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The morning call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1878-1895, October 29, 1893, Image 12

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Some That Our Horses Fai! Into.
. If your horse does not stand still, orhesi
tates, then abrate him will) a terrible voyce;
and then beat him yourself, with a good sticke,
upon the bead between the ears, aud then
.stlcke him in the spurring place Hi or lilt
time* together, with one leg after another, as
fast as your legges might walk. Your ledges
must go like two bouncing beetles.— Early
work on horsemanship.
I saw a sight the other day that would
have delighted the heart of the Norfolk
trainer of Queen Elizabeth's day, who
wrote the advice quoted above.
Madame and 1 were trotting along a
pleasant country road, at peace with our
selves and ill human kind. It was one of
these exquisite October mornings we have
been having this fall— the air balmy and
delicious, full of the fragrance of late au
tumn flowers— a gray haze over the whole
world, and the brown bills just alight with
the first tints of the sun, win. must have
turned newspaper man of late, judging
from the hour at which he has taken to
making his appearance.
As I say, Madame and I were enjoying
a morning trot together when, turning a
sharp bend in the road, we came upon a
sight that effectually marred our enjoy
Justahesd of us, inthe road, a splendidly
built, spirited roan horse was rearing,
plunging, whirling about and backing, in
what seemed to me at first a desperate
effort to throw his rider, an intelligent
looking, well-dressed man, something
above middle age. Whatever prompt- d
the animal's demonstration of viciousness
he was certainly being terribly punished.
Every time the iron-shed front hoofs rose
in the air down across the slim legs came a
heavy riding whip. With every whirl and
turn the same Instrument fell with a whiz
zing cut on bind legs and flunks. The
blood was flowing freely from the sides
into which the spurs had been thrust,
again and again, and the horse was cov
ered with white foam. In the dust under
' him the sweat from bis dripping barrel j
made a little pool.
Without waiting for me to draw rein,
Madame stopped short and then made a J
.halt turn. In another instant she would ,
have fled in terror at »he unwonted and i
terrible spectacle, but I nulled her in and
awaited developments. Seeing me, the
rider made an effort to get his steed in '
order ana ride on. but Hie animal would
not go forward. He would back and turn,
but when urged forward would only rear
and jump. Then I noticed tbat he was
not, after all, making any effort to throw
bis rider, but was evidently in distress.
Thinking 1 was afraid to ride by,' tbe gen
tleman called out: "I beg pardon. I can
not make him go on, hut if you can get
your horse to pass him I am sure be will
not kick."
. Urging Madame forward I rode a little i
. nearer. The roan was quiet, as the rider
- sat motionless, and tbe poor creature was
' panting for breath, bis blood-red nostrils
closing and opening painfully in the effort ■
at respiration. "He does not look vicious," j
I ventured to say, and his rider replied: \
"I never knew him to make a mismove i
before in his life. He seems to have sud
denly taken a stubborn freak. Look out !
there, you brute," as the horse gave a
start, and the whip was again taised !
threateningly. The roan was backing in a j
circle. Glancing over him my attention
was attracted to blood on the creature's
. lips. "I think," I said, "there Is something
wrong with his mouth. It might be worth
• while to see." Even as I spoke I
.saw what the trouble was, but it is always
' better to let a driver or rider find that out
. for himself. Glancing down, this particu
. lar rider at once dismounted, and presently
an exclamation showed me he bad seen
what i already knew. Instead of a chin
strap bis bridle, like many in California,
was fitted with a chain of large twisted
. links. This chain had broken and one link
1 of a loose end had become hooked through
the flesh in a corner of the horse's mouth.
■•" It was to tbis side he kept turning, mind
ful, even in the frenzy of his pain, of early
training and supposing, poor brute, that
: the dragging at the corner of his mouth
was produced by bis master's guiding !
band on the rein.
Tenderly the latter removed the tortur
ing iron, and, to bis credit I write it took
the animal's bead his arms. I rode on
.as quickly as I could, feeling very apolo
getic at having seen this much of bis re
pentance. 1 am sure the horse forgave
birr at once for his brutality and forgot
his own pain and punishment in pleasure
. at tbat caress, but if lam not mistaken it
will be a long time before the man for
gives himself. I, myself, stiil remember
with a remorsetul pang now once, years
ago, I whipped to a standstill a plunging,
rearing three-year-old colt only to find
when I dismounted and removed the sad
dle a good-sized, sharp-edged stone, tucked
under the cinch by some boy, probably, in
an impulse of vicious mischief.
There is one thing of which the rider or
driver may almost invariably be certain.
.That is, that whatever a horse does he
means to do exactly right. I think this is
a statement in which every one who has
had much to do with horses will concur.
The average horse, until cruel treatment
has made him distrustful and resentful,
takes pleasure in doing the will of man. I
have owned animals who seemed actuated
by but one motive to find out what 1
wauled them to do,' and then to do it. 1
have talked with people who seem to re
gard the horse as a beast of prey, going
about seeking whom it may devour, and
. they talk about "vicious" and "wicked"
horses as though these willing, generous
natured friends of ours were ever, by any
chance, any other tban what we make
M. Baucher, the great French trainer,
lays it down as his first principle in the
education of a colt tbat: "All the resist
ance of young borses springs from a phy
sical cause, and this cause only becomes a
moral one by the awkwardness, ignorance
or brutality of the rider. The rider or
driver who, when a horse begins to act
contrary to the generally understood rules
of equine good behavior, punishes (be ani
mal without first seeking to learn the
cause of bis unusual conduct, shows him
self unworthy to be intrusted with the care
of an animal so capable of suffering as is
the horse."
