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The morning call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1878-1895, July 06, 1890, Image 9

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SUNDAY EDITION.
A TALK ABOUT
HARD MONEY.
Senator Teller Explains Some of
the Technicalities of the
Silver Problem.
PRIMARY PRINCIPLES INVOLVED.
Bimetallism, Monometallism and the
Ratio Between Gold and Silver.
A Brief Review of Silver Legisla
rm tion.
(SWENATE CHAMBER, July 1, !1890.
sj~*^ Since the present agitation of the
\2_iJ_' silver question, so called, began in
Congress I have received many inquiries
which convince me that while there is a
general desire among the people for in
formation on the subject and a general feel
ing of friendliness toward the proposed re
>!nrm, ninny are ignorant not only of the
primary principles involved, but are even
uninformed as to the meaning of the terms
employed in speaking on the subject. It
bas been suggested to me that a plain defini
tion of some of the terms most frequently
used in the discussion of the questiou of
bimetallism, and a brief statement as to
ihe elementary principles involved would
be of service to a large proportion of the
,^
Senator JTenrv 2V. Teller.
American public, and while doubting my
ability to throw the needed light upon the
subject. I have consented to make the
attempt, premising that this article is for
the lay reader alone and not for those who
have made a study of the subject and are
familiar with the terms employed in the
discussion of it.
People often ask what is bimetallism,
what is monometallism, and what is meaut
by the ratio between gold and silver.
The money metals now recognized are
gold and silver. Formerly co pper was re
garded as a money metal and used for small
coins, and while it is still used for small
coins, it is no longer regarded as a money
metal. Those who think both gold and
silver should be used as money are called
bimetallisms, or two-metallists. Those
who think but one of the money metals
ought to be employed are called mono
nietallists, or otie-metallists. Those who
think gold alone should be used as the legal
tender money of tbe country are called gold
.monometallists, and those who desire to
use silver only are called silver mono
metal lists.
The gold monometallic countries make
gold legal tender for the payment of all
debts, while silver is used only as a sub
sidiary coin. Silver monometallic coun
tries make silver the only legal tender.
Great Britain since 1810 has been & gold
monometallic country, silver being used
for small money and as a legal tender to the
amount of 510, or £2,
India is a silver monometallic country,
gold being an article of merchandise and
not a legal tender.
France is a double standard or b' metallic
country and has gold and silver in about
equal quantities, havineIS'JOO.OCO.OOOof gold,
while Great Britain has only 50.",! 000.
Great Britain has £100,000,000 of silver, and
France has between 8700,000.000 and SBOO,
--000,000, and some claim even more than
that amount.
'1 be population of Great Britain is 35,241,
--482. Frame has a population of 38,218,803.
The United States has always been a
double standard country, except during the
period between February 12, 1873, and Feb
ruary 28, 1878. The United States has about
$684,000,000 of gold and about $435,000,000
of silver.
About one hundred and thirty to one hun
dred and lorty millions of the people of the
globe are inhabitants of gold monometallic
countries, and the rest 1 1 the world either
belong to the silver monometallic countries
or to bimetallic countries. So it will be
observed that about nine-tenths of the pop
ulation of the world that use money use
silver, or silver and gold as legal tender.
Many of even tbe gold monometallic
countries must use silver as subsidiary
money, cold not being fit to make small
(.-"ins of, line half dollars, quarters and
dimes.
liy ratio between gold and silver is meant
the relative value that one kind of metal
bears to the other. When wo say the ratio
between gold and silver is as one to fifteen
and one-half, we iiiecn that fifteen and one
half ounces of coined silver will exchange
for one ouuee of coined gold. This relative
proportion or ratio was first fixed by the
merchants and traders, and was afterward
established by law. The first accounts of
the fixing of the ratio are somewhat con
fused. But we know that the ratio was
fixed in England as early as 1257, and at
different times later by royal proclama
tion, and in France in 1785 and 1803. The
ratio fixed in France in 1785 and 1803 was
that of one to fifteen and one-half, and this
has been called the French ratio. ' It was
the prevailing ratio of Europe for legal-ten
der silver, but not for subsidiary silver.
For this the ratio has been less, as low as
one to thirteen and one to fourteen, and in
some countries even still less. India has a
large amount of silver, and its ratio there
is fifteen to cue.
The ratio In this country was first fixed
at 1 to 15, and that being too low, was an
overvaluation of silver and an undervalu
ation of gold. Consequently the gold went
to the countries where it was valued mere
highly when compared with silver, and we
were, in fact, on a silver basis, while, ac
cording to the law, we employed the double
standard. In 1837 we changed our ratio to
Ito 16, or, to be exact, to 1 to 15.98. Then
we undervalued sliver and overvalued
gold, and the silver went where it was more
valuable, and gold was the only metallic
money we bad left in circulation except
foreign silver coins, which continued to
circulate.
It is supposed that the amount of gold
and silver in the world in use as money is
about equal and the amount has been vari
ously estimated. The exact amount Is not
material, for, with both metals in use as
money, it has been found necessary to re
sort to paper because of the lack of gold
and silver to meet the demands for money,
and the paper money in the world at large
now exceeds the amount of either gold or
silver.
lt Is now proposed by the geld monomet
allists to discard silver except for minor
coin or subsidiary money, ana to do the busi
ness of the world with gold alone. The
history of this movement is both interest
ing and instructive.
it was proposed in 1656 and 1857, when
the production of gold from California and
Australia was nearly 8200,000,000 per an
num, and silver only about one-fourth that
amount, to demonetize gold, aud Germany
did demonetize gold.
