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A TALK ABOUT HARD MONEY. Senator Teller Explains Some of the Technicalities of the Silver Problem. PRIMARY PRINCIPLES INVOLVED. Bimetallism, Monometallism and the Ratio Between Gold and Silver. A Brief Review of Silver Legisla rm tion. (SWENATE CHAMBER, July 1, !1890. sj~*^ Since the present agitation of the \2_iJ_' silver question, so called, began in Congress I have received many inquiries which convince me that while there is a general desire among the people for in formation on the subject and a general feel ing of friendliness toward the proposed re >!nrm, ninny are ignorant not only of the primary principles involved, but are even uninformed as to the meaning of the terms employed in speaking on the subject. It bas been suggested to me that a plain defini tion of some of the terms most frequently used in the discussion of the questiou of bimetallism, and a brief statement as to ihe elementary principles involved would be of service to a large proportion of the ,^ Senator JTenrv 2V. Teller. American public, and while doubting my ability to throw the needed light upon the subject. I have consented to make the attempt, premising that this article is for the lay reader alone and not for those who have made a study of the subject and are familiar with the terms employed in the discussion of it. People often ask what is bimetallism, what is monometallism, and what is meaut by the ratio between gold and silver. The money metals now recognized are gold and silver. Formerly co pper was re garded as a money metal and used for small coins, and while it is still used for small coins, it is no longer regarded as a money metal. Those who think both gold and silver should be used as money are called bimetallisms, or two-metallists. Those who think but one of the money metals ought to be employed are called mono nietallists, or otie-metallists. Those who think gold alone should be used as the legal tender money of tbe country are called gold .monometallists, and those who desire to use silver only are called silver mono metal lists. The gold monometallic countries make gold legal tender for the payment of all debts, while silver is used only as a sub sidiary coin. Silver monometallic coun tries make silver the only legal tender. Great Britain since 1810 has been & gold monometallic country, silver being used for small money and as a legal tender to the amount of 510, or £2, India is a silver monometallic country, gold being an article of merchandise and not a legal tender. France is a double standard or b' metallic country and has gold and silver in about equal quantities, havineIS'JOO.OCO.OOOof gold, while Great Britain has only 50.",! 000. Great Britain has £100,000,000 of silver, and France has between 8700,000.000 and SBOO, --000,000, and some claim even more than that amount. '1 be population of Great Britain is 35,241, --482. Frame has a population of 38,218,803. The United States has always been a double standard country, except during the period between February 12, 1873, and Feb ruary 28, 1878. The United States has about $684,000,000 of gold and about $435,000,000 of silver. About one hundred and thirty to one hun dred and lorty millions of the people of the globe are inhabitants of gold monometallic countries, and the rest 1 1 the world either belong to the silver monometallic countries or to bimetallic countries. So it will be observed that about nine-tenths of the pop ulation of the world that use money use silver, or silver and gold as legal tender. Many of even tbe gold monometallic countries must use silver as subsidiary money, cold not being fit to make small (.-"ins of, line half dollars, quarters and dimes. liy ratio between gold and silver is meant the relative value that one kind of metal bears to the other. When wo say the ratio between gold and silver is as one to fifteen and one-half, we iiiecn that fifteen and one half ounces of coined silver will exchange for one ouuee of coined gold. This relative proportion or ratio was first fixed by the merchants and traders, and was afterward established by law. The first accounts of the fixing of the ratio are somewhat con fused. But we know that the ratio was fixed in England as early as 1257, and at different times later by royal proclama tion, and in France in 1785 and 1803. The ratio fixed in France in 1785 and 1803 was that of one to fifteen and one-half, and this has been called the French ratio. ' It was the prevailing ratio of Europe for legal-ten der silver, but not for subsidiary silver. For this the ratio has been less, as low as one to thirteen and one to fourteen, and in some countries even still less. India has a large amount of silver, and its ratio there is fifteen to cue. The ratio In this country was first fixed at 1 to 15, and that being too low, was an overvaluation of silver and an undervalu ation of gold. Consequently the gold went to the countries where it was valued mere highly when compared with silver, and we were, in fact, on a silver basis, while, ac cording to the law, we employed the double standard. In 1837 we changed our ratio to Ito 16, or, to be exact, to 1 to 15.98. Then we undervalued sliver and overvalued gold, and the silver went where it was more valuable, and gold was the only metallic money we bad left in circulation except foreign silver coins, which continued to circulate. It is supposed that the amount of gold and silver in the world in use as money is about equal and the amount has been vari ously estimated. The exact amount Is not material, for, with both metals in use as money, it has been found necessary to re sort to paper because of the lack of gold and silver to meet the demands for money, and the paper money in the world at large now exceeds the amount of