ami met the same fate aa his friend. Hlckok. Like "Wild Bill" he was shot down from behind hy an a* sassin in 1876 Just before setting out from the old Bed Cloud agency in Nebraska to guide the expedition of Gen. Banaid 8. Mackenzie against the Sioux and Cheyenne*. ’ Pawnee BUI" was MaJ. Gordon Little, a native of Illinois, who went to Oklahoma in the early days aa a "Boomer," was a friend of the Pawnec indians, who adopted him into their tribe, waa associated for a tlnje with Cody in the Wild West show business and later bad a similar allow of bla own. He la still living In Oklahoma aa the prosjverous owner of a ranch, famous for its herd of buffalo. “Capt Jack” waa John Wallace Crawford, a native of Ireland, a boy soldier In the Union army, a prospector and miner in the Black Hills, a scout for the army In the Sioux war of 1876 and until his death In 1917 was widely known a* a chautauqua and lyreum lecturer under the name of “Capt Jack, the Poet Scout" "Arizona Joe" waa Joseph Bruce, a noted frontier character, a miner. Indian fighter and a close friend of•" Texas Jack" Omohundro. “Calamity Jane" waa the notorious Martha Jane Canary, a native of Missouri, who, dressed In men's clothes, worked as a teamster with Gen. George Crook's army In the Sioux war of 1876. was a picturesque figure in the Black Hills gold rush and later drifted to Montana where she died in 19U3. “Fancy Frank" was Dr. Frank Powell, who started In life as a newsjiaper re porter, studied medicine, had a varied career on the frontier, was associated with Cody In the Wild West show in which he was known as "White Beaver" and the "medicine man of the Wlnnebagoes” and ended his career In his na tive Wisconsin where he was mayor of one town and a practicing physician In another. Both "Buckskin Sam" and "Itovlng Joe" were somewhat anomalous characters In that they were both heroes of dime novels and w riters of such literature. “Buckskin Sam" was MaJ. Sam 8. Hall, born on the frontier where he led an adventurous life before turning his attention to producing such thrillers as "Double Dan. the Dastard: or. The Pirates of the Pecos" and "Ker w hoop, ke-whoo!; or. The Tarantula of Taoa." Later he made his home in the East where he. "a wiry little man," according to one historian, ■•occasionally showed bis virile Western man hood by going on a shooting rampage at his home in Wilmington. Delaware." Joseph El Badger was also a Westerner who wrote the ytory of his life on the frontier, calling It "Itovlng Joe” and signing It “A. EL Post." Later he became one of Beadle's star writers under bis own name of Badger. As for “Deadwood Dick” and “Diamond Dick,” the “originals” of both have been legion. But the best evidence Is that "'Deadwood Dick” was a purely fictitious character, created by Edward L. Wheeler, a writer for Beadle and Adams, and the first “Deadwood Dick” story ap;>eared In lieadle's Half-Dime Library in 1878. "It was not Wheeler's first novel." says Edmund Pearson In his book "Dime Novels; or. Following an Old trail In Popular Literature” (Little, Brown and Company) “but never again in all his list of alliterations did he ever chance upon a name so felicitous or a character so appealing to his read ers as that of Deadwood Dick.” As early as 19U6 an “original" of “Deadwood THE COOLIDGE EXAMINER 1 ' ' ' ' '-> ■r. - I Mli Bill, I I I Dick." a certain I rauk Palmer, died in Denn In lirju another "original** died In Los Angeles — this time being 111 chard Bullock, who bad been a guard on the stagecoaches which brought bul lion out of the Black Hills. In recent years, and until his death In HKiO. a certain Richard W. Clark of South Dakota was widely publicized as the "original of Deadwood Dick.” Says Pearson. There is a far-away resemblance between the pictures of the old frontiersman, aged eighty two (In 19128) and the drawings of the young desperado of the eighties In Mr. Wheeler's sto rk**. I fancy that this distant resemblance is all that obtains between the career of Itlchard Clark and Deadwood Dick." As for “Diamond Dick"—ln 1882 Beadle and Adams published “Diamond Dick, the dandy from Denver. A true story of the mines of New Mexico" by MaJ. Sam S. Hall ("Buckskin Sam"). But the great popularity of the "Diamond Dick" stories came in the late eighteen nineties and early nineteen hundreds, when, according to dime novel experts, this form of literature waa begin ning to “degenerate" from the virility and red bloodedness (or gorynesa) which characterized the early one*. But in the minds of many people. Dr. Itlchard J. Tanner of Norfolk. Neb, is the "original of Diamond Dick.” A native of Illinois, he went to Nebraska at the age of nineteen, became an ex pert with both the rlfie and pistol and after a career of 20 years with a circus, where he was billed as “Diamond Dick," be decided to study medicine and retired from the show business. 