In 1867 a conference of the representa
tives of various nations met in Paris aud
proposed to make gold the sole standard
and to demonetize silver. A bill was in
troduced into the Senate of the United
States in 1868 for the purpose of demone
tizing silver. A favorable report was made
by Hon. John Sherman of Ohio, from the
Committee on Finance, and Mr. Morgau| of
New York, made an adverse report for
the minority of the committee. No action
was taken on the bill beyond what I have
stated. In 1871 Germany took the first
decisive step and demonetized silver hnd
lured gold the sole standard, providing
that silver should be used only for minor
coin,
li.i 1872 a bill was introduced in the House
of Representatives of the United States to
amend the coinage acts of the United States.
It passed both houses and became a law by
the approval of President Grant on Febru
ary 12, 1873. By this bill the yum doll whs
made the unit of value and the legal-tender
silver dollar disappeared from among the
coins of the country. This feature of the bill
does not appear to have attracted the atten
tion of the members of either House of
Congress, and General Grant did not know
until some time after the approval of the
act that silver had been demonetized in this
country by tbat act. It lias been claimed
that this demonetization was in the interest
of the creditor class, and was secretly done.
Whether it was the work of the creditor
class or not it is quite certain that it has
resulted greatly to the benefit of that class
by reducing the amount of money in circu
lation and increasing its purchasing power.
Norway, Sweden, Denmark and some
other countries followed our example of
demonetization, and the Latin Union first
limited the coinage of silver, and when the
silver from Germany was thrown freely on
the market, closed the doors of its mints
against silver. So Germany, France, Italy,
the Scandinavian countries and the United
States refused to mint silver; Germany
threw on the market all the silver she could
spare, the United States sent all its pro
duction, fully one-third of the world's
product, to Europe to be used to breatt
down the market price of silver, and thus
discourage its use and increase the demand
for gold. Germany, the Scandinavian coun
tries, the United States and Italy all he
came bidders for gold, and the price went
up when measured uot only by silver, but
by all products aud commodities. Ger
many, the United States, Italy and other
countries called for aud received vast sums
of gold to take the place in the United
States and Italy of paper money, and in
Germany of silver. France to pay her Ger
man indemnity had parted with a great part
of her gold, and was also a bidder for gold
to make good oilier losses. Thus the prin
cipal financial countries of the world were
buying gold and discarding silver, and sil
ver ceased to sustain the relation to gold
that it had theretofore sustained; but it did
and still does maintain its relative position
to all other things that it did before 1873.
In February, 1878, the Congress of the
United Siates passed a law restoring the
silver dollar to the circulation of the coun
try by the purchase and coinage of 82,000,
--000 worth of silver each mouth. This bill
was vetoed by President Hayes and passed
over his veto on the iSth of February of
that year. Under that act, whicli is
still in operation, there had been coined,
up to the 10th of the present mouth,
8304,364,_. , ('i6. Of this amount thero was at
that date in circulation 56,683,415 silver dol
lars, while the silver certificates issued on
silver dollars held in the Treasury for the
redemption of the certificates amounted to
$293,513,045, making a total of silver dollars
and certificates In circulation doiu__ money
duty of 8350,196,460. This leaves a balance
of silver certificates and silver coin in the
Treasury of only 514,107,806.
The act of February _"**>, 1878, has been
known as the Bland-Allison bill. This bill
met with the most determined opposition
from the President and .lie Secretary of the
Treasury, bankers, chambers of commerce,
boards o't trade and what is known as the
capitalistic class of the country, all of whom
prophesied disaster to the business of the
country if it became a law, because ot the
inflation which they claimed would be the
result of coining so much silver aud be
cause, as they declared, gold would be
driven out of the country. The Secretary
of the Treasury declared that the coinage
of 50,000,000 of silver dollars would drive
all oi the gold out of the country. Sena
tors and members opposed to the bill joined
in these prophecies of evil. We have coined
more than seven times $50,000,000 and yet
the country is not on a silver basis. Wo
have now mote than four times as much
gold iv the country as we had in 1878.
The demonetization of silver was brought
about by the creditor class, the only class
that could be benefited by the destruction
of one-half of the money of the world, for
it is a well-established principle influence
that the number of units of uiouey deter
mine its value. That is, if there are but
few dollars iv a country, each individual
dollar will buy more thau it would if there
were many dollars.
The demonetization of silver in Germany
and the United Mates induced other na
tions to demonetize silver. Thus the de
mand for silver was lessened and the de
mand for gold increased, tor when a dollar
of silver was prevented from doing money
duty anew gold dollar had to be found or
the gold doliat in existence bad to Jo in
creased money duty. The effect of this
was to appreciate gold, or, in other
words, reduce the prices of all commodi
ties measured in gold. In a short time
told bullion would nut exchange for silver
bullion on the same terms as formerly, and
the same was true of wheat, corn, cotton
aud all other products. Then the gold
nionometaliists insisted that silver had
fallen, when as a matter of fact it was gold
that had risen. Silver,* whether considered
as bullion or as coined into dollars, has
appreciated in the last seventeen years.
It will in either form exchange for
more commodities of all kinds than it would
then, In countries using silver this is
plainly seen by the slight fall in prices.
Gold has anprpciated in a greater degree
than silver, not because of its especial fit
ness for money, but because of its scarcity. ;
Ido not mean that there is any less gold
than formerly, but the same amount of
gold or nearly the same amount is required
to do nearly double the wort"-" it
formerly did. In other words, the work
formerly performed by silver and cold is
now largely dune by gold alone. Let us
illustrate: Suppose wheat and corn fur
nished the required amount of grain for
man's use, and by some means all the corn
should be destroyed. Then wheat alone
would not suffice and wheat would be ap
preciated because of the demand for it.
The principal demand for gold is for use as
money; if that demand is increased, gold
will appreciate. This demand was increased
just to the extent that the use of silver
diminished.
