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IN REVIEW VrP
by ScUuoAxb UJ. PlckanaT (c) Western Newspaper Union. President Would Enlarge Supreme Court to 15 PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT elec trified congress with a surprise message proposing sweeping changes in the federal court system which would allow him to pack the Su i preme Court with | justices who could s be expected to up i hold the constitu- J tionality of New Deal legislation. [ He submitted a | draft of a bill to ac | complish this reor | ganization. It pro vides: 1. That for every federal judge with a President Roosevelt service record of at least ten years “continuously or otherwise" who fails to resign or retire within six months after reaching the age of 70 the President shall appoint another judge. 2. That the number of additional judges so appointed shall not exceed fifty, the Supreme Court being lim ited to 15 members, appellate and special courts to two additional members each and district courts to twice the present number of judges. 3. That two-thirds of the Supreme Court and three-fifths of other courts shall constitute a quorum. 4. That the chief justice of the Supreme Court shall transfer circuit and district judges to jurisdictions with congested dockets in order to speed up disposition of litigation. 5. That the Supreme Court shall be empowered to appoint a proctor to supervise the conduct of business in the lower courts. The President also proposed a re form in the injunctive process which he declared would expedite Supreme Court rulings on the constitutionality of legislation and would further in sure “equality” and “certainty” of federal justice. He said frequent in junctions which set aside acts of congress are “in clear violation of the principle of equity that injunc tions should be granted only in those rare cases of manifest illegality and irreparable damage against which the ordinary course of the law offers no protection.” He asked that congress forbid any injunction or decision by any federal court touching a constitutional ques tion without “previous and ample notice” to the attorney general to give the government an opportunity “to present evidence and be heard.” His bill proposed that any lower court decision which involved a con- j Stitutional question be appealed di- j rectly to the Supreme Court, where j it would take immediate precedence over all other business. New Deal leaders in congress I were expected to back the Presi dent’s proposals solidly, while it be came apparent that the conservative Democrats might align with the solid Republican group in opposing it. The latter group saw in the bill a direct attempt to get rid of some of the older justices of the Supreme Court who have proved continual stumbling blocks for pet New Deal acts. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, approaching 75, has voted sometimes to sustain, sometimes to invalidate New Deal laws. Justice Willis Van Deventer, 78, has invari ably opposed New Deal laws; so have James Clark Mcßeynolds, 75; George Sutherland, 75, and Pierce Butler, 71; Louis Dembitz Brandeis. 80, has .oted to sustain New Deal acts, except in the case of the NRA, rejected by unanimous decision. If the President is successful in putting over the proposed changes it will be the eighth time in the 148 years of the Supreme Court’s history that the number of justices has been changed. The largest number ever to sit on the bench was 10 from 1863 to 1866, and the smallest number 5 from 1801 to 1802. Malaga Is Taken by Spanish Fascists General franco’s Spanish fascist troops and warships, after several days of fierce battling, put to rout the loyalist defenders of Malaga and cap tured that impor tant Mediterranean coast city. The in surgent army head quarters said the government troops were fleeing in dis order. and observ ers posted on hill tops overlooking Malaga described the situation as “complete chaos.” The population and socialist militiamen could not es cape because the city was surround ed by land and sea, and bands of murderous anarchists were said to be roaming the streets until the fas cist army could enter from the suburbs. The attacking troops were under the immediate com mand of Gen. Gonzalo Quiepo de Llano. The long drawn out siege of Ma drid continued, but there was one important development when the tn Views on President’s Plan to Enlarge Supreme Court Senator Byrnes—l’m for it. Senator Nye—l think the Pres- i ident has hit upon a most ingen ious method of speeding up the work of our tribunals. Senator Vandenberg—l am op posed to tampering with the Su preme court. Senator McAdoo—The Presi- i dent’s message receives my un reserved commendation. Senator Capper—l am certain ly opposed to increasing the num ber of Supreme court judges for the purpose of allowing the ex ecutive during any one adminis tration to control the decisions of the