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WAR WITH YAQÜI3.
SERIOUS REVOLT OF INDIANS lt 'MEXICO. l&qols Have Been Fighting for inde pendence Since 1735 Mexico Is to Blame for Insurrection Something Of the Picturesque Yaqui Country. The Insurrection of the Yaqui Ind'aus promises to give the Mexican govwu xnent another prolonged war. It has been but two years since the last up rising of the Yacuis was put down, after nearly fourteen years of fighting, and the rebellion now on has all Indi cations of preparedness. Contrary to statements made that the Yaquis would not molest the American residents in Bcnora the Yaqui country there have already been slain a number of Ameri can gold prospectors'. Indeed, it has developed that one of the causes of the uprising was the fact that the gov ernment permitted Americans to come Into Sonora and dig gold. The Yaquis claim to hold the Sonora country by right of occupation for centuries back SCENE OF THE PRESENT and by confirmation of title by the King of Spain long before the Mexican government was thought of. When Jdexlco revolted and establish ed her Independence the Yaquis refused to recognize the new government and proclaimed their own independence and autonomy. Since then the effort to ob tain from them recognition of the authority and law of Mexico has led to frequent collisions between them and the government troops; pitched battles have been fought and though generally beaten by superior forces and forced to retreat for the time, they have never yet been subdued. Already YAQUI INDIAN GIEL. In the Insurrection now on the Yaquis have routed forces of Mexican soldiers tent against them, and the government la mobilizing a large army to pit against the wily warriors. The Ya quis' method of fighting is one taught them by nature and experience. When beaten they retreat into the almost In accessible fastnesses of the Sierra Ma dres, whither the government troops dare not follow them, and there await the departure of the troops, when they again descend and clear out the people who have established themselves on their lands. Though the population of the Yaqui country does not exceed 15,000, the male portion combine to make a formidable foe, and the Mexi can government anticipates a war of ix months or more. t-tory of the Tequia. The Indians inhabit the valley of Sonora. They are good agriculturists when allowed to till their farms In peace, and their valley being rich and fertile has tempted covetous men with little regard for right to take advan tage of the peculiar features of the Mexican laws in regard to taking up land and filing claims on the Yaqui holdings. These, of course, under- v?J&tM ) I standing little of law and moved by a rense or Injustice, have resisted toe seizure, and troops have been called ?uc to enforce the law that is, put the new claimant in, possession of the Yaqui land taken under the law. The Yaquis have stood together and made good fights after their fashion, and when compelled to do so retired, only to return when the troops were with drawn to take forcible possession of their own again. In former insurrec tions they had- but few firearms, but when the Sonora railroad to Guaymas was built they furnished a large pro portion of the laborers, and with the money earned Winchester rifles were purchased, with which they have been much more formidable antagonists than before and are more conscious of their own strength. If the war is continued until the Yaquis are pacified or exterminated dire disaster is sure to befall that beau tiful State. The extermination of the Yaqui Indians simply means the de struction of the manual labor in So nora. The Yaquis are not only the best and most trusted workers In Sonora, but they constitute the largest number of able workingmen in that State. The Yaquis con in no way be compared YAQUI INDIAN UPRISING. with the Indians of the western part of United States, except, perhaps, the Cherokees and a few other tribes known for their peacefulness and for their love of application to agriculture. Since the very first settlement of So nora by the Spaniards the Yaquis have Inhabited a small triangular territory situated in the delta of the Yaqui River and extending from the Gulf to a place inland called Buena Vista. A few Yaquis are settled as far up as Comu rifa, but the principal Yaqui country Is as Just stated further down the coast In this territory the Yaquis were found by the Spaniards, and their tradition is that here they have resided from im memorial