-I wrote some time since of some .of the
stable vices of horse*. I shall have some
thing further to say on that line in the
• near future, but in this particular connec
. tion a word, in regard to some of the out
of-door vices of our equine friends is in
The list comprising them is not very
long. Some people lengthen this list.. I
once heard a man characterize the' picking
up of stones in the hoofs as a vice of - bis
favorite road animal, but '•-. the real vices
and bad habits of ihe horse are few. The
principal ones are shying, bolting, rearing,
kicking, lying down, plunging/shoulder
ing and running away.
Of these shying is the one most fre
quently met with, and is the one in which
the individuality of a horse is most
frequently shown. Some horses will face
a locomotive engine, or a road-roller, for
instance, who will nearly go into fits over
a bit of paper in the road. One animal
that I occasionally ride will pay no atten
tion to paper, blowing rubbish, bicycles or
even oaby-carriages, the bete noir of most
shyers, but let a hen appear, and she will
make a flying lean to the opposite side of
the road. Madame, for instance, who will
scarcely wink when a firecracker Is thrown
under her feet, can never pass a pile of
brush, ot even the broken branch of a tree
by the roadside, without making a little
fuss over it. The sight of a nig will cause
almost any horse to shy. They seem to en
tertain n natural antipathy for the grunt
ing rooters. When mi animal has a habit
of shying at some particular object, and
not at others, it is generally because at
some time or other hurt or fright has come
to them from that sort of object. In
Madame's case, as a very young animal,
she was terribly Lightened by a snake is
suing from under a brushheap, and cross
ing her pathway. The peculiarity in her
shying is that she never does it at sight of
a snake, and never fails to sheer oft from a
The majority of inexperienced drivers
punish a horse for shying. This never
does any good. In general shying is due
to defective eyesight.: It is obvious that
punishment will not remedy this. The
best thing to do is to remove a bone's
blinders, if your harness carries these dis
graceful adjuncts, and give him a chance
to see clearly. If you note the symptoms
of alarm in time, and the watchful driver
can usually do this, distract the horse's at
tention by speaking encouragingly to him,
and. if necessary, by two or three sharp
taps with the whip, administered before,
never after, the object is passed. I have
seen drivers punish a horse after the ani
mal has summoned all his courage and
gone by the. object of his freight. What
the creature needs then is encouragement
and praise, for he had done right aud not
wrong. Let him have a chance to learn the
harmlessness of the feared object. If you
can gee him to go up to and smell of it his
fear is usually conquered.
I once drove a very bad shyer, who not
only shied violently at every strange ob
ject, but would made a rush after each of
fense, showing that she was accustomed to
being punished for them. 1 adopted the
plan of making her go straight up to every
object she showed fear of, causing her to
smell of it, even to put her foot in it if
possible. As a result it was not long be
fore she learned that nothing hurt her;
that she had not even the whip to dread ;
and she overcame her nervous fears. The
thing to do is never to let a horse turn back
from anything he fears. Get him past it
some way, by coaxing or driving, in an ex
treme case it may be necessary to lead him
past it, though this is to be deprecated,
but get him past it, and that, too, at a
slow rate of speed. Never let him rush
by anything he is afraid of. If quiet firm
ness in using these methods does not cause
a change for the better it is because th"
animal's sight is defective, and all that
can be done is to note tlie presence in the
road of objects that bis faulty vision may
clothe with terror, and be on your guard.
Bolting is another effect of poor or de
fective sight, Sometimes an animal who
has for years been a model of steadiness
will suddenly take this trick. There is
always a physical reason for it in such
cases. The horse sees, or fancies be sees,
something before tiim and bolts to avoid
it. A veterinary should be called in in
such case aud the horse's eyes given at
tention. Over or under feeding, or some
trouble iv the digestive tract, may set up
such defect in vision.
Rearing is always a dangerous habit.
Fortunately it is rare. Horses some
times do it in playfulness or impatience to
be off, and some riders teach their mounts
to rear for the purpose of showing off.
Really wicked rearing, however, is as dan
gerous as it is rare. A woman should
avoid such a mount. Tight check-straps
to the bridle and a running martingale on
the reins are about the 'only preventives,
although throwing a horse whenever he at
tempts the trick will usually effect a cure
after a few trials. A confirmed rearer,
however, is a spoiled horse.
Kicking is the most dangerous of all
tricks. More dangerous than even running
away. If you are on tbe kicker's back you
are in danger of taking a cropper over his
bead, while if you are behind him in a ve
hicle your chances of escaping injury are,
indeed, small. Out here in California,
where I fear it must be said borsebreaking
is more carelessly and harshly conducted
than in the East, tbe kicking strap is a fa:
more common sight than it is on the other
side of the divide. If you are riding a
kicker keep tbe animal's bead up and ap
ply. the whip strongly to bis shoulders. if
driving pull up sharply on one rein, twist
ing bis bead to one side. To break up the
trick buckle a stout collar around the pas
tern joint of one foreleg. To this have at
tached a stout cord passing up through
the turret of ihe saddle, on the same side,
and thence to your hand. At the first lay
ing back of the ears, switching of the tail
or other premonitory symptoms that there
"is a kick coming," jerk up the forefoot by
means of the rope and let the animal go on
three legs for a few paces. He won't like
this and will remember tbe lesson when he
again feels lik • kicking.