either gold or silver. lt Is now proposed by the geld monomet allists to discard silver except for minor coin or subsidiary money, ana to do the busi ness of the world with gold alone. The history of this movement is both interest ing and instructive. it was proposed in 1656 and 1857, when the production of gold from California and Australia was nearly 8200,000,000 per an num, and silver only about one-fourth that amount, to demonetize gold, aud Germany did demonetize gold. In 1867 a conference of the representa tives of various nations met in Paris aud proposed to make gold the sole standard and to demonetize silver. A bill was in troduced into the Senate of the United States in 1868 for the purpose of demone tizing silver. A favorable report was made by Hon. John Sherman of Ohio, from the Committee on Finance, and Mr. Morgau| of New York, made an adverse report for the minority of the committee. No action was taken on the bill beyond what I have stated. In 1871 Germany took the first decisive step and demonetized silver hnd lured gold the sole standard, providing that silver should be used only for minor coin, li.i 1872 a bill was introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States to amend the coinage acts of the United States. It passed both houses and became a law by the approval of President Grant on Febru ary 12, 1873. By this bill the yum doll whs made the unit of value and the legal-tender silver dollar disappeared from among the coins of the country. This feature of the bill does not appear to have attracted the atten tion of the members of either House of Congress, and General Grant did not know until some time after the approval of the act that silver had been demonetized in this country by tbat act. It lias been claimed that this demonetization was in the interest of the creditor class, and was secretly done. Whether it was the work of the creditor class or not it is quite certain that it has resulted greatly to the benefit of that class by reducing the amount of money in circu lation and increasing its purchasing power. Norway, Sweden, Denmark and some other countries followed our example of demonetization, and the Latin Union first limited the coinage of silver, and when the silver from Germany was thrown freely on the market, closed the doors of its mints against silver. So Germany, France, Italy, the Scandinavian countries and the United States refused to mint silver; Germany threw on the market all the silver she could spare, the United States sent all its pro duction, fully one-third of the world's product, to Europe to be used to breatt down the market price of silver, and thus discourage its use and increase the demand for gold. Germany, the Scandinavian coun tries, the United States and Italy all he came bidders for gold, and the price went up when measured uot only by silver, but by all products aud commodities. Ger many, the United States, Italy and other countries called for aud received vast sums of gold to take the place in the United States and Italy of paper money, and in Germany of silver. France to pay her Ger man indemnity had parted with a great part of her gold, and was also a bidder for gold to make good oilier losses. Thus the prin cipal financial countries of the world were buying gold and discarding silver, and sil ver ceased to sustain the relation to gold that it had theretofore sustained; but it did and still does maintain its relative position to all other things that it did before 1873. In February, 1878, the Congress of the United Siates passed a law restoring the silver dollar to the circulation of the coun try by the purchase and coinage of 82,000, --000 worth of silver each mouth. This bill was vetoed by President Hayes and passed over his veto on the iSth of February of that year. Under that act, whicli is still in operation, there had been coined, up to the 10th of the present mouth, 8304,364,_. , ('i6. Of this amount thero was at that date in circulation 56,683,415 silver dol lars, while the silver certificates issued on silver dollars held in the Treasury for the redemption of the certificates amounted to $293,513,045, making a total of silver dollars and certificates In circulation doiu__ money duty of 8350,196,460. This leaves a balance of silver certificates and silver coin in the Treasury of only 514,107,806. The act of February _"**>, 1878, has been known as the Bland-Allison bill. This bill met with the most determined opposition from the President and .lie Secretary of the Treasury, bankers, chambers of commerce, boards o't trade and what is known as the capitalistic class of the country, all of whom prophesied disaster to the business of the country if it became a law, because ot the inflation which they claimed would be the result of coining so much silver aud be cause, as they declared, gold would be driven out of the country. The Secretary of the Treasury declared that the coinage of 50,000,000 of silver dollars would drive all oi the gold out of the country. Sena tors and members opposed to the bill joined in these prophecies of evil. We have coined more than seven times $50,000,000 and yet the country is not on a silver basis. Wo have now mote than four times as much gold iv the country as we had in 1878. The demonetization of silver was brought about by the creditor class, the only class that could be benefited by the destruction of one-half of the money of the world, for it is a well-established principle influence that the number of units of uiouey deter mine its value. That is, if there are but few dollars iv a country, each individual dollar will buy more thau it would if there were many dollars. The demonetization of silver in Germany and the United Mates induced other na tions to demonetize silver. Thus the de mand for silver was