Supreme court. Senator Holt—l’m not in favor of increasing the membership of the Supreme court. Senator Hale —Should his rec ommendations be followed, I can see no hope of an independent Supreme court. Senator Gerry—l’m definitely opposed to the President’s pro posal in regard to the Supreme court. Senator Thomas—l think it is a timely and happy solution of a perplexing problem. Representative Snell—This is pretty near the beginning of the end of everything. Representative Fish—The mes sage is political hypocrisy. Speaker Bankhead—The plan for adding additional judges is a sound policy. Senator King—l am unalterab ly opposed to it. surgents, attacking with infantry and tanks from the south, threatened to cut the highway to Valencia, the capital’s only remaining line of communication with the outside. Motor Strike Conferences Bring No Settlement GOVERNOR MURPHY’S confer ences with strike leaders and General Motors officials seemed about to end without result, though \ \\\ S. Knudscn election held under the control of / Governor Murphy. John L. Lewis, head of the C. I. 0., will not counte nance an election and he and the other union officers will not recede from their demand for sole bargain ing rights. Vice President William S. Knud sen and other officials of the cor poration issued a statement that they were ready to resume the con ferences at his call. Governor Mur phy had daily telephone conversa tions with the White House and in sisted he was still optimistic. In Flint there were preparations for “warfare” between the citizens and non-union men on one hand and the strikers on the other. The mayor was given dictatorial powers by the city commission with author ity to organize a “special police” force of deputized citizens: and the National Guardsmen under com mand of Col. Joseph Lewis was ready to maintain the peace. The sheriff still refused to execute the court order for ousting and arrest of the sit-down strikers until told to go ahead by Governor Murphy. Ar . the governor was ignoring that matter pending instructions from Washington. Elihu Root, Statesman and Lawyer, Dies ELIHU ROOT, one of America’s 1 most eminent lawyers and statesmen, died in New York at the age of ninety-two. Intensively ac tive all his life, he did not cease his activities until he was attacked by pneumonia two weeks before his j death. His passing was deplored by the great men of the nation and many of them would have attended his funeral had the family not de cided that only private services should be held in Clinton, N. Y., his birthplace. By intellectual brilliancy Mr. Root became admittedly the leader of the American bar, and he was actively interested in many societies devot ed to the arts and sciences, peace and education. During a half cen tury of public service he held many high offices, and his greatest achievements were in furthering ar bitration of international disputes. He was an organizer of the world court and served on the permanent court of arbitration at The Hague. He was secretary of war under Mc- Kinley, secretary of state under Theodore Roosevelt, and United States senator from New York from li 1909 to 1915. Gen. Franco Chic Hats With Chic Spring Suits By CHERIE NICHOLAS A TAILORED suit season is pre dicted, with interesting news in regard to blouse and accessories which, it is said, will be frilly and flattering and utterly feminine no matter how severely tailored the suit. A further important message is navy twills for the smartest suits. Also comes the word that beige will be a color factor this spring. Os course chic suits call for chic hats and milliners were never more up and alert in answering the call. What with sailors, berets, bretons, pillbox types, callotes (those wee caps French milliners adore), hats a la Rembrandt or Rubens, shapes that turn definitely up at one side, and a riot of turbans with countless variations, it is going to be a most exciting millinery sea son. You can see that from the very start. Then, too, the startling innovations that are taking place in the matter of hairdress are having a tremen dous influence not only on the hats themselves but equally so on the way we wear them. As to trimming, this is to be a feminine season, flowers, ribbons, bright colors, feathers, lace and all that, with veils of devastating co quetry to give glamor to the occa sion. There will be veils of every description from long scarf effects that drape dramatically about the shoulders as you see at the top to the right in the picture, to perky little crisp affairs as centers the group here shown. The models pictured indicate the far-tlung scope of ideas that are influencing the new millinery pro gram. The hat on the seated figure conveys the message that shallow sailors will be worn—welcome news to many women who always dote on this type of hat. This clever sailor tops an exceedingly smart and prac tical ensemble of beige