Lying down is a trick of ponies. In
well-bred animals it is an indication that
something is wrong. A saddle-horse will
sometimes throw himself down if tbe girth
is too tight. I rode one a few days ago
who attempted to lie down as soon as I had
dismounted. I pulled him up, hastily
loosened the girth and there was no
more trouble. In this case the animal
was just out of pasture, and had not been
saddled for months.
Plunging or bucking is a bronco trick.
Few well-bred horses nave it. It is discon
certing, and almost impossible to sit.
Sawing tbe mouth with a twisted snaffle
bit is recommended to stop it. A con
firmed plunger should be ridden with au
Shouldering is usually mischievous,
rather than vicious. I remember a pony
owned in the family in my childhood
which never failed to shoulder off a certain
playmate of. us children who sometimes
mounted her. The process 'onsists in
rubbing the leg of a rider against a wall or
tree, to the imminent danger of breaking a
bone. Some borses have the trick in stall
of shouldering an attendant against the
manger, and so nearly crushing him.
Young horses will do this in play. 1 . Horses
which have beeu made V; vicious by ill
treatment often" do it for/ revenge. If
caught in the stall by a shouldering horse
the only thing to do is to kick bis knees
and pinch bis nose., which r will cause him
to retreat. Your strength' will avail you
' nothing against his. If mounted on the
offender you can readily defeat - bis object
by turning bis head to the wall, instead of
from iiy^tt^Mt^S&^^SSi^ttW^Ss^^^^
Running away isdnngerous in a crowded
thoroughfare, and some horses seem to go
crazy when toey run. and will often dash
headlong against obstructions in their
pathway. When |a horse gets running the
quickest and most effectual way to stop
him is to pull first one rein, then tbe other,
sawing his head from side to side. This
has the effect of confusing him so tbat he
cannot run. About the oulv other advice
to be given :s keep cool and don't desert
the ship. Stay in the vehicle or on the
saddle. You are safer there than in jump
ing, It is worthy of note in passing that a
large percentage of our rasa ways occur
through accidents to the bridle, whereby
the blinders that usually cover a horse's
eyes fall, or become so far unadjusted as
to permit the animal to see the vehicle
behind him. It frightens him. He runs
to escape it. It pursues him, and he flees
in a mad frenzy. The rider may be hurt
or killed. The horse is effectually ruined.
The- out-of-door vices of ' horses, like
those the animals contract in tbe stable,
are almost Invariably traceable to physical
causes. They are due to such, whether
traceable or not.and may usually be helped,
if not entirely cured, by kindness, gentle
firmness and common-sense on the part of
rider or.driver. Miss Russell.
How sings the wind In the splendid day -
When the world is wild with the wealth of May?
•• The world Is thrilling with li. bt and love—
There was never a clood in the heavens above;
Never a mateless and moaning dove,
Never a grave for a rose to bide,
And never arose that died '."
How sings tbe wind in tbe hopeless night
"A heu the lone, long winters are cold and white ?
"There are rainbows back of the storms to be-
Back or tbe storms and their mystery;
But, ob, for tue ships that are lost, at seal
And ob, for the love in the lonesome lands.
tar Iroui the clasp of the drowning bauds
So tbe wind slngeth; its Hod decrees
The wind should slog such songs as these—
Should laugh in the sunlight's sliver waves.
And toss the green on the world's sad graves;
Put why, in the night, should It sing co me
Ut the ships— tbe shins that are lost at sea ?
""bank L. Stanton.
Notes of Interest to Members of Many
Rev. E. R. Brainerd adds the Pleasant
Valley Congregational Church to bis al
ready large district.
Father O'Sulli van's new Church of the
Blessed Sacrament, at Buchanan and
Washington streets, Louisville, Ky., is
nearly completed.
Rev. J. H. Williams, the long-expected
pastor of Redlands First Congregational
Churcb, has entered bis field, and finds a
rallying to his hand of all the forces.
The course of St. Mary's Seminary, Bal
timore, Md., has commenced with a larger
attendance of students than at any time
since the foundation of this institution.
The pastor. Rev. Mr. Knatts, has been
elected Sunday-school missionary of the
East Oregon Presbytery, and will give up
his work at Lafayette to accept this ap
The Sisters of St, Vincent, who three
years ago removed from the diocese of
Louisville, Ky.. to Dubuque, lowa, have
purchased property in Clinton, lowa, for
their mother bouse and novitiate.
The Sunday-school of the South Congre
gational Church, New Britain, Coun., is
the largest in the State, having on its roll
1223 scholars. October 1 was a rally day
for the school, when 915 were present.
A new synagogue was Inaugurated at St.
Eugene, near Algiers, on the 7ih of Sep
tember. The entire expense of construc
tion has been borne by M. Israel Stora,
wbo bad previously rendered many im
portant services to the Jewish community
of Algiers.
More than 1200 new Christian Endeavor
societies have been added to the rapidly
growing hosts of this organization since
the convention at Montreal in July last, sn
there are now fully 27,600 societies in ail
parts of the world, with a membership of
over 1,600,000.