1 For a quarter of a century he concealed his cir cus ldeDtlty and was known only as a country doctor In a Nebraska town. Then in 1925 when he took part in an American Legion show In Norfolk, the fact that he was the former “Dia mond Dick" was made known. "The Evil Spirit of the Plains” was Dr. Frank Carver, a frontiersman and buffalo-hunter (a far greater one than Cody, according to some author ities and better entitled to the title of “Buffalo Bill," mainly because of his victory over “Buf falo Jack" —Jack McCall, the slayer of “Wild ' Bill" Hlckok—ln a buffalo-shooting contest) who was for a time associated with Cody In the Wild West Show business and later, when he and ■ Cody quarreled, produced his own show. * “Old Grizzly" was one of the most Interesting 1 of all the "originals" of dime novel heroes. He ' was James Capon Adams, born near Seneca 1 Lake. N'. Y, who became famous as a bear tamer ; because he was accustomed to go about the 1 country’ riding on an enormous grizzly bear with 1 a second similar huge beast as a sort of a body -1 guard for him. His dime novel fame started In a * book written by his nephew, James Fenimore * Cooper Adams, who was himself later known as ••Bruin” Adams and was the subject of several dime novels by Col. Prentiss Ingraham. * C by Western Newspaper Onion. Says Poison P>est for Mice Control Most Damage During Win ter; Rodents Do Their Work Beneath Surface. By (I. R Si, wrmgrr. H'-rtieal iari*t. North Carolina State College, WKU Service. Field mice nre an orchard peat that moat frtilt grower* are tin awnre of until It Is too late to nave their tree*. Mont of the mouse dam age occur* during the winter month* In orchard* where a heavy nod cover* the ground. The mice work Just beneath the surface and nre not noticed until j the tree* begin to die or fall to bud In the spring. At find the damage may be alight, but eventually th* mice eat away the bark from the trunk a few Inches below the soil so a* to completely girdle the tree. The common meadow mouse ml- j grates to the orchard* when their food supply In the open fields he- j comes scarce. The uhort-tnUed pine mouse Is most destructive, doing worst damage to orchards growing near timbered areas. Orchardlsts are urged to examine the areas around their trees, look- ! Ing for mice runway* and Injuries to the tree*. If evidence of mice 1* found, they can be destroyed by putting out wheat halt which ha* been j*>lsoned with strychnine. As a supplementary control meas ure. digging up of grass and VMdl under the trees Is suggested. This breaks, up the tunnels and runway* and causes the mice to seek their food In areas farther from the trees. Chemists Warn Farmers on Fertilizer Mixtures Chemist* of the Cnlted State* De partment of Agriculture have been making careful studies of chemical reactions In fertilizer mixture* to he able to warn farmers and mnnu- \ facturers against umleslrnble com bination* of materials. Some com binations cause loss of plant food while other* render plant food un available to crops. Knowledge of such reactions has become particularly desirable be cause of the Increasing use of am monium salt* a* sources of nitrogen In fertilizer* In place of more ex pensive nitrates and organic am nwnlates. Because these ammonium salts have a greater tendency to cause acidity In soils than the ma terials they have displaced, liming material* are being added to fer tilizer* containing these salts to overcome the acidifying action. When ordinary limestone Is used for this purpose, only a limited quantity can be added: otherwise reaction between It and superphos ! phate In the fertilizer will render some of the phosphoric acid un available a* plant food. Similarly the use of ordinary llmefttone In considerable quantity In fertilizer mixture* containing ammonium phosphate Is likely to cause loss of ammonia If superphosphate Is j not present But If dolomite, a kind of limestone In which half the lime sls replaced by magnesium. Is used, neither of these undesirable reac tions take place. The desirability of dolomite as a liming materia! for mixing with fer tilizers ts enhanced by the fact that It also supplies magnesia to! soils some of which are deficient in this plant food. Cause of Heaves Heave* (emphysema of the lungs) Is caused by overfeeding the horse hay. especially dusty timothy hay. or threshed clover hay. and work ing It Immediately after a meal when the digestive organs are dis tended. declares a writer In Hoard’s Dairyman. Indigestion results and Irritates the pneumogastrlc nerve of the stomach and In time the branch of that nerve supplying the lungs also becomes affected. The lungs | can then no longer perfectly expel air and the abdominal muscles have to be used to help expulsion. That causes the double bellows-like ac tion of the flanks, and the gas ex pelled during the coughing spells Is caused by the Indigestion. The disease la Incurable when estab llshed. i Farm Topics Erosion by wind and water is the major enemy of the solL 1 -i • • 1 Some 25.000,000 bushels of corn each year are used to make corn | sirup. • • • Dairying Is the most Important oc cupation on Wisconsin’s 181,767 ' farms. • • • An average of sl6 per farm would ' be needed to pay the annual