So much as to the facts. New, a word in
argument. What could the producing
classes gain by the demonetization of sil
ver? What advantage could it bj to the
people engaged in trade or agriculture, or
in production of any kind, to do the busi
ness of the world with a half of the me
tallic money that had becu heretofore in
use? Silver had not depreciated. Even when
measured by gold it had proved itself a
stable metal for thousands of years, and had
been the standard by which gold had been
measured. It was the favorite money of
the people of the world, lt was the first
metallic money used by man, aud it was
the only money metal that promised to be
produced in sufficient quantities to keep
pace with the world's demands for metallic
money. The production of gold was failing
off each year, and it was quite evident that
no great reliance could he placed on gold as
a money metal, for the best-informed peo
ple on that subject have declared that its
production was not sufficient, after deduct
ing the amount required for use in the arts
and the loss by wear and waste, to main
tain the present stock of gold in the world.
Hence we must admit that the demonetiza
tion of silver was either a great blunder or
a great crime.
All who have examined tlie effects of the
demonetization by Germany and the United
States in the hist instance and other na
tions later must, and 1 believe do, admit
that great evils have resulted therefrom.
No one has yet been able to show that it
has been of any advantage to any class save
the creditor class.
The demonetization of silver has increased
the purchasing power of gold so that the
same amount of gold will now command
much more labor and more commodities of
all kinds than it would in 1871 or prior there
to. The price of labor is less and all the pro
ducts of labor bring a lower price. Land is
not worth so much. Machinery and build
ings used for the production of com
modities are less valuable. It requires
more labor, more effort, more sacrifice for
the debtor to procure the means to pay his
debts than it did before the demonetization
of silver. It is pretty generally conceded
that the fall in prices is not far from 83
per cent. Oil many articles it is much
greater than that. This, then, is equiva
lent to an addition of 33 per ceut to
all the debts, In other words, the cred
itor will get 83 per cent more
of commodities if be is paid in commodities,
and if paid in money the money he receives
will purchase 33 per cent more, while the
debtor must make an effort 33 per cent
greater than he otherwise would to pay his
debts. This, then, is equivalent to the ad
dition of 33 percent to all the debts In the
world, for tins decline in prices is not con
fined to this country.
If, as all admit, silver is to be used as
money in the future, why not go resolutely
to work to put it back in its old condition,
as the equal of gold at its proper ratio?
There is no danger of un influx of sil
ver from India and China, for those
countries do not have a sufficient
amount for their own use. India with
250,000,000 people, according to the report
of the United States Treasury Department,
has little more silver than France, with
about one-eighth of the population. Not a
dollar of silver can be shipped from Europe
to the United States and coined at our ratio
but that there will be a loss of from 3to 7
per ceut.
II the mints of the world were opened to
the unlimited coinage of silver the demand
for silver would be greater thau ever be
fore.
The great mass of silver now in use as
money is coined at the ratio of fifteen and
one-half to one, and if we agree to that
ratio and recoin our silver now' in
the country it will be appreciated not
less than 3 per cent, and our pro
duction, now about 50,000.000 ounces,
will not only be appreciated the three
per cent difference in our ratio and the
European ratio, but will gain the differ
ence . between the mint value and the
present market value, and the gain will
amount to not . less than $12,500,000 per
annum. ' This amount will be i.dded to
the wealth of the country. It will not go
into the pockets of the silver miners
as claimed, but will, because of the in
creased price of all pioducts, increase the
cost of mining silver and so be distributed
through all the agencies ol production
throughout the country. ii. m. tklleis.
Copyrighted, USO.
THE MORNING CALL, SAN FRANCISCO, : SUNDAY, JULY 6, 1890-FQURTEEN PAGES.
MOUNT SHASTA
AND VICINITY.
Sketches of Some Conspicuous
Landmarks.
The Hardship of Being- lost in the Mountains.
Castle Lake a Snow-Field-Free Soda
Water and Trout-Fishing. I
"Written for The Sunday Call.
Y£T**°o, for the mountains! Craggy peaks,
I li dashing streams of ice-cold water
l_*fl*3 fresh from the fountain's head,
rarefied air,. pine forests giving forth their
balsamic odors, enchanting views, God's
1 t
MOUNT SHASTA, ALTITUDE HMO FEET.
chosen country! These were the thoughts
which passed in rapid procession as I sat
beneath the pines over on the hills
near the headwaters of the Sacramento
River and listened to the soughing of the
wind through the tall trees. It was only a
few minutes past 4 o'clock in the morning,
nnd the sun was steadily climbing over
Mount Shasta's jagged peak, flooding Straw
berry Valley with brightness and chasing
the shadows on the Scott Mountains out of
existence.
My companion and I had slept out on the
mountain's side with nothing but a camp
fire to keep off the cold —no blan
kets, no overcoats, nothing but a silk
handkerchief apiece to tie about our necks—
ami we were not there as a matter of choice,
and consequently it would hardly seem pos
sible that either of us was iv a frame of
mind to enjoy the surroundings; but not
withstanding the hardships of our trip
there was an enchantment about the sun-
SLACK BUTTE, ALTITUDE 0000 FEET.
rise that held us spell-bound. Above all -
Mount Shasta loomed in all Its • d-r.z_.Knf,
whiteness, the snow being deeper than at
any time within the memory of the oldest
inhabitant of the country, even cover
ing the sharp, rocky ridges, while
the snow-fields, which usually at this
season are concave, now are heaped up, so
as to be noticeable from a longdistance. A
gentleman stopping at Sisson, who is fond
of mountain-climbing, and is familiar with
the contour of the country above Shasta
attempted, unaccompanied, to make the
summit a few days ago. He reached the
"Thumb," an altitude of 13,000 feet, which
is conspicuous in the picture on the ridge
below and to the right of the main peak,
and then ho thought best to return, and as
a consequence of his undertaking we wero
deprived of his guidance wil. la lie rested in
a dark room suffering snow-blindness.