Rev. C. S. Vaile of Plymouth Congrega
tional Church supplied the pulpit of the
First Church. Los Angeles, Sunday morn
ing, October 15, in the absence of the pas
tor, who was assisting Rev. L. H. Frary
at Pomona in the dedication of their re
cently enlarged and renovated house of
Dr. S. Schindlcr of tbe Adath Israel Con
gregation of Boston, who has held the po
sition of rabbi of that cougregation for
the past twenty years, Is said to be pre
paring for a term of lectures to be de
livered in different cities of the New Eng
land States af er May 1, the time his con
tract with tbe congregation expires.
The will of Elizabeth C. Jewett of Bos
ton gives to various public purposes about
$150,000, with other residuary amounts;
the latter go chiefly to the American Home
Missionary Society. Chailtou College, An
dover Seminary, Mount liolyoke College,
Weliesley College and the American Board
are the principal beneficiaries named in tbe
Rev. William Hersman, pastor of tbe
San Luis Obispo Presbyterian churcb, has
been off on a year's absence, but the near
est appeal of the church declined to dis
solve the pastoral relation, and be will
return, to the great delight of all the good
people of tbe city. He has done excellent
work there since 1883. Rev. Henry C.
Thompson has supplied tbe pulpit most
acceptably during the pastor's absence.
The Christian Endeavor Society has been
adopted and indorsed by no less tban
eleven different evangelical denominations
in the United States, by several in Canada,
four in England and by as many more in
the different colonies of Australia, while
many other denominations which have not
in any formal way adopted the society
have practically no other young people's
organization in their church. r -- .
Suggestions Regarding the Use of
>•"■ New York Sun. -
A very, interesting paper has lately been
read before the New Zealand Institution
of Civil Engineers on the subject of heavy
rock blasting— gneiss. and lime
stone—in large blocks. It appears that in
some recent operations on an extensive
scale for public works, large blasts were
employed, the rock varying from bedded
and jointed gneiss to homogeneous masses
of granite, and on an average one pound
of dynamite dislodged ten tons of stone,
tbe total amount of charge being usually
decided on tbis basis. The separate
charges were proportioned in tbe ratio of
the cubes of their least resistance, aud
this latter was divided by 35 for dynamite,
36 for gelegnite, 43 for gelatine dynamite,
50 for blasting gelatine and 12 for blasting
. It seems that blasts containing three
tons of explosives and another of seven
tons were each failures, as they broke up
the rock too. much. It was found that
charges of from one-fourth ton to one and
a half tons were tbe best, but this class of
blasting hardly answers with a line of
least resistance exceeding forty feet; be
yond that tbe elasticity of the rock along
this line becomes too great for the resist
ance of the back-off " which the charge
works, and instead of throwing the front
out the explosion may merely develop an
undulating motion radiating from the
charge. The best results were obtained
where the, rock had one or more loose ends
with a uearly vertical face, a strong toe at
t"e quarry floor level beiug usually first
removed by hand blasting before bring the
last shot. The length of the ndit was
made as. nearly half the length overhead
as practicable, while the most even results
were obtained if fifteen multiplied by the
least resistance was adopted for the inter
val between; tbe 1 chambers, and even less
with irregularly shaped blasts.
On the Rial to.
Mew York World.
Bombastes— Ah, Jack! Just come from
lie -.West, eh? Traveling's pretty danger
ous these duvs! ..
;Furloso— Yes, but you're > safe enough,
you know, if you'll only keep off the track.
An Engrossing Field for
the Archaeologist.
Evidence of a Civilization That
Antedated the
* Aztecs.
TV bile wealthy and powerful companies
have been organized and costly expeditions
fitted out In this country for research by
excavation on the sites of the ruined cities
of ancient Egypt, Greece, Italy and Asia
Minor, fields of equally interesting charac
ter on this continent have been compara
tively neglected.
There is now no question tbat the pre
historic era of this hemisphere, when its
story is deciphered, will lival in interest
in many particulars that of the countries
of the Old World. Researches, with this
end in view, can he said to have only
begun, but they already show many re
markable and unexpected developments.
One of tbe most interesting archaeologi
cal fields lies in the country whose north
ern border is coterminous with that of the
United States, and that the opportunity
offered to the American lover of antiqui
ties to indulge his tastes has not been more
generally utilized is certainly surprising.
Recently interest and discussion in Mex
ican archaeology was revived by the tele
graph c announcement from Chicago that
Airs. Zelia Muttall read a paper before the
Anthropological Congress at the World's
Fair, claiming to give lor the first time an
interpretation of the ancient Aztec calen- '
dar. It was declared to- lie the most im
portant discovery of , its kind made within
the century, as it furnished a key to much '
of the domestic lite, religion, architecture
and arts of at least six nations of the early
Inhabitants of Mexico, and promises to ;
lead to the translation of the hieroglyphics !
on the ruins iv Mexico and Central Amer- !
Though the claims made for Mrs. Nut
tail's work are phrased in positive lan
guage and many details of her achievement
are given, local archaeologists are not In
clined to put a great deal of faith in this
new interpretation of the famous so-called
Aztec calendar stone.