wool. It is BOLD FLORALS By CIIKIUK NICHOLAS m>*^- Now that it is the fashion to get into print, it behooves milady to be carefully selective in choosing the ! right print for the right occasion. For formal gowns the logical choice is a handsome silk print with gor geous huge florals spaced few and far between. The dinner ensemble pictured is of white silk crepe print ed with exotic flowers. It has a matching bolero jacket with nich ing to trim. there may be a recess with resump tion of negotiations later. At this writ ing this is the situa tion; General Motors will not con cede the right of the union to exclusive bargaining rights for all the employ ees in all the plants, but offers to stand by the result of an THE COOLIDGE EXAMINER taffeta in a soft brown with coral rust grosgrain bands and bow. These rust and brown and coppery shades together with beige have been voted as high-style coloring. The young girl standing wears a five-piece ensemble of herringbone ; tw’eed. It is an ideal outfit for cruise and southern wear and to bring back north for spring. The general tone of the woolen is gray ish pale blue (all blues are espe cially smart just now) with multi color flecks woven through it. Note that the cone-crow Tied breton is j worn back on the head to show the j youthful brush-off-forehead hair dress. The little pillbox hat as shown i i above to the right is a winning num ber and in Shiny black straw is | proving a midseason favorite. The j chiffon scarf-vcil draped about it which is effective for afternoon is detachable at the back, leaving a i trimly tailored hat for general ; wear. Another popular trim is a j military silk tassel falling down over one side. | For the utterly feminine model centered in the group three Amer j ican beauty silk roses are posed atop a tiny off-face toque that is j based on the cap fashion which is just now reigning favorite in j j Paris. This one is of navy blue felt and is worn far back on the head in latest approved manner. The stiff flaring wide mesh navy veil is indicative of the types that will be worn this spring. I Milliners are giving versatile in terpretations of the breton. Cen tered below is a new adaptation tuned to the new high headdress. ■ It is of black milan trimmed with bluish violet belting ribbon. The suede gloves match the ribbons on the hat—which is well worth re membering for colorful gloves are still tres chic. i © Western Newspaper Union. STRIPES IN EVERY PHASE OF FASHION By CIIERIE NICHOLAS Fashion places definite emphasis ] j on stripes for spring and summer, j Stripes are as important for the evening mode as for sports and day time wear. Dine and dance frocks made of handsome striped crepe or taffeta or colorful metal weave are among j the outstanding successes on the i current style mode. For afternoon and informal din ner events the jacket blouse fitted to perfection or the simple girlish over-blouse of gaily colorful stripe register among the smartest items of the season. Bold, bizarre stripes in Roman and candy-stripe variations, also novelty stripes that have flowers and fruits and other designs worked into the stripe are going big in the southern resorts. They are partic ularly good in linens and cottons, and are made up into evening gowns, full length beach coats, blouses, sports dresses and acces sories of every description. Fur-Trimmed Suits With Coats to Match Popular Suits with fur-trimmed, full-length coats to match are just as poputar as they have ever been. A grand suit, with a jacket that is buttoned high in the neck, is being shown in blue, brown and beige herringbone tweed. The matching topcoat has a huge, notched beaver collar. An other three-piece model, in a very vivid blue nubby woolen, has the topcoat enhanced by a full-length stole collar of gray krimmer. UNCOMMON AMERICANS © • Q By Elmo ( 5 Western C .. ir/ , Newspaper SCOtt rr (itsoil Union “Hot Water War” Leader “OHAY’S REBELLION” and the “Whiskey Rebellion” are the outstanding examples of minor “wars” which somehow manage to get into our school histories. But most of them overlook the “Hot Water War” and its leader, John Fries. Yet he was a very important figure in the early history of our nation and more particularly in 1798 when we were about to go to war with France. In order to raise money for an army to fight this war, if it came, congress enacted a direct tax law, known as the “house tax,” —20 cents per SIOO on houses valued at S2OO to SSOO and 30 cents on houses val ued at SSOO to SI,OOO. The value of the houses was determined by counting the number of windows and measuring them. In Pennsylvania especially was there resentment against this tax. When assessors went around to measure the windows on houses, the women threw open these win dows and poured scalding water on the officials, hence the name “Hot Water War.” It as also called “Fries Rebel lion” because the leader of resist ance to