We had an appointment with him to visit
Castle Lake, over the other side of Mount
llilliii^ll
CA'-TLE -R&C.-S, ALTITUUE 6600 J-EET.
Bradley, southwest from Sisson, and as ho
was unable to go with us, we went alone,
leaving town between 1 and 2 o'clock In the
afternoon. About 5 o'clock we struck th»
snow-banks on Mount Bradley — in fact all
the mountains which form tho outskirts
of Strawberry Valley are snowclad— over
which we climbed, and descended into
the canyon below the lake, but there every
thing was covered with a mantle of white,
in several places the snow being so deep
that it formed natural bridges across Castle
Creek, over which we walked, which was a
thrilling experience for novices who were
LAST OF NAPOLEON'S GRAND AKIIY.
Tho Oldeat Living Kelic on His -Tourney
Tlirouc!. Itnly.
The Italian papers report tho recent ar
rival at the railroad station at Baretto, near
Heggio, Central Italy, of a strange-looking
personage that was the object of considera
ble curiosity. lie was a ta'l and noble-look
ing old man, with a long white beard, who
presented to the Mayor a feuille de route,
signed by Baron Marocclietti, the Italian
Embassador at St. Petersburg, inviting the
Italian authorities to take good care of the
bearer, Michel Linovitchof Orenburg, Rus-
sia.
In reality this mysterious old man was
an Italian named Linn, born at Baretto 10".
yours ago, and perhaps the last living relic
of the Grande Armee of 1812. Belonging to
a family of fanners, Lino formed part of
the conscription of the kingdom of Italy in
1805, aid was enrolled in the Imperial
Guard. With his regiment he went through
the campaign of 1806 and 1807 in Prussia,
and fought at Jena and at Frledland. Later
ou he was sent with his battalion to D.il
niatin, and tbence to Spain with the divis
ion of General Lecchi, where lie passed two
years of continual fighting. Wounded in
an assault he returned to his native coun
try, where he remained for two years, work
ing on his father's farm. ''-Vi 1
On the outbreak of the terrible storm,
which was destined 'to carry off to Russia
the flower of the Franco-Italian youth.
Napoleon called under his victorious eagles
his old soldiers. Lino rejoined the service as a
sergeant of the Grenadier Guards, and with
the rest of the cis-Alpine army, under the
command of Eugene' Beaiilinrnais, formed
part of the grande armee. He fought against
the Russians at Smolensk and at Moskova,
where he lifted from the field of battle the
mortally wounded General Plangonne.
After that he entered Moscow with Napo
leon, and finally in the bloody battle of the
24th of October, while fighting under the
orders of General Pino, he was taken pris
oner, after having been severely wounded
by the Cossacks of Platow. - Transported
with a , large convoy •of : French pris
oners to t Orenburg, -he was sent with
a few of • his comrades to • a dis
tant village situated at the foot of the Cau
casus," where, although kindly 'treated by
the Russians, he had to suffer cruel priva
tions during ten years. Tired at last of
such a miserable existence, he asked and
obtained : permission to : join : the Russian
unaccustomed to such exploits.. Following
the water-course for a time in hope of find
ing a cabin where we had been tola we
could get shelter for the night, the day
waned, and fearing we would meet
with disappointment and not desir
ing to have darkness - overtake us
while in the snow-region we beat a hasty
retreat. Castle Lake was covered with
snow and not a trace of it was discernible,
although we were near it; and so we were
on our return when darkness came on just
as we reached the timbered ridge. To add
to the interest of our predicament the
clouds began to gather, and at 9 o'clock the
last star went out and we were at a loss to
know whether we were going north or
south. So we floundered about among the
shrubbery, now finding a trail and now
losing it, until 1 o'clock found us thoroughly
at a loss as to where we were, and, com
pletely exhausted with tramping, we built a
fire and lay down to— well, not pleasant
dreams. While one side was warmed by
the fire, the other was freezing; and then
we would awake and turn over and
thaw out our fronts while our backs
would suffer a sharp reduction of
temperature. But daylight- came with
out our having experienced a rain
storm, the clouds had dispersed them-
selves and the morning broke clear
and calm, and within a short time we were
crossing the Sacramento Kiver on a log
foot-bridge and rapidly nearing home and
friends, none the worse for our night's
outing.
lt makes but little difference where one
stops after reaching Delta, in Shasta
County. There is much to interest the
sightseer or health-seeker. The altitude is
sufficient to produce a complete change in
the atmosphere from that experienced in
the lower country, and even when the mer
cury climbs up to ninety decrees or higher
there is a freshness which gives new life to
the exhausted vitality of the inhabitant of
the bay or coast counties. All along the
line ot the railroad accommodations may
be obtained at reasonable rates, and
whether it be to take the waters of the
soda springs or view the scenery, no one
can seek the mountains hereabouts without
getting full value for the money expended.
At Castle Crag a magnificent view of
Castle Rocks, with Giant's Dome reaching
to a height of 4000 feet above the valley,
which has an altitude of 2000 feet, may be
had, as shown in the accompanying sketch.
. In San Francisco »li«n one is -pen pass
ing along the street with a demijohn it is'
an indication that some of California's
vintage is going home to cheer the family,
but up here in the neighborhood of the
soda springs it signifies quite another mo
tive. In fact, many travelers who are post
ed provide themselves with fruit-jars, or
other tight vessel to take home with them
the water from the springs, and when the
train stops at Shasta Soda Springs, at
Mo.-sbrae Falls, on the banks of the Sacr.i
mento River (trains each way stop five
minutes), there is a hurrying and scurrying
of passengers and train-hands to drink and
fill their bottles and demijohns. Every
one participates in the scramble, for the
water is to be had without limit aud witu-
out price.