Among the local scientists who have
taken a deep interest in the subject oi this
famous Aztec relic and made a close study
of it is E. J. Molera, vice-president of the
Board of Trustees of the California Acad
emy of Science, honorary member of the
Geographical and Statistical Society of
Mexico, and a member also of many Amer
can and foreign scientific bodies. Mr.
Molera is a gentleman of considerable
wealth, and though he was educated as a I
civil engineer he has not followed his pro- !
fession for some fifteen years, but has !
given a large portion of his lime to scieu- j
A Cuauhxicalli, or Aztec Sacrificial
[Its only essential difference from the alleged
Calendar Stone Is said to be in the excavation
In Its center and the path leading. to It. This
atone is believed to have been used for The sacri
fice of human victims by the Aztec priests.]
title matters. He has made several trips
to the City of Mexico and is one of the few
archaeologists who. have made a personal
inspection of this mysterious stone, lie is
also credited with having made the first
correct drawing of It.
When first approached Mr. Molera was
somewhat reluctant; to speak for publica
tion on the subject, but finally consented
to do so, and gave a most interesting: his
tory of the stone and the various theories
regarding it. Referring first to tbe Chicago
dispatch, be said:
- "1 have not seen a complete copy of
Mrs. ISuttall's paper read before the meet
ing of tbe Anthropological Congress.where
the Interpretation was made known, there
fore I cannot give an opinion regarding its
merits and values. There have been; nu
merous similar announcements made in
the past, but I hope, for the sake of. sci
ence, that this time it will be with better
foundation tban the alleged keys reported
to have been found in the Codex Troano,
in Sotomayor Los Arteeai and iv many
other similar announcements.
"The so-called Mexican Caleudar stone
is probably the handsomest relic of Mexi
can art extant, and on that account and
because it is full of figures and representa
tions of emblems, some known and others
yet to be deciphered, archaeologists of all
countries have endeavored to clear up the
mystery that surrounds it. • :
"That they have so far failed Is demon
strated by ' the l fact that, though it Is an
nounced from time to time that the mean
ing of . the hieroglyphics that" cover the
surface of that stone has been explained
and its uses discovered by "eminent
archaeologists, each : : oue : claiming to have
arrived at: the true solution of the prob
lem, all differ in their theories. ;
v' "If : we consider the difficulties that sur
round Mexican archaeology this will not
seem : strange. '
y- "In ;- the; first ; place the Aztecs, or - the
people inhabiting the central part of Mex
ico -at", the time of '- the ;.' conquest of that
country by the Spaniards, were themselves
stranger, to the land, having : - emigrated
from some country north about 300 years
! before, and it is a disputed point. among
I Mexican antiquarians whether the Aztecs
i had wrought any of the stone monuments
attributed to them. That many of the
monuments were built by the Toltecs and
other, more remote races, of which the
Aztecs themselves were as iguoraut as we
are, there is no possible doubt.
"We find ourselves, then, without a con
necting link between the ancient civiliza
tion of America, the proofs of whose
existence we find in pyramids, ruins of
palaces and stone monuments, and the
modern civilization, the Aztecs being a
race of people in the savage condition.
The idolatry and cruel human sacrifice
that they practiced place them in the
lowest scale of barbarism and preclude
the possibility of that state of civilization
ascribed to them by some modern his
"Light on the uses and meanings of the
ancient Mexican monuments cannot be
obtained by the tradition of such people,
and the monuments themselves are ex
tremely baffling to the scientists. They
all contain certain ornamental elements
in combination with the human figure or
representations of animals in some cases,
the same as in the Egyptian, Greek, Roman
or Moorish architecture. Certain orna
mental elements are to he found in all their
buildings or monuments, having no par
ticular significance, butsimply contributing
beauty to the structure they adorn.
"'Whatever records have been left are in
picture writings, by means of which only
very general thoughts can be expressed,
and on account of tbe great liberty of ex
pression that ench individual could take in
representing his ideas, the interpretation
of these writings is very difficult, as they
lend themselves to numberless theories.
This is shown by tbe frequent announce
ments made in the papers of the discovery
of the key to the translation of the Mex
ican hieroglyphics, discoveries of which,
after a certain time, no more is heard.
"This so-called Mexican calendar stone
has had more interpreters than any other,
and among them some very distinguished
archaeologists. It is a block of stone about
twelve feet square, about three feet thick
and weighs about twenty-five tons. On
the face of the stone a circle 11 feet 8
inches in diameter has been worked in
alto-relief, with many symbols and figures.
In the center there is inclosed in a circle
5 feet 6 inches in diameter the representa
tion of the sun in its four ages, or "Nahui
Ollin Touatiub.' It is surruuned by a
belt containing twenty figures, each repre
senting the symbol of one day of tbe reli
gions month. Next to this belt comes a
border in four divisions, separated by four
figures shaped like arrow-heads, each di
vision containing ten little squares and
each square five little dots, the number of
days in the ancient Mexican week. Other
borders follow, ny can be seen by inspect
ing the accompanying cut taken from a
photograph of the original.