times. For centuries 'the Mexican government acknowledged the right of the Yaquis to live In and to cultivate this territory and for cen turles the Yaquis remained peacefully at their work of cultivating the soil and as general laborers elsewhere, Within their territory the Yaquis have even now retained an independent gov ernment, with chiefs to decide accord Ing to their laws and to mete out pun ishment to tne guilty, and so perfect has been their method of self-govern ment mat tne Mexican government has had no occasion to interfere. The Yaqui is by nature moral and Indus trious and no complaint can be made against him on that account. All over Sonora there are found Yaquis in time of peace working in the fields and in the mines and even as laborers on the railroads. In the latter capacity they are more valued and more trusted than any Mexicans, and we know of in stances where railroad agents have preferred Yaqui section bosses to those of other nationalities. Don't Want Land Divided. ' As a laborer the Yaqui is hard-work ing and faithful and can always be re lied on.. He does not shirk his work when his foreman turns his back, and he does not shorten his day's work by continued cigarette smoking. No won der, therefore, that he Is highly valued for the work he can and does perform As do many other laborers, he gets drunk when pay comes on Saturday evening but he confines bis carousing to the ranchería in which he lives and keeps his family and when Monday morning comes around every man is at his work. The Yaqui country from Buena Vista to the gulf has always been held as common property by the Yaquis as a tribe and has never been portioned out to individuals as in other communities. The reason for. this Is found In the nature of the territory It self. The fertility of the Yaqui delta depends entirely upon the overflow of the Yaqui River. In times of heavy rains the and adjacent river bot- torn iacds are covered by vater or ivade moist bv sub-irrigation, while la I dry seasons the contrary is the cause, i .A 8 the territory is large, each Individ- aal Yaqui can always find a place suit-1 nttlo fnr fiilHxotirtTi fftr thilt nnrtimilnr I season. Next season he may have to find moisture and other conditions nec essary. Now it is evident that if the land were not held in common and if every Yaqui had his own allotted piece some would possess suitable land for cultivation, while others would have dry lands, which would be worthless unless properly irrigated. Much of the present trouble with the Yaquis arises from this fact. The Mexican govern ment wants the Yaquis to divide their land so that every individual may pos sess his own plot. They Take to the Mountains. Colonel Martinez of the Mexican army, in an interview on the Yaqui in surrection, says: "The Indians have been restless for some months past. They object to American prospectors invading the mountains of their coun try in quest of gold. We were expect ing an outbreak and were not unpre pared. If we can cut off the Indians before they reach their strongholds, our work will be easy enough, but once In the mountains, conquest of the in surgents will be a difficult problem. That was the trouble during the ten years' war which ended two years ago, and cost Mexico much blood and trea sure. The Indians retreated to the mountains, where they could not be pursued, and at every favorable oppor tunity swooped down upon the troops or assailed neighboring villages, mur dering and plundering. If the Indians do not surrender a war of extermina tion will ensue. It is a pity, too, for General Diaz had hopes the Indians would remain friendly, and become civ ilized. Not long ago he sent thirty school teachers into their country to instruct them and to establish schools and colleges. These may have been murdered for all that is known, for some of them went into the outlying districts. So far as I can learn, the In dians are well armed. They have, in fact, been buying weapons ever since their leaders signed the treaty of peace, and I do not believe they ever had any idea of keeping the truce. The murder of their own chiefs who had accepted office under the Mexican government indicates that they have grown desper ate and that the contest will be fierce." The tactics of the Yaquis are to attack suddenly and to ambush and Imme diately after the assault to run back into the mountains, where no one can follow them. After a Yaqui has fought for some time he suddenly be comes a peaceful Indian and leaves the territory in