The streams are all booming— running
bank-full, and but few fish are being caught
by the uninitiated. A favorite way with
some sportsmen of ohtaiuing a string of
trout is to bribe one of the native Indians
with a silver dollar to go out and catch
some for him, while the "fisherman" re
clines beneath the sheltering brauches of a
tree and smokes the pipe of pence, lt is said
an Indian will catch fish where a white man
will declare a trout never ran. As I never
lie I never fish, and the statement is made
from hearsay. The weather lias been
warm and pleasant all this mouth, and
ever since the schools closed for the sum
mer vacation peoplu have been dropping off
all along the road above Delta, and all
seem to be enjoying the change of scene
and climate. josiaii liuutubabt.
assort, June, 1..11.
army as a private soldier. In this capacity
he passed through the campaign of the Cau
casus iv 1829.
At the close of the war he obtained as
the reward of his services a little piece of
ground, which he cultivated. When he was
45 years old he married a young Polish girl
named Nerawskn, who died in 1855. The
three sons that he had by this woman also
died, leaving the old soldier alone in the
world. Then Lino returned to Orenburg,
where the people Russianized his name
into Linnvitcli. lie lived there in compara
tive comfort for many years. Gifted with
an extraordinary energy of mind and body
he was still strong enough to catch
nostalgia. When mora than a hundred
years old the old veteran at last became
homesick, after seventy-eight years of exile,
He resolved at all hazards to return to his
native land, and there pass the remainder
of his eventful career. Through the influ
ence of the Italian Embassador at St. Pe
tersburg he was sent home to Italy at the
expense of the Italian Government Lino
is now in an asylum at Keggio, where lie is
cared for with , particular attention. .As
he was born in 1785 lie is now 105 years
old, the survivor of a hundred battles, and
probably the last of the heroes who fought
at Jena, f'riedland and Borodino. — Chicago
Herald. k ■? .-".-■.-■:
Facial Oil IleserTnlr.
In a cutler's store nn Charles street I saw
a neat way of getting over a difficulty. A
lady was in pricing* some scissors. She ex
amined several pairs, but each one was too
hard : in action to suit her; they did not
move freely enough. There was one set
she had taken an especial fancy for, but,
like the others, the two sides ground one
against the other, making it difficult to
move them as she wished. The dealer
picked 'them up, rubbed his linger near
where the two blades • joined, and said:
"Why these seem free enough." They
were, yet only a moment before they had
been as stiff as possible. ' How did this
happen? When the purchaser left the
store 1 ' inquired ■ the * wherefore and the
dealer answered: ; "
"Did you notice me rub my nose?"
"Not particularly." *•.;..
"Well, 1 did, and that is the secret of the
shears > operating easily. Whore the nose
forms an indention near the cheek a small
quantity of oily matter collects on every
person's I face. - I < rubbed .. my ' little finger
therein ' and oiled them so ' they now l run
smoothly." '"Another trick in trade.—Balti
more Free Press.;^^Mfe;; : .: : ;?Mm^
* ' DRY GOODS. I
KENNEDYS
1 1 OUR GREAT [j "
A Great ftri7fiP catp* Store
Success ! v?,™u ?,™ Q *» h Crowded!
II NOW ON! II
The announcement last week of our immense purchase and sale of Messrs.
Rosenbaum & Co.'s (retiring from business) stock (from auction), together with
onr GREAT MARK-DOWN STOCK INVENTORY SALE, has caused quite a sen-
satiou and brought crowds of eager buyers to our store, in fact a "rnsh" all the
week. Although the amount of sales has been very large, it is scarcely percep-
tible in the vast purchase made, combined with our regular unusual large stock.
We wish to prolong the excitement and challenge any house to approximate the
yalues we offer.
Just Peruse Some of Our Prices !
Colored Dress Goods! M Dress Goods!
4T rt+e WOOLEN COLORED DRESS 1500 yards SATIN FINISHED DRAPER-
JUUtO GOODS, fully 38 inches wide, lES, new designs,
Regular 50-cent goods, comprising g c _ e| . Yard
MIXED ENGLISH MOHAIRS, __ ' ______ ■„.._ ,1_ . „ "
CHECK CHEVIOTS 3000 yards BEIGE CIIALLIES, in pretty
■_.-ii_.t NORMANDY SUITINGS. figures ' 5c per Yard.
NORMANDY SUITINGS. 5c per Yard.
BRADFORD FANCIES, 2230 yards SCOTCH GINGHAMS,
try trs — all at— B'ic per Yard.
'* i^*- >^ s JtO&Jr ac £tX CS.- 140 p ._ c( , PEENCH SATINES, latest nov-
elties, to close, at
80 Imported Suits, to Close Oat, $5 Each. 25c per Yard.
73 pieces 40-INCH ALL-WOOL TECUM- •»•»-• -_- ~g-s -a-* _
SEU SUITINGS at HOSIERY !
50c per Yard.
Really good value for 73c. 45 dozen LADIES' FAST BLACK COT-
-12 c per Pair.
Black Coods ! 5 ' DARK kolid cot
3 COOD VALUES. 15c per Pair.
.- . _„_,,-,_,-•_,-'_.•_,_. .280 dozen LADIES' FANCY STRIPED
25 pieces All- Wool Serge at 35 c per yard. hose, worm soc, at
31 pieces All-Wool Silk-Finish English _ . w 15c per Pair.