"In the year 1790, while making some
excavations in the i laza of the City of
Mexico in front of the cathedral, several
large and very remarkable archaeological
relics were unearthed. Among tnem was
the one now called the Aztec calendar
"Don Antonio de Leon y Gama, the
greatest Mexican antiquarian of his time,
made a drawing of it and after a great deal
of study attempted the first interpretation
of it. He gave the supposed meaning of
lie different figures and afterward the
uses of the stone itself. According to
Gama the stone was a calendar aud in
combination with another stone, which he
supposed to be similar to the one referred
to and is as yet undiscovered, served the
Aztecs for astronomical purposes. Indeed
he describes a system of computing the
lime by the Aztecs by means of such
stones far in advance of any of the meth
ods used by any of the modern nations.
"To Gama are due nearly all the ideas
now prevalent regarding this stone and
also the name of Aztec calendar.
"For half a century all the authors on
Mexican antiquities followed Gama. and
his drawing of the stone, very incomplete
and in many respects incorrect, is repro
duced in the works of Alexander yon
Humboldt, Albert Gallatin, Brantz Haver
and the rest. Even our own H. B. .-'Ban
croft copies that drawing with all its errors
and adds some of his own.
"About the middle of this century the
most prominent of Mexican antiquarians,
Fernando Ramirez, expressed his doubts
about Gama's theories of the calendar
stone, and Orozco y Berra, the most pains
taking and conscientious of Mexican anti
quarians, suggested that it might be a
Cuauhxicalli. This idea was taken up and
elaborated by Alfred Chavero who wrote
ana published an extremely elaborate de
scription of the stone, calling it the 'Solar
stone,' which, according to him, was used
Fragment of a Alto-relief, showing a
Cuauhxioalli, or Sacrificial Stone, as
a Shield.
for sacrificial purposes by the priests of
the ancient Mexican people.. Soon after
Chavero's description Professor Valentin!
read a paper giving similar views to those
of Chavero. ;..
"In 18831 gave a lecture on. this Mexican
monument before the Academy of Sciences
of this city, reviewing the different theories
concerning .; the so-called Aztec calendar
stone, and although not expressing any
opinion in regard to the meaning aud uses
of, the stone, which I considered next to
impossible, I classified it as one of the kind
called ? the 'Cuauhxicalli of Tixoc,' com
monly known as the. 'sacrificial stone,' and
held that it is in an unfinished > ondition.
: "In ?• 1888 " Sen or Leopoldo • Bares : pub
lished a pamphlet comprising an interpre
tation of the so-called calendar stone.; He
endeavored to prove that the above-named
monument is of ;Tolte_! civilization, and
was dedicated to the goddess -of : water.
His interpretation is full of new and inter
esting Ideas. :",.':" : .'\v:: v:*'-/- ■":...•"■■'
"In 1889 Senor DionlnoAbadlano pub
lished another, and new interpretation of
the same monument; be followed the idea
of Gam a, and elaborated it with a profu
sion of illustrations.
"Gama, as I have said, supposed that an
other similar stone to the so-called calendar
would be found some time near where tbe
latter was unearthed. Abadiano tries to
prove that the. missing stone is the so
called sacrificial stone, and that the two
together elaborate a perfect system for the
computation of time. Such astronomical
knowledge, however, can hardly be sup
posed to have existed among a barbarous
people such as the Aztecs were."-.
The Perspectograph, a German In
vention, for Use in the Arts.
The Season.
The oft-felt wish of many of our artistic
readers to be able to enlarge original
drawings without much trouble has
hitherto remained ungratified, but now
they will certainly rejoice to bear of a
clever little invention by which many
technical difficulties may be overcome.
The leading feature Is an elastic band, on
which a small bead Is threaded. As this
bead fits so tight that it can only be moved
when tbe elastic is stretched to tbe utmost
we may consider it to be firm wherever
One end of the elastic is secured be
tween two metal plates forming a sort of
button, and the other runs into the mov
able center of an ordinary pencil-case,
which turns to prevent the twisting of * the
elastic when in use. The bottom, the
small original and the sheet for the cony
are fastened with drawing-pins on the
drawing-board, the two former to the upper
left part. Then the pencil is taken in the
hand and guided to follow tbe movements
of the bead over the outlines of the
original. Curious as the work seems at
first the band soon becomes accustomed to
the involuntary motion and begins to feel
as if it were drawing with the bead itself
rather than with the pencil, while tbe
effect is both useful and interesting.
The directions and instrument are
equally easy, the actual length of the
elastic having nothing to do with tbe pro
portions; the position of tbe bead alone
determines the size of the copy. Say, for
instance, tbe original measures eight and
one-half inches high and we wtsb the
copy to be twrnty-two, all we have to do
is to place the pencil at twenty-two inches
and tbe bear/, at eight and one-half. When
thus arranged it is impossible to obtain
other proportions, whatever the relative
position of riginai, copy or paper may be.
he above-described instrument can, bow
ever, only be used for large designs, as the
bead embraces too much space to allow of
very fine lines, so for photographs, minia
tures, small engravings, etc., a somewhat
finer apparatus is preferable. By its aid
the finest as well as the thickest lines can
be produced. In place of the bead we
have a strip of metal, with a point as fine
as a needle, capable of tracing the smallest
curves or features; this is fixed between
two parallel elastic bands, whose ends are
fastened with a spring to two metal disks,
ending in the pencil-case and tbe motive
power of the needle, otherwise the rules
are the same as for the siuf le-tbread ap
paratus. The new perspectograph is a
patented German invention.
It is easy enough to be pleasant
When lire flows along like a song,
But the man worth while Is the one who will smile
When everything goes dead wrong:
For th.- test of tbe heart Is trouble,
And it always comes with tbe years.