lessened and the de mand for gold increased, tor when a dollar of silver was prevented from doing money duty anew gold dollar had to be found or the gold doliat in existence bad to Jo in creased money duty. The effect of this was to appreciate gold, or, in other words, reduce the prices of all commodi ties measured in gold. In a short time told bullion would nut exchange for silver bullion on the same terms as formerly, and the same was true of wheat, corn, cotton aud all other products. Then the gold nionometaliists insisted that silver had fallen, when as a matter of fact it was gold that had risen. Silver,* whether considered as bullion or as coined into dollars, has appreciated in the last seventeen years. It will in either form exchange for more commodities of all kinds than it would then, In countries using silver this is plainly seen by the slight fall in prices. Gold has anprpciated in a greater degree than silver, not because of its especial fit ness for money, but because of its scarcity. ; Ido not mean that there is any less gold than formerly, but the same amount of gold or nearly the same amount is required to do nearly double the wort"-" it formerly did. In other words, the work formerly performed by silver and cold is now largely dune by gold alone. Let us illustrate: Suppose wheat and corn fur nished the required amount of grain for man's use, and by some means all the corn should be destroyed. Then wheat alone would not suffice and wheat would be ap preciated because of the demand for it. The principal demand for gold is for use as money; if that demand is increased, gold will appreciate. This demand was increased just to the extent that the use of silver diminished. So much as to the facts. New, a word in argument. What could the producing classes gain by the demonetization of sil ver? What advantage could it bj to the people engaged in trade or agriculture, or in production of any kind, to do the busi ness of the world with a half of the me tallic money that had becu heretofore in use? Silver had not depreciated. Even when measured by gold it had proved itself a stable metal for thousands of years, and had been the standard by which gold had been measured. It was the favorite money of the people of the world, lt was the first metallic money used by man, aud it was the only money metal that promised to be produced in sufficient quantities to keep pace with the world's demands for metallic money. The production of gold was failing off each year, and it was quite evident that no great reliance could he placed on gold as a money metal, for the best-informed peo ple on that subject have declared that its production was not sufficient, after deduct ing the amount required for use in the arts and the loss by wear and waste, to main tain the present stock of gold in the world. Hence we must admit that the demonetiza tion of silver was either a great blunder or a great crime. All who have examined tlie effects of the demonetization by Germany and the United States in the hist instance and other na tions later must, and 1 believe do, admit that great evils have resulted therefrom. No one has yet been able to show that it has been of any advantage to any class save the creditor class. The demonetization of silver has increased the purchasing power of gold so that the same amount of gold will now command much more labor and more commodities of all kinds than it would in 1871 or prior there to. The price of labor is less and all the pro ducts of labor bring a lower price. Land is not worth so much. Machinery and build ings used for the production of com modities are less valuable. It requires more labor, more effort, more sacrifice for the debtor to procure the means to pay his debts than it did before the demonetization of silver. It is pretty generally conceded that the fall in prices is not far from 83 per cent. Oil many articles it is much greater than that. This, then, is equiva lent to an addition of 33 per ceut to all the debts, In other words, the cred itor will get 83 per cent more of commodities if be is paid in commodities, and if paid in money the money he receives will purchase 33 per cent more, while the debtor must make an effort 33 per cent greater than he otherwise would to pay his debts. This, then, is equivalent to the ad dition of 33 percent to all the debts In the world, for tins decline in prices is not con fined to this country. If, as all admit, silver is to be used as money in the future, why not go resolutely to work to put it back in its old condition, as the equal of gold at its proper ratio? There is no danger of un influx of sil ver from India and China, for those countries do not have a sufficient amount for their own use. India with 250,000,000 people, according to the report of the United States Treasury Department, has little more silver than France, with about one-eighth of the population. Not a dollar of silver can be shipped from Europe to the United States and coined at our ratio but that there will be a loss of from 3to 7 per ceut. II the mints of the world were opened to the unlimited coinage of silver the demand for silver would be greater thau ever be fore. The great mass of silver now in use as money is coined at the ratio of fifteen and one-half to one, and if we agree to that ratio and recoin our silver now' in the country it will be appreciated not less than 3 per cent, and our pro duction, now about 50,000.000 ounces, will not only be appreciated the three per cent difference in our ratio and the European ratio, but will gain the differ ence . between the mint value and the present market value, and the gain will amount to not . less than $12,500,000 per annum. ' This amount will be i.dded to the wealth of the country. It will not go into the pockets of the