fire 1 loss on farms. I• • • The hoof-and-mouth disease has ’ broken out among cattle and pigs i l In England. i,• • • Few branches of agriculture exist * today Id which success can be great -1 er or failure more common than In ‘ | mushroom growing. i j • • • i About 5,000 Ohio 4-H club mem ? oers continue their club activities * throughout the winter months. This Is 10 per cent of the total enroll ment. Southwestern Briefs The annual convention of the Ari zona Chiropractic Association was held In Phoenix recently. With a fire loss of only $730 during 1931. Bis bee, Ariz., contends It has set somewhat of a record, not only in Arizona, but in the nation. The Arizona State Temperance En forcement commission reports that revenue accompanying applications for liquor licenses totaled $80,150 dur ing the first four days of January. Work on the new Brannigan Me morial library In Lts Cruces Is pro gressing rapidly, it Is expected that the new library building will be com pleted by sometime late In March or the first of April. There are more than 600 acres of pecan orchards in Dona Ana county, while In Eddy and Otero counties much intenuit Is manifested in pecan growing, according to H. C. Stewart of New Mexico State College. The annual stockholders’ meeting of the Mesllla National Farm Loan As sociation was held recently in Las < ‘ruces, according to W. P. Thorpe, secretary-treasurer of the National Farm Loan Association, Cruces. It is said that Arizona cities will be Included as stop [mints in the second daily round trip the American Airway plans for Its New York-Dallas-Ims An geles run. Planes will leave New York and I.os Angeles simultaneously. A new $35,000 building is being erected in Farmington, N. M., which will house the Church of the 1-atter Day Saints and a community house, I Including Boy Scout rooms, relief so ciety rooms, a museum and a largo | gym. A gain in postal receipts of $2,689.35 during 1934 over 1933, was announced recently by John Caretto, Blsbee post master. Total receipts during 1933 amounted to $29,731.14 as compared with $32,420.49 In 1934, according to i Caretto. Prescott national forest officers will soon blossom out in regulation uni forms under mandatory orders Just re ceived from Washington, D. C„ accord ing to Supervisor Frank L. Grubb There will be two types of uniforms— dress and work. Hailed as a source of water supply and an aid in securing a PWA loan for a new water system for Hot Springs, N. M„ an artesian well, with 1 an estimated flow of 200 to 250 gallons per minute, has been brought in at a depth of 235 feet. With the thermometer averaging an even 81 degrees the year, Yuma. Ariz , and the Imperial Valley countiy observed the warmest year on record In 1934. The average was 3.1 degrees above normal, according to compiled weather statistics. Gov. Clyde Tingley has asked that New Mexico be given a civilian con serration corpß camp for veterans. He l wrote Robert Fechner, director of the emergency conservation works, ask ing for this CCC camp to care for some of the state’s 14,000 veterans. Pages of southwest history were turned back 115 years when workmen at famed Mission Han Jose de Tuma cacori. near Nogales, Ariz., disturbed the burial place of a Spanish priest who died in 1820. Priests at the old Tucson mission held proper rites w hen the skeleton was reinterred. Navajo tiibesmen foresee 1935 as ; holding good fortune for them and | their paleface brothers throughout the land. Three days of December rains unheard of even by the oldest Navajos. j which fell during the last week of the month, gave rise to the predictions as the white man s New Year arrived. Dividends totaling $1,296,376.81, were paid during 1934 by Arizona State Superintendent of Banks Y. C. White in the liquidation of defunct financial institutions. The largest went to the First National Building and I>oan Association of Phoenix, In August and September. It amounted to $516,927. Elmer F. Taylor, water expert of Farmington, N. M.. is said to be gath ering information concerning plans for presenting the water conservation problems of the San Juan Basin to Washington officials. He is making maps of all streams and lands in the basin and the location of seven pro posed storage reservoirs. Governor Clyde Tingley of New Mexico is going about the business of filling jobs in his administration, though as yet he has made no drastic changes despite the fact that he can »ivail himself of the heritage of the office—namely, that he doesn't have to call for resignations of present oc cupants of many appointive places ir: the state offices and Jobs. Packs of dogs have killed 30,000 iheep in the Salt River valley over a four-month period, Jerrie W. Lee, sec retary of the Arizona Wool Growers Association, reports. He estimate*! the loss to sheepmen at SIBO,OOO. The heaviest loss reported since the sheep vere moved to the winter pastures from the Northern mountains, waß in the Mesa district when 300 were killed in three night raids by the dogs Tourist travel across Arizona showed a tremendous