And the smile that is worth the praises of earth
Is the smile that shines through tears.
It is easy enough to be prudent
When nothing tempts you to stray:
When without or within no voice of sin
Is luring your soul away.
But it is only a negative virtue
Until It is tried by fire,
And the life that Is worth the honors of earth
Is the one that resists desire.
By the cynic, the sad, the (alien.
Who hart no trerut for tne strife,
The world's highway Is cumbered to-day:
•'■ Tbey make up the item of life,
Hue the virtue that conquers passion, ■..-'.
And the sorrow that bides in a smile. •;".,- "^
It is tticie that »re worth th* uoinaze of earth.
For we find them but once In a while.
ELLA W a xsx tics Wn^COX.
Some Odd Items Gleaned From the
Old and New Testaments.
St. Louis Republic.
The capital "A" occurs 3792 times in the
New Testament and 14,020 times in the
Old Testament.
The capital letter "Q" will be found but
twice in the Old Testament and three times
in the New.
The total number of capital letters in the
whole Bible is 106,990. of small caps 6897,
aud of lower case 3.452,593: grand total of
letters, including one "_E," 3,566,481.
There were no italics used In the bibli
cal translations until the lime of the King
James version, 1611.
Stephen LBngton, Archbishop of Can
terbury, first divided the Bible into chap
ters and verses, this about the close of the
twelfth century.
The word "its" is not to be found in the
first edition of the King James version,
1611, but has been substituted for "his" in
the edition of 1653.
The shortest names mentioned in the
Bible are Ai, Ar, Ed. Og. Ur
and Uz. See Jeremiah, xlix:3; Numbers,
xxi:2B; Joshua, xxii:34; Psalms, cxxxvi:
20; Jeremiah. xlvi:2s; Genesis, xli:4s; II
Kings,: xvii:4; Genesis xi:2B, and Job i, 1.
The. quotation, "He shall be called a
Nazarene," used by Matthew in the last
verse of his second chanter, is not to be
found In the Old Testament.
Rebekah's brother's name was Laban,
and the name of Abigal's husband was
Nribal, which is simply Labau reversed.
The nineteenth chapter of II Kings and
the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are
alike, with the exception tbat verse 15 of
the former comprises verses 15 and 16 of
the latter.
Neither the word "God" nor "Lord" is
found in the book of Esther.
The Epbraimites t ould not pronounce
the word "Shibboleth," but said "Slbbo
lith" instead. See proof of 'his in Judges,
The quotation used by Matthew in the
third verse of the third chapter is not, as
is generally supposed, from the Old Testa-
ment.- ; Cv- -i'? £ i "■.■•'
The following words are to be found but
once in the Bible: Ash. atonement, immor
tal, millions and reverend.
They Are Not of Such Recent Origin
as Generally Supposed.
The British ship Somali, one of the larg
est sailing ships afloat, now loading at
Hong-Kong for. this port, is of 3336 tons
register. It is generally thought that four
masted sailing ships and of such large
dimensions are of recent origin, but such
is not the case. In a copy of the Prince
Edward Island Register of July, 1824,
there appears a notice of the launch at
Quebec on the 19th of July of that year of
tbe four-masted shin Columbus of 3700
tons register. Her dimensions are given
as follows: Register, 3600 32-34 tons;
length, 301 feet 6 inches: beam, 50 feet 7
inches; depth of hold, 29 feet 4 inches. It
was calculated that she would carry 9000
tons of lumber.
The paper spoken of in its Issue of July
22, 1825, contains an Item beaded, "Loss of
the timber ship Columbus," detailing bow
the vessel on May 17,1825, encountered a
dreadful storm in latitude 46 deg. 54 mm.
north, longitude 29 deg. 2 mm. west, com
menced to leak and was abandoned. She
carried a crew of ninety men. Another
Canadian-built monster the Baron of
Renfrew— was afloat at the same time as
the Columbus. Her dimensions .were:
length on dec* 303 feet, beam &) feet, depth
of hold 35 feet, measurement tonnage 5200.
She carried nearly 9000 tons of lumber in
her hold, besides 800 tons on deck. She
carried a - crew :of eighty-four.' She raa
ashore' and was wrecked near Calais,
France, on October 21. 1825.
V A.Yankee's expectation of ; life is gener
ally greater tban a German's or. an Eng
Dictator of the Ottoman
Characteristics of a Progressive
Oriental Monarch— His Personal
Paris, Oct. 11.— recent visit of the
Khedive of Egypt to Constantinople has
again attracted attention to the ruler of
the Ottoman empire. Although Abdul
Hamid II is considered among the most
capable chiefs of state in this age be is
very difficult to understand, and the most
skilled diplomats have not succeeded in
discovering the real sentiments of the Sul
Abdul Hamid has accomplished much,
and, as one is judged by his works, we
may consider the Commander of the Faith
ful a man of superior talent. It was ab
surd to believe that, In Record with the
Khedive, the Sultan bad decided to replace
the British garrison at Cairo by Turkish
troops. The Sultan certainly encouraged
bis young vassal in sentiments of
independence toward the foreigner
wbo at this time occupies the land
of the Pharaohs, but at the same time
he advised prudence and moderation.
