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of universal humankind, all struggling with
the same problems, seeking answers to the same questions, and striving upward to the same All-Father, though it be by devious ways and differing paths. Let this be one of the first lessons beet learned at this world-wide university that has just ended ita session. Let men understand, that even to the highest intellect there are still some things hidden and withheld, that bar barism has some suggestion even to civilization, in that the lowliest savage has in these things the same knowledge as the wisest sage of our schools. That knowledge is spoken in the language of hope. That language may have the sweetness and musical intonation of cen turies of cultivation, it may have the strident and raucous utterance of untutored wildness, yet it speaks in both instances no less clearly of the hope, and hope only, in the things to us still unrevealed, and the mysteries that lie hid den in the lap of the unknowable. But the duty is no less plain to us all, >n unassuming modesty to accept that which is revealed, to go on in conquest of the material, yet to make these conquests but tbe stepping-stones of moral progress, to subjugate matter to mind* and mind to soul, and to uplift tbe soul to God. JEWISH BROKERS. A Historical Review of their Participation in the Money Markets of the World. "The Jews were always great traffickers" wrote Peter Belon three hundred years ago in his quaint "Observations on Many Singulari ties." The statement has remained to this day one of the platitudes of ordinary conver sation. But how little is known of the actual details of their commercial history ! The broad fact that they have rendered iihpoitant service to commerce, and to humanity through com merce, is generally admitted ; not because it is known what they actually did as traders, but because it is inferred that, having always maintained themselves—that is in there Dis persion—by trading and finance, and having always been widely dispersed and addicted to wander over the earth's surface, they must have had an important part in the distribution of merchandise and consequently in the de velopment of trades and industries and the ad vancement of civilization. This general state ment is to be found in every work that deals with the history of commerce ; but however large the scope of the treatise in it appears, this generalization has never been demonstrated in concrete detail. One of the great historical vindications of Jewish usefulness has yet to be written in the shape of a history of Jewish commerce, tracing the actual achievements of the Jewisn specific branches of industry, in tbe circulation of commodities and determina tion of prices. We believe that materials are not wholly wanting for such a work. The Hebrew account books of many a mediaeval firm have been preserved, and M. laidor Lock a few years ago wrote two exceedingly interest ing papers on a set of such books which had been discovered at Vesoul. The unexplored archives of the Inquisition in Spain and Portu gal must contain voluminous information on this subject. Perhaps the best source would be the " Shtaroth " and Wills which have heen 1 preserved in the various countries of Europe. • In England there is an abundance of such docu • ments. During the Middle Period of Ages of 1 Anglo-Jewish history, when no Israelites are supposed to have resided in England, there ia 1 evidence that they carried on a considerable 1 trade in and with the country. There is for example a record of a Jew in Morocco draw ing a bill on an English merchant in the reign of Elizabeth, and documents are in existence which show that some Spanish Jews brought an action for tbe recovery of money owing to ; them by merchants in Bristol in the time of ' Henry VIII. It should not be difficult to find willing and ■ capable hands to compile such a history. It * is an enterprise worthy of another Greet-. Tie ' fact that it is required as a vindication of Israel ' should prove an incentive to some of our lead- 1 ing historical students to undertake it. For • while the commercial activity of the Jew in all ' I ages is very generally admitted, there are not ' ; wanting malevolent people, even at the present • • day, to belittle tbe value of their services, ! ) while a few have not hesitated to deny that f they ever were during recent years of the ex clusive devotion of Jewish traders to brokerage, and it is not very long ago an English vice-, consnl in a Russian port permitted himself to refer to this sort of trade as " parasitic. " We should, however, be quite content if a good and exhaustive history of Jewish commercial his tory could be written. What the world would have done without that kind of industry in ' pre-rail way days is difficult to imagine. The whole course of the history of European cul i ture would have been different; for it was Jewish brokerage which circulated merchan- ' diss and which consequently kept in operation . the industries employed in the production and i transport of such merchandise. It is a re- ' markable fact which has hitherto escaped the attention of our historians—but which was casually referred to recently by Lucien Wolf at ' the Jews' College Literary Society—that the actual necessity of Jewish brokers in the city of London won for the Jews the first privileges ' they ever enjoyed in this country. It was ' found soon after their re-settlement in England ' that they had introduced certain branches of • trade, and had opened up new ramifications I which they entirely controlled, The laxity in j enforcing the brokers' regulations, which re quired that every broker should be a free man of the city, had enabled them to establish their business firmly in the country. A time, how ever, arrived when it was resolved to enforce the regulations more strictly, and then it was found that the expulsion of the Jews from the exchange would result in the ruin of the im portant trade they had fonnded. The conse quence was that the corporation decided to confirm the then existing twelve Jewish brokers in their privileges, permitting them to enjoy those privileges without taking up the freedom which every other alien merchant was compelled to acquire as a preliminary to ap pearing on 'Change. There can be no question that it was the pe r secution and expulsion of the Jews which prevented Spain from securing the commercial advantages of the conquests in the New World, and which, by weakening the ties connecting the mother country with the colonies, rendered the eventual snapping of those ties a foregone conclusion. There ia indeed abundant evi dence that a large portion of the trade of Spain with the East and West Indies and with South America was in the hands of the Nuevos Christianos. These men invariably availed themaelves of the first favorable opportunity that offered for carrying themselves and trade to more tolerant countries. In this way the whole of the flourishing commerce with the Indies was gradually transferred to England and Holland. We are not writing with ab solute knowledge when we aay that ample materials for a full history of this transference are in existence. At a time when large bodies of Jews are again suffering a cruel persecution, and their " economic activity " is being ruth lessly cribbed and confined, some good pur pose might be effected by rendering such facts accessible to the world at large. Russia has already suffered severely in the commerce and ber credit by her senseless persecution of the Jews. The crisis in the trade of the Southern provinces, which was caused by the sudden transference of the banking business of Meesrs. Epbrussi from Odessa to Paris eight years ago, is still fresh in the public mind ; and there can be no doubt that the continuous exodos of Jews must represent a drain on the commer cial resources of the Empire. A bettor appre ciation of the commercial aptitude of the Jewa would be an unmixed boon to Russia. If the Jews were allowed to distribute themselves over the Empire, the inevitable result would be to establish new markets and develop un explored resources. It would be even worth the while of the Government to encourage such distribution. A couple of million of Jewa jadiciou-dy spread over Asiatic Russia would be a scarcely perceptible addition to the den sity of the population. But the result of such work would be incalculably valuable. It would solve the Jewish question, which is so serious a source of irritation to Russia and the whole Western Europe, and it would place the markets and resources of Asiatic Russia in direct relations with the markets and capital of the rest of the world. That this would eventually add very considerably to the wealth and prosperity of the Muscovite Empire is a proposition which needs no demonstration.— aLondon Jewish Chronicle. Smithdeal College has been moved to 1002 east Broad street, opposite New City Hall and next to Broad-Street Methodist Bpisoopal church, and an ENGLISH DEPARTMENT opened in addi tion to the business branches already taught. A very scholarly man, a graduate of two colleges, wi!l manage this new and imporant addition, where Spelling, Reading, Grammar, Rhetoric, Composition, Arithemetic, and Writing will be taught and other branches added as demand re quires. Call at the College or address. PRESIDENT. RUCKER BROTHERS, Staple and Fancy Groceries, 414 N. 6th Street Phone 194.