silver miners as claimed, but will, because of the in creased price of all pioducts, increase the cost of mining silver and so be distributed through all the agencies ol production throughout the country. ii. m. tklleis. Copyrighted, USO. THE MORNING CALL, SAN FRANCISCO, : SUNDAY, JULY 6, 1890-FQURTEEN PAGES. MOUNT SHASTA AND VICINITY. Sketches of Some Conspicuous Landmarks. The Hardship of Being- lost in the Mountains. Castle Lake a Snow-Field-Free Soda Water and Trout-Fishing. I "Written for The Sunday Call. Y£T**°o, for the mountains! Craggy peaks, I li dashing streams of ice-cold water l_*fl*3 fresh from the fountain's head, rarefied air,. pine forests giving forth their balsamic odors, enchanting views, God's 1 t MOUNT SHASTA, ALTITUDE HMO FEET. chosen country! These were the thoughts which passed in rapid procession as I sat beneath the pines over on the hills near the headwaters of the Sacramento River and listened to the soughing of the wind through the tall trees. It was only a few minutes past 4 o'clock in the morning, nnd the sun was steadily climbing over Mount Shasta's jagged peak, flooding Straw berry Valley with brightness and chasing the shadows on the Scott Mountains out of existence. My companion and I had slept out on the mountain's side with nothing but a camp fire to keep off the cold —no blan kets, no overcoats, nothing but a silk handkerchief apiece to tie about our necks— ami we were not there as a matter of choice, and consequently it would hardly seem pos sible that either of us was iv a frame of mind to enjoy the surroundings; but not withstanding the hardships of our trip there was an enchantment about the sun- SLACK BUTTE, ALTITUDE 0000 FEET. rise that held us spell-bound. Above all - Mount Shasta loomed in all Its • d-r.z_.Knf, whiteness, the snow being deeper than at any time within the memory of the oldest inhabitant of the country, even cover ing the sharp, rocky ridges, while the snow-fields, which usually at this season are concave, now are heaped up, so as to be noticeable from a longdistance. A gentleman stopping at Sisson, who is fond of mountain-climbing, and is familiar with the contour of the country above Shasta attempted, unaccompanied, to make the summit a few days ago. He reached the "Thumb," an altitude of 13,000 feet, which is conspicuous in the picture on the ridge below and to the right of the main peak, and then ho thought best to return, and as a consequence of his undertaking we wero deprived of his guidance wil. la lie rested in a dark room suffering snow-blindness. We had an appointment with him to visit Castle Lake, over the other side of Mount llilliii^ll CA'-TLE -R&C.-S, ALTITUUE 6600 J-EET. Bradley, southwest from Sisson, and as ho was unable to go with us, we went alone, leaving town between 1 and 2 o'clock In the afternoon. About 5 o'clock we struck th» snow-banks on Mount Bradley — in fact all the mountains which form tho outskirts of Strawberry Valley are snowclad— over which we climbed, and descended into the canyon below the lake, but there every thing was covered with a mantle of white, in several places the snow being so deep that it formed natural bridges across Castle Creek, over which we walked, which was a thrilling experience for novices who were LAST OF NAPOLEON'S GRAND AKIIY. Tho Oldeat Living Kelic on His -Tourney Tlirouc!. Itnly. The Italian papers report tho recent ar rival at the railroad station at Baretto, near Heggio, Central Italy, of a strange-looking personage that was the object of considera ble curiosity. lie was a ta'l and noble-look ing old man, with a long white beard, who presented to the Mayor a feuille de route, signed by Baron Marocclietti, the Italian Embassador at St. Petersburg, inviting the Italian authorities to take good care of the bearer, Michel Linovitchof Orenburg, Rus- sia. In reality this mysterious old man was an Italian named Linn, born at Baretto 10". yours ago, and perhaps the last living relic of the Grande Armee of 1812. Belonging to a family of fanners, Lino formed part of the conscription of the kingdom of Italy in 1805, aid was enrolled in the Imperial Guard. With his regiment he went through the campaign of 1806 and 1807 in Prussia, and fought at Jena and at Frledland. Later ou he was sent with his battalion to D.il niatin, and tbence to Spain with the divis ion of General Lecchi, where lie passed two years of continual fighting. Wounded in an assault he returned to his native coun try, where he remained for two years, work ing on his father's farm. ''-Vi 1 On the outbreak of the terrible storm, which was destined 'to carry off to Russia the flower of the Franco-Italian youth. Napoleon called under his victorious eagles his old soldiers. Lino rejoined the service as a sergeant of the Grenadier Guards, and with the rest of the cis-Alpine army, under the command of Eugene' Beaiilinrnais, formed part of the grande armee. He fought against the Russians at Smolensk and at Moskova, where he lifted from the field of battle the mortally wounded General Plangonne. After that he entered Moscow with Napo leon, and finally in the bloody battle of the 24th of October, while fighting under the orders of General Pino, he was taken pris oner, after having been severely wounded by the Cossacks of Platow. - Transported with a , large convoy •of : French pris oners to t Orenburg, -he was sent with a few of • his comrades to • a dis tant village situated at the foot of the Cau casus," where, although kindly 'treated by the Russians, he had to suffer cruel priva tions during ten years. Tired at last of such a miserable existence, he asked and obtained : permission to : join : the Russian unaccustomed to such exploits.. Following the water-course for a time in hope of find ing a cabin where we had been tola we could get shelter