/„„,,„, ._„ „.._„-j ° 180 doz. MISSES' FAST BLACK RIBBED
Cashmere at 50c per yard. hose,
23 pes. 46-Inch All-Wool Henrietta Cloth, „■ I l 2/ ° c per Pair-
ii. km ne ... Im s- / ' 230 dozen CHILDREN'S FAST BLACK
tee $1 25 quality, at 75c per yard, derby ribbed hose, sizes sto 10
* 1 ji* uu r j good value for 35c, at
25c per Pair.
HEAD THIS !^3 gents* colored seamless half
43 pieces of All-Silk India Silk, UOSE ' 12-^c per pair.
In all colors, to close, at GENTS' SOLID - COLOR ALL - WOOL
______ ___. _____ <«~- -j.--. HALF DOSE,
25C per Yard. 25c per Pair.
J^jjgg^Remnaiits and Short Lengths in all Departments at 50 per Cent Reduction.
aP-**^ Parasols, Laces, Trimmings, GloVes, Handkerchiefs— all Marked Down.
«=* OF course THERE are maxy BROKEN lines and odd lots,
WHICH WILL BE MARKED AT SPECIAL LOW PRICES.
NOTE. -KEEPERS OF HOTELS AND COUNTRY RESORTS will please
bear iv mind that we guarantee the lowest prices for House-furnishing Goods.
ISP" Mail orders promptly attended to. Goods forwarded C. 0. D. or on receipt
of remittances by express or mail. Samples free on application.
PHILIP KENNEDY 5 CO.,
Southwest Comer ot Ht and Fii Streets.
Jy6 SuTb
CURIOUS PROCESS OF CUTTING AN ORANGE SKIN.
X(L*J'J& illustrate in figure 2 a number of
(1 A I °is curious shapes into which the skin
sl£li_^ of an orange can be carved after a
particular tracing (figure 1) and then be
spread out in its entirety without a break.
The process Is as follows:
An orange is selected that has as few
flaws in the skin as possible. It should not
be divided in the center into too large a
number of parts; eight is a convenient
number. The lines shown in figure 1 may
be drawn on the skin with a pen aud ink
and this will make the work of cutting
easier. This done take a very sharp knife
and incise the skin according to the
marked . lines. In measure as the in
cisions are made, raise the skin carefully,
then detach it completely and spread it out
m>on a board, and pin it thereto in order
that It may dry. It is well to draw a few
concentric circles upon the board and
divide them into eight or sixteen radii, in
order that the skin may be spread out in a
very regular figure.
Figure l gives the lines that produce the
forms shown in figure 2. ■ The letters In the
two figures correspond.
A and B are quite simple forms. C forms
a remarkable belt and the hall in the center
of ii represents the proportion in size of the
orange from which it was made. The three
figures D, E and F are of remarkable deli-
Diamonds and Rubles.
Almost all diamonds come from the Cape,
few from Brazil, and practically none from
India. Among women diamonds and rubies
are still the favorite precious stones, rubies
more than diamonds. ° Just see the differ
ence in price between diamonds and rubies.
" Here is a ruby of four to five karats," my
informer continued, holding it up, "the
very perfection of color, a true pigeon's
blood. _ It is marked 810,000. Now, it would
take an extraordinary diamond of this size
and shape to : be worth even $2500. ; In the
last few years emeralds are becoming quite
popular; we are * selling a > good many of
them." • Diamond-cutting is still in its in
fancy here, but in the course of time it will
be a very large industry. <It is true that
BaniS <■■;
The patterns lo draw on an orange skin.
.■':"■ - ■ ••• . ■
THE RESULTS OBTAINED^^ ,:,: : : ;"
labor is , cheaper on the : other side of the
Atlantic, but this is offset by America's im
proved methods— by her labor-saving ma
chinery and her splendid inventions.—
Epoch. . -"__■■" ■-'■ •--■■■■-■:•■' :■:- '
Old and New Moons.
A small farmer was speaking to me about
the weather. - Ho - said we would probably
have a change with the new moon. . I asked
whether he thought the new moon had any
Influence upon the ■ weather. **. " Well," he
said, ."they say she has— particularly a new
moon." and after a somewhat doubtful
pause he added : * "Some says so, but other
some says it's alters the same moon, and it
does seem - queer there - should be so many
new 'uns."— Notes and Quories.
■^rlr^-n-^-^^v-rt. PRY GOODS. ......._.. _ - - - rtnA .
| IMPERATIVE
Liquidation Sale !
The month of June closed one of the most successful months'
business in the old-established house of KEANE BROS. This rcsnlt
was attained through the medium of our
IMPERATIVE LIQUIDATION !
And we propose maintaining the record for July by placing the bal-
ance of our elegantly assorted stock at such prices as will effect
quick returns.
The present occasion is one to be taken advantage of by prudent
and careful buyers, as the values we are offering are such as can
only be made under such forced circumstances.
*
E 3 Lease and Fixtux-es for- Stile.
Jky _■________________(____''__.
Ifl. O. TO-BUST - - - T-FtXTS-T--!--!.
943,945,947,949,951 Market Street.
;.-, .3*6 1.
TRADEMARK.
TREMENDOUS SALE
....1N....
Ladles', Children's and Gents'
HO S3 lERY!
600 dozen CHILDREN'S FAST BLACK COTTON
RIBBED BOSS, si _i-5 top, 25c a p lir.
300 dozen LADIES' EAST BLACK COTTON HOSE
at 25c a pair, worth 4Uc a pair.
300 dozen LADIES" FAST BLACK. COTTON HOSE
3 pair SI , worth 50c a pair.
500 dozen LADIES' FAST BLACK LISLE-THREAD
HOSE, extra value, at 00c a pair, regular 76'-
quality.
200 dozen LADIES' FANCY LISLE-THREAD
HOSE at 800 a pair, former price 31 a pair.