increase during the months of September, October and i November. Figures collected by the Arizona State Chamber of Commerce show increases in the number of auto mobiles entering or leaving the state, running from 10 to 85 per cent. The largest increase was shown by the Ehrenberg station, where the tourist traffic for the three months rose from 8,252 last year to 15,147 cars in 1934. The total increase at all points was 13,146 cars, a 22 per cent jump over ihe 1933 totals. Sfc ft A ,% * a -i: & A -* <» * * IL«t Our Motto Be GOOD HEALTH BY DR. LLOYD ARNOLD ProfrMoc of Hat tenolo«y and Pr»- vrntivt Mrdicmr, Univcraity of , 4 Illinois. Collrie of Medina?. ~ WINTER VACATIONS From a health viewpoint the Ideal time for a vacation Is during February and March. temperate ■gs * -1 until the last 2<) ■ Rgjjw t° 25 years. It used to tie the suin me r M jjfe - M months were the gk [H-rlod of great «***t health risk. ’’ We had contin vi; ' outbreaks then, and there were a multitude of diarrhea complaint*. But now, due to more sanitary water systems, to inspection of cattle and to pas teurization of milk, to better un derstanding of quarantine, and to our greater knowledge of diet and proper care of foods, we do not have so many summer illnesses. Wo still have much work to do to cor rect the summer diarrheas among Infants, but on the whole we have made great headway In the preven tion of fowl and water borne dis eases. In the matter of such winter Ill nesses as colds, Influenza, bronchi tis. and pneumonia, however, we are still pretty much at bay. These now have higher death rntes than the strictly summer diseases. So that, so far as health is con cerned, the winter months are now our disabling months. It is at this time, rather than m summer, that we should have our yearly periods of quest of sunshine and recreation and rest. Our Industrial life is so spaced, though, that not many of us can leave our job* In February and March. And If we can, then what about the children? They need hours of sunshine, too, and there are no school vacation weeks In winter ex cept at the festive Christmas time, when all life centers In the home. But Is it necessary that our In dustrial activities run at full speed during the dark cold winter months, nnd have curtailed output during the summer months when the work er can got all the sunshine he re- I quires before and after office and factory hours and on Saturdays and j Sundays? Force of habit has made It so. but need It continue? Might j It not be possible also to revise our ! school schedules so that there could he vacation periods In the winter months? Modern air-conditioning would mnke It possible to have both factories nnd schools run In the hot test days without discomfort. The question may seem far fetched. but It Is not outside the realm of probability that we may change our hnhlts of thought so that we will make our vacations corre spond to out health needs. It i* true that November nnd De cember are usually dark months, but It Is also true that the peak of •aids. sore throats, bronchitis and pneumonia comes In the late win ter months. This means that the stored up sunshine which we man aged to accumulate during the sum mer and fall months has been suffl- I clent to entry us through the early winter. But by January our resist ance to disease starts getting real knocks, nnd the weak easily suc cumb. Economically It need not cost any more to take a winter vacation than a summer vacation. If one want* to go South, trains offer vacation rates. Fashionable hotels are high, but fashionable hotels are always high, and why be fashionable? It does not cost any more to run the family automobile on a winter trip through the South than on a sum mer trip through the North. For those who do not want south ern sunshine there are many resorts in the North now that offer winter sports and roaring fireplaces to gather around. The point Is that In the late win ter, when we have used up our stock of stored summer sunshine, and storms and cold spells take toll of our vitality, and we have had the strain of months of full productive work, beginning before daylight and extending until after dark In the short winter days, our bodies have their period of greatest physiologi cal exhaustion. That Is the time 1 we should give them rest. Also it is the time when human beings, instead of being herded to gether, should spread apart. Cold germs are contracted by getting our nose* too close together. In a packed factory or office or ! school room, or In a church or movie or social gathering, our noses seem to collect droplets from other people’s noses. And If we were rid ing out on an open highway, or diving In the Gulf of Mexico, or skiing down a long slope, we should have a chance to get away from such of our fellow citizens as are infected with colds. But meanwhile while we are wait ing for (Jiis happy day when our Industrial and school habits will have changed to accord with our present day health needs, get out Into as much winter sunshine a* you can. <& Wtrttm Newroaoer Union.