which the war rages. This happens when his ammunition is all spent; he must then provide himself with more. This he does by working in Arizona and New Mexico, as in these places he can procure arms with his savings and return .when he has enough. When he has accumulated enough he returns by passing from Arizona through the Sierra Madre wil derness, where he is free from sol diers' bullets and from observing eyes. and when least expected he turns up fully equipped with munitions to carry on the war. rue laqui is not the blood-thirsty beast that some re ports have made him out to be. He is CAMP SCENE IN brave, industrious and peaceful; ne does' not torture his prisoners, but neither does he allow them to escape. In 1897 peace was made with the Ya quis. The government promised them a certain sum of money and they In turn agreed to have their land survey ed and partitioned. During the last two years the Yaquis have quietly been working In the mines of Sonora and Arizona and have saved their earnings in order to procure arms to renew the war. Whatever will be the outcome of the war, it will be a most ruinous one for Sonora. If the Yaquis are exter minated, as the reports tell us is the In tention of General Torres, then the ef fect will soon be felt. It will mean the extermination of the manual labor in Sonora; it will mean the crippling of herNvheat and mining industries. 'The Mexican government could well have afforded to allow the Yaquis to remain in TwiKsession of their land, as their value as laborers Is many, many times greater than the price that can be real ised hv Kpllincr their land. Sonora is a country with Immense resources, with enormous tracts of fertile soil where almost everything might profitably. Sucu crops i ft (rroTTti reps wneat sngar- fane, beans, corn, orauges, date, i peaches, apricots and many other fruits are hardly surpassed anywhere. First Dairy Was Written. It has been discovered that what may be called the first daily newspaper was a manuscript letter written by salaried correspondents and forwarded by them every twenty-four hours from London to the provinces. That was in the days of the early Stuarts. During the commonwealth these Lon don letters were printed in type and cir culated in large numbers. Even sc long ago as 1GS0 the law of libel was such as to be characterifized by Judge Scroggs as making any newspapei publication illegal and tending to pro voke a breach of the peace. Defoe, the author of "Robinson Cru soe," was one of the early journalists, his paper being called the Review. Then there was Tutchin, whose week ly publication, the Observer, cost, ac cording to evidence he gave in a court of Justice, half a guinea to print, though the typesetter eventually raised his prje to 20 shillings. The Observer had a certified circulation of 2G6 copies. Afterward there came the Grants. Steele, Addison and Johnson, who might have lived In the vicinity oí Grubb street, but were court favorites for all that. The Times employed the first foreign correspondent in the person of Henry Crabb Robinson, and succeeded in "scooping" the government itself in th news of the battle of Waterloo. Chi cago Chronicle. Printing Without Ink. An English company has been formed to print, without the use of Ink in' any form, by simply bringing the plate Into contact with chemically dampened paper, linen, silk, wool, oi other fabrio, and obtaining a good, clear Impression of any desired densi ty. The operation Is as quick and more simple than letter-press printing, and the work resembles in clearness and delicacy a copper-plate or litho engraving. Ordinary printer's type, blocks, form, stereotypes and electro types may be used as a printing sur face, and drawings, etc., requiring several blocks of electros, lithographic THE YAQUI COUNTRY. work, or copperplate engraving can be done at a great saving. Original sketches, scrolls, or fancy lettering can be made upriti the transparency, or traced through from drawn or printed sketches, the words being typed In their respective places, and, if printed on opaque paper, photographic replicas of any size can be made, while engrav ings can be reproduced direct from the artist's work. Any class of paper may be used, the sensitizing solution Is much cheaper than printing Ink, and the speed of the process is greatly in its favor. Philadelphia Record. A Wesurn Solon. Prosecuting attorney (Frozen Dog) Your honor, the sheriff's bull pup nss gone and chawed up the court Bible. Judge Well, make the witness kiss the