for the night, the day waned, and fearing we would meet with disappointment and not desir ing to have darkness - overtake us while in the snow-region we beat a hasty retreat. Castle Lake was covered with snow and not a trace of it was discernible, although we were near it; and so we were on our return when darkness came on just as we reached the timbered ridge. To add to the interest of our predicament the clouds began to gather, and at 9 o'clock the last star went out and we were at a loss to know whether we were going north or south. So we floundered about among the shrubbery, now finding a trail and now losing it, until 1 o'clock found us thoroughly at a loss as to where we were, and, com pletely exhausted with tramping, we built a fire and lay down to— well, not pleasant dreams. While one side was warmed by the fire, the other was freezing; and then we would awake and turn over and thaw out our fronts while our backs would suffer a sharp reduction of temperature. But daylight- came with out our having experienced a rain storm, the clouds had dispersed them- selves and the morning broke clear and calm, and within a short time we were crossing the Sacramento Kiver on a log foot-bridge and rapidly nearing home and friends, none the worse for our night's outing. lt makes but little difference where one stops after reaching Delta, in Shasta County. There is much to interest the sightseer or health-seeker. The altitude is sufficient to produce a complete change in the atmosphere from that experienced in the lower country, and even when the mer cury climbs up to ninety decrees or higher there is a freshness which gives new life to the exhausted vitality of the inhabitant of the bay or coast counties. All along the line ot the railroad accommodations may be obtained at reasonable rates, and whether it be to take the waters of the soda springs or view the scenery, no one can seek the mountains hereabouts without getting full value for the money expended. At Castle Crag a magnificent view of Castle Rocks, with Giant's Dome reaching to a height of 4000 feet above the valley, which has an altitude of 2000 feet, may be had, as shown in the accompanying sketch. . In San Francisco »li«n one is -pen pass ing along the street with a demijohn it is' an indication that some of California's vintage is going home to cheer the family, but up here in the neighborhood of the soda springs it signifies quite another mo tive. In fact, many travelers who are post ed provide themselves with fruit-jars, or other tight vessel to take home with them the water from the springs, and when the train stops at Shasta Soda Springs, at Mo.-sbrae Falls, on the banks of the Sacr.i mento River (trains each way stop five minutes), there is a hurrying and scurrying of passengers and train-hands to drink and fill their bottles and demijohns. Every one participates in the scramble, for the water is to be had without limit aud witu- out price. The streams are all booming— running bank-full, and but few fish are being caught by the uninitiated. A favorite way with some sportsmen of ohtaiuing a string of trout is to bribe one of the native Indians with a silver dollar to go out and catch some for him, while the "fisherman" re clines beneath the sheltering brauches of a tree and smokes the pipe of pence, lt is said an Indian will catch fish where a white man will declare a trout never ran. As I never lie I never fish, and the statement is made from hearsay. The weather lias been warm and pleasant all this mouth, and ever since the schools closed for the sum mer vacation peoplu have been dropping off all along the road above Delta, and all seem to be enjoying the change of scene and climate. josiaii liuutubabt. assort, June, 1..11. army as a private soldier. In this capacity he passed through the campaign of the Cau casus iv 1829. At the close of the war he obtained as the reward of his services a little piece of ground, which he cultivated. When he was 45 years old he married a young Polish girl named Nerawskn, who died in 1855. The three sons that he had by this woman also died, leaving the old soldier alone in the world. Then Lino returned to Orenburg, where the people Russianized his name into Linnvitcli. lie lived there in compara tive comfort for many years. Gifted with an extraordinary energy of mind and body he was still strong enough to catch nostalgia. When mora than a hundred years old the old veteran at last became homesick, after seventy-eight years of exile, He resolved at all hazards to return to his native land, and there pass the remainder of his eventful career. Through the influ ence of the Italian Embassador at St. Pe tersburg he was sent home to Italy at the expense of the Italian Government Lino is now in an asylum at Keggio, where lie is cared for with , particular attention. .As he was born in 1785 lie is now 105 years old, the survivor of a hundred battles, and probably the last of the heroes who fought at Jena, f'riedland and Borodino. — Chicago Herald. k ■? .-".-■.-■: Facial Oil IleserTnlr. In a cutler's store nn Charles street I saw a neat way of getting over a difficulty. A lady was in pricing* some scissors. She ex amined several pairs, but each one was too hard : in action to suit her; they did not move freely enough. There was one set she had taken an especial fancy for, but, like the others, the two sides ground one against the other, making it difficult to move them as she wished. The dealer picked 'them up, rubbed his linger near where the two blades • joined, and said: "Why these seem free enough." They were, yet only a moment before they had been as stiff as possible. ' How did this happen? When the purchaser left the store 1 ' inquired ■ the * wherefore and the dealer answered: ; " "Did you notice me rub my nose?" "Not particularly." *•.;.. "Well, 1 did, and that is the secret of the shears > operating easily. Whore the nose forms an indention near the cheek a small quantity of oily matter collects on every person's I face. - I < rubbed .. my ' little finger therein ' and oiled them so ' they now l run smoothly." '"Another trick in trade.