collection of the tax was John Fries, a veteran of the Revo lution (who had also helped sup press the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania!) He was a traveling auctioneer and this occupation gave him a good opportunity to harangue the people and urge them to resist collection of the house tax. More than that, he raised a force of armed men who chased assessors from township to township, forcibly released prisoners, who had been put in jail for resisting the tax col lectors, and in general kept the eastern part of the state in an up roar. Finally President Adams called on the governor of Pennsylvania to call out militia to suppress the riot ers. Fries was captured and taken to Philadelphia to be tried for trea son. His attorneys insisted that he was answerable only to a charge of rioting, but a federal jury found him guilty of treason and he was sen tenced to be hanged. Then Benja min Franklin Bache, editor of the Aurora, a Republican < Democratic) paper, and bitter critic of the ad ministration, took up Fries’ case. He raised such a fearful row about it that it became a national issue. At last. President Adams was led to pardon Fries and after that the leader of the short-lived “Hot Wa ter War” dropped out of sight and is lost to history. TYte First “Muckraker” C'ARLY one morning in the late 1 is2os a comedy was enacted on the banks cf the Potomac river near Washington which is without paral lel in American history. Enter the (fist character: a swimmer, sans bathing suit or any other raiment. He is no less a person than the President of the United States, for h was the custom of John Quincy \ Adams to go for an early-morning 1 i ;wim in that historic stream. Enter new the second character: an old woman, poorly dressed, car rying a huge u.uprella, an inkhorn and quill pen and some paper. She marches out to where the swim mer's clothes lie on the bank and sits down beside them. The swim mer sees her. hastily sits down in the water until only his head is visi ble. “Go away! Go away!” he j shouts. “Not until you answer some ques j tions, sir!” the woman replies. ; John Quincy Adams rages. He ■ threatens. He pleads. But it’s no ! use. The woman not only refuses i to budge but she makes him come | closer to the bank (crouched down I in the water, of course) so she | can hear more plainly what he has ;to say. And thus Anne Royall, edi tor of the Huntress (appropriate j name, that!) and “Grandma of the I Muekrakers” forced Adams to ex ! plain to her his national bank pol icy, then the most important pub i lie question of the day. It was one | of the first Presidential interviews ! and undoubtedly the most unusual I one ever given. But that was characteristic ol | Anne Royall. Left a poor widow : when her husband, a Revolution ary war veteran died, Anne Royall went to Washington to claim a wid ow’s pension. While waiting to col lect it, she bought an old printing press, hired a printer and began publishing a small weekly newspa per which she called the Paul Pry Journal. In it she fearlessly printed everything that she considered news, regardless of how much it embarrassed public officials. They tried to hit back at her by having her tried as a common scold, but John Eaton, President Jackson’s secretary of war, fur nished bond for her (mainly be cause she had been an ardent de fender of Peggy Eaton in the so cial w r ar then raging). She changed the name of her paper to the Hunt ress but she didn’t change its char acter and to the end of her days in 1854 she was a crusading journal ist —the “first muckraker.” ft # . Lobh HlomviL) cJocnlt The Drift of Scotland. SANTA MONICA, CALIF. —So high an authority as the Associated Press gives out a dispatch stating that Scotland is drifting toward America at the rate of eight feet a year. This would be an excuse for the unthoughted to say that the Scots always had a reputation for being close and now are becoming still i ijiiyfij Irvin S. Cobb | closer. To me, though, the main question i s whether Scotland is going to bring Eng land along with her. Among themselves, at least, the Scots have always had the reputation of bring ing England along through the centu ries. And if you don’t believe it ask any true Scot. H e stands ready to offer supporting dates, names and statistics. By the way, I’ve noticed one out- j standing difference between the two greatest groups of the Celtic race. To an Irishman’s face you can joke about Ireland and he remains calm. But poke fun at an individual Irish man and you are hunting for trou ble and probably will soon be hunting for a doctor. Inversely you may jibe a Scot and get away with it. But just say the least little thing in derision of his native land and you’d better start running. * • * So-Called Modern Art. T GLESS I must belong to a most 1 ancient species—indeed, an al almost vanished species. It’s true I m not quite old enough to re member when