100 dozen LADIES' FANCY LISLE-THREAD
HOSE at St a pair, regular price $1 75, $'_! and
$'_* 50 a pair. - -
100 dozen LADIES' BLACK PCRE SILK HOSE at
__._. 45 a pair, good value at $3 50 a pair.
s%sT~ Country orders, whether smalt or large, re-
ceive promjrt attention.
tiT Our Illustrated Catalogue mailed free to
any part of the State on application.
WM *
mmmm
wk wi % % \ -■&. •__, vl
125 to 131 Kearny Sires.,
And 209 Sutter Street.
jas tf Sa
CUSICK UNDER ARREST.
Frauds Which Will Probably
Land Him ia Prison.
James J. Cusick, the very smart census
enumerator, who filled uu his blanks
with the names of base-ball players, has
been caught at last. He was located in
Santa Rosa on Friday and a little telegraph
ing between Deputy Fields and Supervisor
Lemmon of Santa Rosa secured his arrest.
Yesterday Marshal Wood went to Santa
Rosa and brought the culprit back.
Cusick, who is a pattern-maker and lives
at 11 Laurel place, had a census district
that took in both sides of Market street,
between Fourth and Fifth. Deputy Fields
says that this too-sharp enumerator stuffed
his returns with between 375 and 400 bogus
names. He returned the whole Santa Rosa
Base-ball Club as living at 1 Fifth street
and George Van ilaltren, pitcher of the
Brooklyn (S. V.) Base-ball Club, was re
corded as living in a certain questionable
house on Ellis street.
The way some of the houses were stuffed
was very amusing. At 863}_ Market street,
where 87 people lodge, lie put down 170
names. No. 1 Fifth street, which houses 45
people, was accredited with CO. At 32, 34
and 36 Fourth street, where 00 people lodge,
lie brought the number of names up to an
even 100. At 875% Market street he created
50 people out of 20, and at 875 Market street
he made 85 names grow into 120. In a
house on Jessie street, inhabited only by a
man and his wife, he put 20 names, and two
bouses on Ellis street, which were not oc
cupied at all, he peopled with families of 10
each.
The enumerator detailed to recauvass the
district has had considerable trouble with
the people there, who object to being both
ered so many .tin-res, and at one house in
the district a woman abused him roundly,
lie waited until her wrath subsided and
then taking out the bin ik made out by
Cusick said:
"I see, madam, that your husband has
been recorded as so and so. Is that right?"
" Yes."
"And yours is so and so?"
"Yes."
"How long have you been married?"
" One year."
"Are you sure?" - - .
"Certainly I am sure. What do you
mean by—"
"Oh, nothing; only I see that he has re
corded you as having five children."
Cusick will have a hard time of It. The
evidence against him Is said to be absolute
and conclusive. The maximum punish
ment is a 55000 fine and two years' impris
onment.
THE CALL, has the largest circulation
among -Urailles. Advertisers " appreciate
this fact.
Bow li'iir. Balls Are Hade.
Automatic machines for making base
halls have been so successfully contrived
that their introduction |is likely to consti
tute a practical industry. Each machine
winds two balls at one time, in the follow
ing way: ■
A little para-rubber ball, weighing three
quarters of an ounce, around which ono
turn has been made with the end of a skein
of an old-fashioned gray slocking yarn, is
slipped into the machine, then another,
after which the boy in charge touches a
lever, the machine starts and the winding
begins. The rubber ball is thus hidden in
a few seconds, and in its place appears a
little gray yarn ball that rapidly grows
larger ana larger. __>tjHiMpiiiil|iii tjii_ _* _i_p-y-.
When it appears to be about half the size
ot tbe regulation base-ball there is a click,
the machine stops, yarn is cut, the boy
picks out the ball and tosses it into the
basket. When this basket Is full it is passed
along to another boy, who runs a- similar
machine, where a ■ hall-ounce layer of
worsted yarn is put on. •
_ The next machine adds a layer of strong
white cotton thread; a coating of rubber
cement is . next applied, and * a half-ounce
layer of the very best line * worsted com
pletes i the ball, with the , exception of the
cover.— E. Y. Commercial Advertiser. -'.*•
*.>_,■.• want ads. In THE CALL last Week.
It Is the only want medium.
A jury tbat tried tlie case ot Bean, tbe alleged
gold-crick swindler, at Santa Kosa, tailed to
ague on Friday, and were discharged.
PAGES 9 to 12.
HODGE'S
Cloak and Suit House,
8, 10, 12 AND 14 FIFTH STREET.
WE ARE NOW OFFERING THE BALANCE OF
"» our Spring and Summer Goods at exceptionally
low rates. Our Dressmaking Department was never
more complete than at present. We are prepared to
make up .Ladies' own material at two days* notice,
and perfect fit guaranteed at our usual reasonably
rates. We bave a very Handsome line of Sateen
Suits, ready m.de; also, ail wool aud silk and wool
blouses, at from 50c up.
Russian Jackets at from $2 50 up; and would call
particular attention to our handsome Kersey Bla-
zers, handsomely trimmed with silk cord and Lined
wltb rhadames, reduced from $I*J to $10; also, a
very pretty line of Ladles' and Misses' Lawn Tennis
Suits, In shrunken flannels In accordion waist and
Sleeves, and full skirts from $7 50 up. These gar-
ments we also make to order. Do not Tail to see our
cheap Jerseys and extra long Waist Corset*
HODOES'S
Cloak and Suit Honse.
8 TO 14 FIFTH STREET,
OPP. .LINCOLN SCHOOL,
San Francisco, Cal. Telephone 3050.
au 25 SnTnTh tf
WOOD AND COAL
BUSINESS FOR SALE.
THE PENNSYLVANIA WOOD AND COAT.
yard: established 1850 and doing a successful
business ever since. This Is a rare opportunity to
any one wishing to engage fa the coal trade, as tbo
yard Is large, with platform scale and every con-
venience for doing an eitftslve business. For
further particulars inquire on the premises, 431
Union st., bet. Dupont aud Kearny.