—Balti more Free Press.;^^Mfe;; : .: : ;?Mm^ * ' DRY GOODS. I KENNEDYS 1 1 OUR GREAT [j " A Great ftri7fiP catp* Store Success ! v?,™u ?,™ Q *» h Crowded! II NOW ON! II The announcement last week of our immense purchase and sale of Messrs. Rosenbaum & Co.'s (retiring from business) stock (from auction), together with onr GREAT MARK-DOWN STOCK INVENTORY SALE, has caused quite a sen- satiou and brought crowds of eager buyers to our store, in fact a "rnsh" all the week. Although the amount of sales has been very large, it is scarcely percep- tible in the vast purchase made, combined with our regular unusual large stock. We wish to prolong the excitement and challenge any house to approximate the yalues we offer. Just Peruse Some of Our Prices ! Colored Dress Goods! M Dress Goods! 4T rt+e WOOLEN COLORED DRESS 1500 yards SATIN FINISHED DRAPER- JUUtO GOODS, fully 38 inches wide, lES, new designs, Regular 50-cent goods, comprising g c _ e| . Yard MIXED ENGLISH MOHAIRS, __ ' ______ ■„.._ ,1_ . „ " CHECK CHEVIOTS 3000 yards BEIGE CIIALLIES, in pretty ■_.-ii_.t NORMANDY SUITINGS. figures ' 5c per Yard. NORMANDY SUITINGS. 5c per Yard. BRADFORD FANCIES, 2230 yards SCOTCH GINGHAMS, try trs — all at— B'ic per Yard. '* i^*- >^ s JtO&Jr ac £tX CS.- 140 p ._ c( , PEENCH SATINES, latest nov- elties, to close, at 80 Imported Suits, to Close Oat, $5 Each. 25c per Yard. 73 pieces 40-INCH ALL-WOOL TECUM- •»•»-• -_- ~g-s -a-* _ SEU SUITINGS at HOSIERY ! 50c per Yard. Really good value for 73c. 45 dozen LADIES' FAST BLACK COT- -12 c per Pair. Black Coods ! 5 ' DARK kolid cot 3 COOD VALUES. 15c per Pair. .- . _„_,,-,_,-•_,-'_.•_,_. .280 dozen LADIES' FANCY STRIPED 25 pieces All- Wool Serge at 35 c per yard. hose, worm soc, at 31 pieces All-Wool Silk-Finish English _ . w 15c per Pair. /„„,,„, ._„ „.._„-j ° 180 doz. MISSES' FAST BLACK RIBBED Cashmere at 50c per yard. hose, 23 pes. 46-Inch All-Wool Henrietta Cloth, „■ I l 2/ ° c per Pair- ii. km ne ... Im s- / ' 230 dozen CHILDREN'S FAST BLACK tee $1 25 quality, at 75c per yard, derby ribbed hose, sizes sto 10 * 1 ji* uu r j good value for 35c, at 25c per Pair. HEAD THIS !^3 gents* colored seamless half 43 pieces of All-Silk India Silk, UOSE ' 12-^c per pair. In all colors, to close, at GENTS' SOLID - COLOR ALL - WOOL ______ ___. _____ <«~- -j.--. HALF DOSE, 25C per Yard. 25c per Pair. J^jjgg^Remnaiits and Short Lengths in all Departments at 50 per Cent Reduction. aP-**^ Parasols, Laces, Trimmings, GloVes, Handkerchiefs— all Marked Down. «=* OF course THERE are maxy BROKEN lines and odd lots, WHICH WILL BE MARKED AT SPECIAL LOW PRICES. NOTE. -KEEPERS OF HOTELS AND COUNTRY RESORTS will please bear iv mind that we guarantee the lowest prices for House-furnishing Goods. ISP" Mail orders promptly attended to. Goods forwarded C. 0. D. or on receipt of remittances by express or mail. Samples free on application. PHILIP KENNEDY 5 CO., Southwest Comer ot Ht and Fii Streets. Jy6 SuTb CURIOUS PROCESS OF CUTTING AN ORANGE SKIN. X(L*J'J& illustrate in figure 2 a number of (1 A I °is curious shapes into which the skin sl£li_^ of an orange can be carved after a particular tracing (figure 1) and then be spread out in its entirety without a break. The process Is as follows: An orange is selected that has as few flaws in the skin as possible. It should not be divided in the center into too large a number of parts; eight is a convenient number. The lines shown in figure 1 may be drawn on the skin with a pen aud ink and this will make the work of cutting easier. This done take a very sharp knife and incise the skin according to the marked . lines. In measure as the in cisions are made, raise the skin carefully, then detach it completely and spread it out m>on a board, and pin it thereto in order that It may dry. It is well to draw a few concentric circles upon the board and divide them into eight or sixteen radii, in order that the skin may be spread out in a very regular figure. Figure l gives the lines that produce the forms shown in figure 2. ■ The letters In the two figures correspond. A and B are quite simple forms. C forms a remarkable belt and the hall in the center of ii represents the proportion in size of the orange from which it was made. The three figures D, E and F are of remarkable deli- Diamonds and Rubles. Almost all diamonds come from the Cape, few from Brazil, and practically none from India. Among women diamonds and rubies are still the favorite precious stones, rubies more than diamonds. ° Just see the differ ence in price between diamonds and rubies. " Here is a ruby of four to five karats," my informer continued, holding it up, "the very perfection of color, a true pigeon's blood. _ It is marked 810,000. Now, it would take an extraordinary diamond of this size and shape to : be worth even $2500. ; In the last few years emeralds are becoming quite popular; we are * selling a > good many of them." • Diamond-cutting is still in its in fancy here, but in the course of time it will be a very large industry. <It is true that BaniS <■■; The patterns lo draw on an orange skin. .■':"■ - ■ ••• . ■ THE RESULTS OBTAINED^^ ,:,: : : ;" labor is , cheaper on the : other side of the Atlantic, but this is offset by America's im proved methods— by her labor-saving ma chinery and her splendid inventions.