they shot Indians where the city hall now stands and Peggy Hopkins Joyce was called Love Apples. But I do date back to where a painting was expected, re motely, at least, to resemble the object it purported to represent. I lived through the early stages of the artistic revolt—primitives, ultramodernistics, post-impression ists. cubists, dadaists and so on— without ever becoming reconciled to the prevalent idea that a can vas apparently depicting a bundle of laths coming undone was sup posed to be a nude lady’s portrait, or that a spirited rendition of a yellow cat having an epileptic fit in a mess of tomato soup was an | Italian sunset. Lately I’ve seen examples of the latest school the surrealistic | school. And if the practitioners of I j this form of beauty are artists, [ ( then I'm a kind-faced old Swiss watch mender. They’re actually 1 giving certain of these geniuses j medals. What they ought to give ’em is something for their respec tive livers. • 4 • Uncle Sam the Spendthrift. W/ELL we were good fellows * » while we had it, weren’t we? We destroyed our forests. Result: Up water courses. We indulged in an orgy of so called “reclamation” schemes t o drain unneeded swamplands, there by destroying the breeding grounds and the natural resting places of emigrating wild fowl so that the once vast Hocks are gone, probably forever. We wasted our heritage of wild game, formerly a great factor in food supply aside from being a source of healthful joy to gunners. I We needlessly polluted our streams. But we re a resourceful race; give us credit for that. Now, through speed madness and drunken driving, we're preying merrily on human life. It’s getting so that the citizen who insists on dying a natural death, instead of waiting for some mad wag of a road-hog to mow him down, can be regarded only as a spoilsport. * * * Cruelty to Wild Life. SOMETIMES women are almost as inconsistent as men—which is a frightful indictment to bring against any sex. As a boy, I remember being se verely lectured by a lady for robbing birds’ nests — a lady whose nodding hat was crowned with at least four stuffed meadowlarks. A few years ago, I saw women prominent in humane movements and good deeds, like that woman of the Scriptures who was called Dorcas —saw these women wearing the smuggled and forbidden ai grettes of the snowy heron, even though they must have known that each pitiable feathered wisp meant a cruel murder and a brood of fledg lings left to starve. I still see these aigrettes being worn—against the law of the land and the greater law of common humanity. And only lately, at a meeting to forward the prevention of cruelty to dumb beasts, I saw women swathed to their earlobes in furs of mink and otter. Seemingly they had forgotten that the animals whose pelts they wore had died in steel traps by slow degrees of infinite torture. Or maybe they didn’t care. IRVIN S. COBB. Cocyright.—WNU Service. Over Mt. Everest Aviators have succeeded in fly ing over the top of Mount Ev erest, the highest mountain in the world. Rear Admiral P. F. M. Fellowes, D. S. 0., rose to a height of 34,000 feet in a temper ature ranging down to —76 de grees Fahrenheit in 1934. In his flight over the mountain he cleared the peak by a bare 100 feet. The Houston Mount Everest flight cleared the peak on April 3 and 19, 1933. Dr. Pierce's Pleasant Pellets are an effective laxative. Sugar coated. Children like them. Buy now!—Adv, The Protesting Martyr It is the protesting martyr that leaves a mark on the world. tteAje'i that Fas i "Pki%S ,, Wat | To Alkalize Stomach Quickly On all sides, people are learning that the way to gain almost incredibly quick relief, from stomach condition arising from overacidity, is to alka lize the stomach quickly with Phil lips’ Milk of Magnesia. You take either two teaspoons of the liquid Phillips’ after meals; or two Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia Tab lets. Almost instantly “acid indiges tion” goes, gas from hyperacidity, “acid - headaches” from over-in dulgence in food or smoking and nausea arc relieved. Try this Phillips’ way if you have any acid stomach upsets. You will be surprised at results. Get either the liquid “Phillips” or the remarkable, new Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia Tablets. Only 25<* for a big box of tablets at drug stores. ALSO IN TABLET FORM: jdMLiu Each tiny tablet ia the equivalent ( iZL-w-fi rz - of a teaspoonful IT —ll f of genuine Phil lipa Milk of # Magnesia. Puis i i pq* mil^°f rriiLLira magnesia YOU CAN THROW CARDS IN HIS FACE ONCE TOO OFTEN WHEN you hare those awful cramps; when your nerves are all on edge—don’t take it out on the man you love. Your husband can’t possibly know how you feel for the simple reason that he is a man. A three-quarter wife may be no wife at ail if she nags her hus band seven days out of every month. 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