Je*_!*_! SuMo lm JOHN McKEW.
COMMERCIAL RECORD.
Saturday Eves July 5.
SUMMARY OF -THE MARKETS.
Hardly any trade yesterday.
Potatoes declined.
Onions unchanged.
A little Game sold. .
Peaches lower.
Grapes neglected.
Cherries and Currants almost gone.
The summer Vegetables declined.
Slii_.i.fn_r "Notes,
The steamer Humboldt sails to-day for Humboldt
hay. The Santa Cruz falls due from the southern
coast, the Coos Bay from Little River, tbe Walla
Walla from Victoria and Puget Sound, tne Corona
and North Fork from Humboldt Bay, the AJax from
Coos Bay, the Sip from the Salinas River and the
Newport from Eel River.
Tomorrow tbe State of California sails for Port
land, the Pomona for San Dle.ro. the Coos Bay for
Little River and the Crescent City for Crescent City.
The Los Angeles falls due from San Pedro.
The Australia falls due from Honolulu Friday.
The British ship Lennle Burrill, I'JSS tons, loads
Lumber on the Sound for Melbourne. 72s Od, bark
cntine Robert Sudden, 585 tons, same voyage, 67a
(id; Chilean bark Mariana, 705 tons, Lumber on the
Sound for Valparaiso; Nicaragnan bark Bund-deer,
9-.1 tons, Coal at Departure Bay for this port.
.Produce Market.
Note— only business yesterday was in perish,
able goods and quotations for all other lines are ac
cordingly omitted. _____
POTATOES-Continue to decline. New Potatoes,
76c-t>sl in sacks and * 1 _5> 1 -5 "_* ctl In boxes.
lONS— Showed nu marked change yesterday ■*_ '
[email protected] 15 for Reds and fl _*.\__l 40 for Sllverskins.
liAME— A few Doves came In yesterday and
brought [email protected] *_. dozen. Venison sold at 1 -'_
15c "_- ».
. FKE3U FRUITS— MeIons continue to bring wide
different prices, owing to the lack of uniformity ia
the packages. Grapes are neglected, being soar and
green. Ki^s are lower. Pei«hes continue to decline
under large receipts. Berries of all kinds are firmer.
Black Cherries have disappeared and only a few red
and white ones are seen. Receipts or Currants are
almost too small to mention. Apricots continue in
good supply. Plums go slowly as a rule. Grapes. (I
"ft box: Cantaloupes. $.( [email protected] II crate: \*> «t_r
oielons, 1 3_H *_•* dozen; Black Figs, 5Uc tor single
layer and 76'a.iiOc for double-layer botes; Smyrna
Figs. [email protected]_; White Figs, [email protected] fbi: Plums, Kg)
2c if. lb; Peach Pltinio, if Kail 15 *(. box: Currant?,
$1 ..'.':.> 60 » chest; Raspberries, s('(-t9; Black
berries. $4(gj" : Apricots. [email protected] *# box and 25(_r)50c
ft basket; Peaches, : . .--:-7 -• . ft box tor Vacaville and
;.*._t.;oc j". basket for River: Green Apples. 260
60c V small and 75«a$l "ft large box and MMM
*_* basket; Red Apples, [email protected](l 25 for large and 50
i__7sc for small boxes and 4c'oßOc ft basket: Green
Pears. oOl^Hoc ft box and 50c ft basket: Bartlett
Pears, 1 1 501*_2 ft box: Cherries, 50075 eft box for
sour red, and 04)070*3 for Royal Anne: Strawberries,
fs<_)7 **_. chest for large Berries and **«<_ 12 for
Longworths.
VKGEiABI.ES-Green Corn, Cucumbers, Tom*
toes and Squash were all lower yesterday. Aspara
gus and Rhubarb are almost gone. Beans are very
dull. Egg Plant, 10012 c _. lb: Green Okra. l(r:
Green Peppers, Solsc *"» lb: Tomatoes, [email protected] ***«
box for Vacaville ami ©I 50 for River; Green Corn,
6U-__.Ji 1 «* sack for common, 12 ' *_*__) 15c fl dozen for
first quality and lS^22'^c $ dozen Tor Bay:
Summer Squash. 200. ft box for Winters and 250
6UC for Alameda; Wax Beans. '[email protected] ft lb; Fountain
Beans, 2c; String Beans, 102 c; Cucumbers, 250
30c ft box for ordinary ana 50c for Bay; Aspara
gus. »1 [email protected] 60 ft box: Rhubarb, 60076 c V box:
Green Peas, *1 5(>0l 75 *_* sack; dry Peppers, 12c:
Cabbages, $1 V ctl; Feed carrots, 60®65c: Turnip*.
[email protected]*l: Beets, *1; Parsnips, I°. -*-"M 60 II cUt
Game, 405 eft ID. . ■■-.■•
RECEIPT*-* Of* PItOOCtC
~ " E .Tvati- r. Jajj* .
Flour, qr sks 3,_tO*_rMldd i ,*__:«, s*s .._ 11l
Wheat, ctls 6.623 Hay. ion-... „.„.„ ' *7*
Barley, ctls 2,478 Wool *z-n 1H
Potatoes, sks 3.127 QulCal-'tK.-.S-is - • SJ
Onions, ma 21-ilHld.-. ni1,: ........ 7.7
_________________=_______=-__=-__---=___---- ~
THE WEEKLY CALL contain, serial
and complete stories, miscel-
laneous articles by the best
/'writers, special articles by
home authors; the news of the
coast; the news of the world
and all that serves to make m
complete family journal, free
from objection. $1 25 a year
j postpaid.

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