— Epoch. . -"__■■" ■-'■ •--■■■■-■:•■' :■:- ' Old and New Moons. A small farmer was speaking to me about the weather. - Ho - said we would probably have a change with the new moon. . I asked whether he thought the new moon had any Influence upon the ■ weather. **. " Well," he said, ."they say she has— particularly a new moon." and after a somewhat doubtful pause he added : * "Some says so, but other some says it's alters the same moon, and it does seem - queer there - should be so many new 'uns."— Notes and Quories. ■^rlr^-n-^-^^v-rt. PRY GOODS. ......._.. _ - - - rtnA . | IMPERATIVE Liquidation Sale ! The month of June closed one of the most successful months' business in the old-established house of KEANE BROS. This rcsnlt was attained through the medium of our IMPERATIVE LIQUIDATION ! And we propose maintaining the record for July by placing the bal- ance of our elegantly assorted stock at such prices as will effect quick returns. The present occasion is one to be taken advantage of by prudent and careful buyers, as the values we are offering are such as can only be made under such forced circumstances. * E 3 Lease and Fixtux-es for- Stile. Jky _■________________(____''__. Ifl. O. TO-BUST - - - T-FtXTS-T--!--!. 943,945,947,949,951 Market Street. ;.-, .3*6 1. TRADEMARK. TREMENDOUS SALE ....1N.... Ladles', Children's and Gents' HO S3 lERY! 600 dozen CHILDREN'S FAST BLACK COTTON RIBBED BOSS, si _i-5 top, 25c a p lir. 300 dozen LADIES' EAST BLACK COTTON HOSE at 25c a pair, worth 4Uc a pair. 300 dozen LADIES" FAST BLACK. COTTON HOSE 3 pair SI , worth 50c a pair. 500 dozen LADIES' FAST BLACK LISLE-THREAD HOSE, extra value, at 00c a pair, regular 76'- quality. 200 dozen LADIES' FANCY LISLE-THREAD HOSE at 800 a pair, former price 31 a pair. 100 dozen LADIES' FANCY LISLE-THREAD HOSE at St a pair, regular price $1 75, $'_! and $'_* 50 a pair. - - 100 dozen LADIES' BLACK PCRE SILK HOSE at __._. 45 a pair, good value at $3 50 a pair. s%sT~ Country orders, whether smalt or large, re- ceive promjrt attention. tiT Our Illustrated Catalogue mailed free to any part of the State on application. WM * mmmm wk wi % % \ -■&. •__, vl 125 to 131 Kearny Sires., And 209 Sutter Street. jas tf Sa CUSICK UNDER ARREST. Frauds Which Will Probably Land Him ia Prison. James J. Cusick, the very smart census enumerator, who filled uu his blanks with the names of base-ball players, has been caught at last. He was located in Santa Rosa on Friday and a little telegraph ing between Deputy Fields and Supervisor Lemmon of Santa Rosa secured his arrest. Yesterday Marshal Wood went to Santa Rosa and brought the culprit back. Cusick, who is a pattern-maker and lives at 11 Laurel place, had a census district that took in both sides of Market street, between Fourth and Fifth. Deputy Fields says that this too-sharp enumerator stuffed his returns with between 375 and 400 bogus names. He returned the whole Santa Rosa Base-ball Club as living at 1 Fifth street and George Van ilaltren, pitcher of the Brooklyn (S. V.) Base-ball Club, was re corded as living in a certain questionable house on Ellis street. The way some of the houses were stuffed was very amusing. At 863}_ Market street, where 87 people lodge, lie put down 170 names. No. 1 Fifth street, which houses 45 people, was accredited with CO. At 32, 34 and 36 Fourth street, where 00 people lodge, lie brought the number of names up to an even 100. At 875% Market street he created 50 people out of 20, and at 875 Market street he made 85 names grow into 120. In a house on Jessie street, inhabited only by a man and his wife, he put 20 names, and two bouses on Ellis street, which were not oc cupied at all, he peopled with families of 10 each. The enumerator detailed to recauvass the district has had considerable trouble with the people there, who object to being both ered so many .tin-res, and at one house in the district a woman abused him roundly, lie waited until her wrath subsided and then taking out the bin ik made out by Cusick said: "I see, madam, that your husband has been recorded as so and so. Is that right?" " Yes." "And yours is so and so?" "Yes." "How long have you been married?" " One year." "Are you sure?" - - . "Certainly I am sure. What do you mean by—" "Oh, nothing; only I see that he has re corded you as having five children." Cusick will have a hard time of It. The evidence against him Is said to be absolute and conclusive. The maximum punish ment is a 55000 fine and two years' impris onment. THE CALL, has the largest circulation among -Urailles. Advertisers " appreciate this fact. Bow li'iir. Balls Are Hade. Automatic machines for making base halls have been so successfully contrived that their introduction |is likely to consti tute a practical industry. Each machine winds two balls at one time, in the follow ing way: ■ A little para-rubber ball, weighing three quarters of an ounce, around which ono turn has been made with the end of a skein of an old-fashioned gray slocking yarn, is slipped into the machine, then another, after which the boy in charge touches a lever, the machine starts and the winding begins. The rubber ball is thus hidden in a few seconds, and in its place appears a little gray yarn ball that rapidly grows larger ana larger. __>tjHiMpiiiil|iii tjii_ _* _i_p-y-. When it appears to be about half the size ot tbe regulation base-ball there is a click, the machine stops, yarn is cut, the boy picks out the ball and tosses it into the basket. When this basket Is full it is passed along to another boy, who runs a- similar machine, where a ■ hall-ounce layer of worsted yarn is put on. • _ The next machine adds a layer of strong white cotton thread; a coating of rubber cement is . next applied, and * a half-ounce layer of the very best line * worsted com pletes i the ball, with the , exception of the cover.— E. Y. Commercial Advertiser. -'.*• *.>_,■.