bull pup, then! We can't adjourn court for a week just to hunt up a new Bible! Puck. The Smallest Dwarf. - The smallest man who ever lived was the drawf Bebe, born in France in 1740. He was just 20 inches high, and 8 pounds in weight when full grown. YAQUI PEOX AND KMPLOTBli. Willie Say, paw! Paw Well? WiV lie Are freckles made by the shadow )f the sunspots? Cleveland Leader. Father How is it that you're such a Junce at your lessons. Tommy? Tcm- my I expect it s nereauary. costón Traveler. He So you give me the mitten? She Yes. He And this is all? She I might throw in a few moth bails. Chicago Record. Tommy Paw, why ain't a prophet honored in his own country? Paw Because people grow so tired of hear ing him say, "I told you so." Puck. She He says he loves me; yet he has only known me two days. Her Friend Well, perhaps that's the reason, dear. Philadelphia North American. "What is his name?" "That's a se cret." "A secret? What do you mean?" "He's a Russian, and no one can pro nounce it but himself." Town Topics. "Mrs. Jorkens, I eaw you going into Mrs. Brash's house to-day." "Yes; but I have no acquaintance with her at all; I just use her telephone." Chicago Record. "Was that sleight-of-hand man's ex hibition successful, Mudge?" "I think so. I lent him a counterfeit half-crown and he gave me back a good one." Tid-Bits. "How happy the Dabney-Jonesea look this evening. It must be their wedding anniversary." "No; they've got 'their old cook back." Detroit Free Press. "What is your definition of the word 'fad?'" "A fad." said Miss Cayenne, candidly, "is something which some body else enjoys and I don't." Wash ington Star. "How gray your hair's getting, dear! It used to be such a pretty black." "Yes, dear; and how red yours has got! It used to be such a pretty black, too!" Punch. , Mr. Penn One physician says that the tramp instinct is a disease. Mr. Pitt Does he recommend a change of. scene as the remedy? Pittsburg Chronicle-Telegraph. s Little Clarence Pa, money talks, don't it? Mr. Callipers I guess so, my on. Little Clarence Well, then, pa, gimme a penny, so's I can hear it whis per to me a little. Punch. O Bramble So Jim Slopay is dead! Well, we must all pay the debt of na ture some time or other. Thprne That's true. Slopay would have dodged It if any one could. "That hammock has a hoodoo his tory." "What is it?" "It has been through six seasons at the seaside with the Upjohn family, and not one of the girls Is married yet" Chicago Trib une. "She scorned all her wooers, so long that now she is doomed to be an old maid for the rest of her life." "Well, that seems like a just sentence for such contempt of court." Philadelphia Bulletin. Parent Don't you know that the great King Solomon said, "Spare the , rod and spoil the child?" Bobby j' 1 Yes, but he didn't say that unl he was growed up. New York Evening ' I Telegram. i Mrs. Stubb I believe this is a bad ' 1 quarter, John. Mr. Stubb Think so, I Maria? Well, then, I guess we'd bet- ter drop it in the church box. Perhaps ; good company may reform it Chica- go Daily New. A young hopeful sat in the window a I long time the other night during a thunder storm and contemplated the 1 scene with a wise look on his face. Then he turned and said: "The an ! gels are scratching matches on the iky." Household words. The Suburbanite's Limit Mrs. Her mitage (on the evening train) I won der why the city department stores won't deliver an order of goods free In the suburbs unless it exceeds $5 worth? Mrs. Isolate (ditto) Well, they know that a suburbanite can easily carry $5 worth. Puck. , "I guess TU go to Washington," said Meandering Mike. "What fur?" "Oh, Jes to show myself and make things cheerful. I reckon mebbe tne ioiks that examine applications for employ ment In the census would be kind o happy to see somebody that wouldn't have work even If he could get it" Washington Star. Old Foozle So, my son, you have V laid aside your studies and are about to enter upon the active duties of life? Young Foozle Yes, dad; but since I got my sheepskin and have had time to look around .me I am surprised to find the active duties of life so very closely attended to already. Boston Transcript "And so you are about to lose a mem ber of your family," said the old friend. who had Just heard or tne approaenmg marriage of the daughter of the house. "Well, I'm not quite certain about that" replied the old gentleman. "Just at present I can't figure out whether I'm to lose a daughter or merely ac quire a son-in-law." Chlcag Evening Post