• want ads. In THE CALL last Week. It Is the only want medium. A jury tbat tried tlie case ot Bean, tbe alleged gold-crick swindler, at Santa Kosa, tailed to ague on Friday, and were discharged. PAGES 9 to 12. HODGE'S Cloak and Suit House, 8, 10, 12 AND 14 FIFTH STREET. WE ARE NOW OFFERING THE BALANCE OF "» our Spring and Summer Goods at exceptionally low rates. Our Dressmaking Department was never more complete than at present. We are prepared to make up .Ladies' own material at two days* notice, and perfect fit guaranteed at our usual reasonably rates. We bave a very Handsome line of Sateen Suits, ready m.de; also, ail wool aud silk and wool blouses, at from 50c up. Russian Jackets at from $2 50 up; and would call particular attention to our handsome Kersey Bla- zers, handsomely trimmed with silk cord and Lined wltb rhadames, reduced from $I*J to $10; also, a very pretty line of Ladles' and Misses' Lawn Tennis Suits, In shrunken flannels In accordion waist and Sleeves, and full skirts from $7 50 up. These gar- ments we also make to order. Do not Tail to see our cheap Jerseys and extra long Waist Corset* HODOES'S Cloak and Suit Honse. 8 TO 14 FIFTH STREET, OPP. .LINCOLN SCHOOL, San Francisco, Cal. Telephone 3050. au 25 SnTnTh tf WOOD AND COAL BUSINESS FOR SALE. THE PENNSYLVANIA WOOD AND COAT. yard: established 1850 and doing a successful business ever since. This Is a rare opportunity to any one wishing to engage fa the coal trade, as tbo yard Is large, with platform scale and every con- venience for doing an eitftslve business. For further particulars inquire on the premises, 431 Union st., bet. Dupont aud Kearny. Je*_!*_! SuMo lm JOHN McKEW. COMMERCIAL RECORD. Saturday Eves July 5. SUMMARY OF -THE MARKETS. Hardly any trade yesterday. Potatoes declined. Onions unchanged. A little Game sold. . Peaches lower. Grapes neglected. Cherries and Currants almost gone. The summer Vegetables declined. Slii_.i.fn_r "Notes, The steamer Humboldt sails to-day for Humboldt hay. The Santa Cruz falls due from the southern coast, the Coos Bay from Little River, tbe Walla Walla from Victoria and Puget Sound, tne Corona and North Fork from Humboldt Bay, the AJax from Coos Bay, the Sip from the Salinas River and the Newport from Eel River. Tomorrow tbe State of California sails for Port land, the Pomona for San Dle.ro. the Coos Bay for Little River and the Crescent City for Crescent City. The Los Angeles falls due from San Pedro. The Australia falls due from Honolulu Friday. The British ship Lennle Burrill, I'JSS tons, loads Lumber on the Sound for Melbourne. 72s Od, bark cntine Robert Sudden, 585 tons, same voyage, 67a (id; Chilean bark Mariana, 705 tons, Lumber on the Sound for Valparaiso; Nicaragnan bark Bund-deer, 9-.1 tons, Coal at Departure Bay for this port. .Produce Market. Note— only business yesterday was in perish, able goods and quotations for all other lines are ac cordingly omitted. _____ POTATOES-Continue to decline. New Potatoes, 76c-t>sl in sacks and * 1 _5> 1 -5 "_* ctl In boxes. lONS— Showed nu marked change yesterday ■*_ ' $I@l 15 for Reds and fl _*.\__l 40 for Sllverskins. liAME— A few Doves came In yesterday and brought 75@3Uc *_. dozen. Venison sold at 1 -'_ 15c "_- ». . FKE3U FRUITS— MeIons continue to bring wide different prices, owing to the lack of uniformity ia the packages. Grapes are neglected, being soar and green. Ki^s are lower. Pei«hes continue to decline under large receipts. Berries of all kinds are firmer. Black Cherries have disappeared and only a few red and white ones are seen. Receipts or Currants are almost too small to mention. Apricots continue in good supply. Plums go slowly as a rule. Grapes. (I "ft box: Cantaloupes. $.( 50@5 II crate: \*> «t_r oielons, 1 3_H *_•* dozen; Black Figs, 5Uc tor single layer and 76'a.iiOc for double-layer botes; Smyrna Figs. 25@50i_; White Figs, 25@50c fbi: Plums, Kg) 2c if. lb; Peach Pltinio, if Kail 15 *(. box: Currant?, $1 ..'.':.> 60 » chest; Raspberries, s('(-t9; Black berries. $4(gj" : Apricots. 40@70c *# box and 25(_r)50c ft basket; Peaches, : . .--:-7 -• . ft box tor Vacaville and ;.*._t.;oc j". basket for River: Green Apples. 260 60c V small and 75«a$l "ft large box and MMM *_* basket; Red Apples, 76c@(l 25 for large and 50 i__7sc for small boxes and 4c'oßOc ft basket: Green Pears. oOl^Hoc ft box and 50c ft basket: Bartlett Pears, 1 1 501*_2 ft box: Cherries, 50075 eft box for sour red, and 04)070*3 for Royal Anne: Strawberries, fs<_)7 **_. chest for large Berries and **«<_ 12 for Longworths. VKGEiABI.ES-Green Corn, Cucumbers, Tom* toes and Squash were all lower yesterday. Aspara gus and Rhubarb are almost gone. Beans are very dull. Egg Plant, 10012 c _. lb: Green Okra. l(r: Green Peppers, Solsc *"» lb: Tomatoes, 6U@.oc ***« box for Vacaville ami ©I 50 for River; Green Corn, 6U-__.Ji 1 «* sack for common, 12 ' *_*__) 15c fl dozen for first quality and lS^22'^c $ dozen Tor Bay: Summer Squash. 200. ft box for Winters and 250 6UC for Alameda; Wax Beans. '_.@3c ft lb; Fountain Beans, 2c; String Beans, 102 c; Cucumbers, 250 30c ft box for ordinary ana 50c for Bay; Aspara gus. »1 50@2 60 ft box: Rhubarb, 60076 c V box: Green Peas, *1 5(>0l 75 *_* sack; dry Peppers, 12c: Cabbages, $1 V ctl; Feed carrots, 60®65c: Turnip*. 76c@*l: Beets, *1; Parsnips, I°. -*-"M 60 II cUt Game, 405 eft ID. . ■■-.■• RECEIPT*-* Of* PItOOCtC ~ " E .Tvati- r. Jajj* . Flour, qr sks 3,_tO*_rMldd i ,*__:«, s*s .._ 11l Wheat, ctls 6.623 Hay. ion-... .„.„ ' *7* Barley, ctls 2,478 Wool *z-n 1H Potatoes, sks 3.127 QulCal-'tK.-.S-is - • SJ Onions, ma 21-ilHld.-. ni1,: ........ 7.7 _________________=_______=-__=-__---=___---- ~ THE WEEKLY CALL contain, serial and complete stories, miscel- laneous articles by the best /'writers, special articles by home authors; the news of the coast; the news of the world and all that serves to make m complete family journal, free from objection. $1 25 a year j postpaid.