None better than (be Sultan knows how to
direct a diplomatic bark, and while tracing
a route for the liberation of Egypt Abdul
Hamid arranged in such a way that the
British Embassador at Constantinople bad
no cause for complaint. Tbe Sultan satis
fied everybody in this case, as he had done
in other*).
Last May he granted to a Frenchman a
concession for a railway from Constanti
nople to Salonica, and the entire German
press said that tbe Sultan was under
French influence. Some days later Abdul
Hamid signed another railway concession,
and tbis time a German was favored. A
third concession was accorded in favor of
the French, and (bus the Sultan put a stop
to the complaints of the French press,
already accusing Abdul Hamid of sub
mission to German control.
It is easily seen that while tbe Sultan
remains independent, be employs all
Europe to further the interests of bis own
moire. After the Turko-Russian war of
1877 Abdul Hamid, who bad reigned only
since September, 1876. asked that France
send some oncers to instruct tbe Ottoman
troops. Tho French Government refused,
and Germany solicited in her turn, tent
General Van der Goltz, with a large staff.
This advantage, obtained by Germany,
was counterbalanced by the Sultan's de
cision that the study of the French lan
guage should be obligatory In tbe Turkish
schools. Even Vau d«r Goltz Pasha is
obliged to deliver his lectures to the Turk
ish officers in French. In all the Turkish
administrations French and Turkish are
spoken, and on tbe railways, belonging to
Germans, the names of stations are writ
ten in French, and the employes are ob
liged to speak French.
In the reconstitutlon of Turkish finances
the Sultan also showed much skill. The
creation of an international council for the
Turkish debt, presided over alternatively
by the representatives of English and
French bondholders, was a masterstroke.
Thus the Sultan made an arrangement
with all his foreign creditors, and be him
self was in the power of none. Iv grant
ing concessions for public works Abdul
Hamid has not only favored French and
Germans, but also English and Belgians.
Each has his share. No group, no syndi
cate has been able to obtnin tbe monopoly,
and if nothing has been granted to Ameri
cans' it Is because no concession 1 has been
asked. • • \ ' :
To-day there are railways in operation
or construction in all parts of the Ottoman
empire, in Asia Minor as well as in Eu
rope. When the Sultan ascended tbe
throne of tbe Osmaolis he found onlyone
line In Europe and one in Asia. Now,
tbanka to its master, Turkey has made
great progress. Its natural wealth has
never been developed, and there is much
to be done. By the opening of the Angora
Railway the tithes of this province nave
increased 100 per cent. Each new labor
augments the riches of the emolre, and
tbis is the aim of the Sultan. The Mussul
mans are opposed to assimilation, and we
see that the Turks strive to be sufficient iv
themselves. By the prodigality of instruc
tion Turkey will find a means of prosper
ity without the aid of foreign professors.
The day will come when engineers shall
be recruited in the empire, and that day.
without ceasing to march with sure and
equal step in tbe path of civilization, the
subjects of Abdul Hamid will have real
ized tbe dream of modern Turkey— to owe
nothing to any one and to be rulers in their
own country. |_W9|
The Saltan who traced this fine pro
gramme in the most simple manner has
communicated it to his people. He has
created educational institutions of all de
grees—from the primary school that makes
war against ignorance to the technical
schools which make war to foreign assist
The Sultan has also given his country
judiciary organization — a decided improve
ment on the ancient mechanism of Otto
man justice.
Abdul Hamid plans also to improve the
condition of woman in his empire, so much
as possible according to tbe Mohammedan
religion. For some years be has reflected
greatly on the state of inferiority to which
custom has reduced the women of his peo
ple, ana by creating schools for girls he
proposes that tbe Turkish women shall
elevate themselves by instruction. Per
haps our children will see— for in Turkey
all progress is slow— women lawyers and
doctors the equal of their colleagues in the
New World. The harems will lose, but
the country will certainly gain by tbe
change. .
We must congratulate the Snltan on his
attempt at reform; be wishes to prove
that his empire is not so decayed as It nas
been considered, and that Austria and
Russia must abandon the project of push
ing the Musselmans to the other side of the
Black Sea. „ _■ *.
Until the present time Europe, for its
own interest, has maintained the Ottoman
empire intact, but a day is coming when
the regenerated Turks will inspire senti
ments of respect and esteem, and when
their voice will count in the concert of
nations. „ . ,
Abdul Hamid II is 52 years old, and he
has taken his pr cautions not to be a
victim of a "palace intrigue, 'so sf ten
heard of on the banks of the Bosphorns.
Were his work interrupted by an accident
of this character, Turkey would leel
greatly his loss. The Sultan has given an
other proof of his superiority by training
his eldest son and heir, Mohammed seluu
Effendi, in a most remarkable : manner,
both morally and intellectually.
As Abdul Hamid never has had a photo
graph taken, the pictures called by his
name are fabrications. However, those
wbo have seen him tell me that. he is
short and delicate in appearance. His eyes
have the languid expression common in
Oriental couutries, and bis dark mustache
is closely cut. With great difficulty does a
foreigner gain admission to the presence
of the Sultan, and among the favored ones
may be mentioned the Hon. Whitelaw
Reid ana tbe Hon. Smith Ely, ex-Mayor of
New York.
Baroness Althea. Salvador.
What She Meant.
Washington Star. .
, "And you refuse me after all that you
have said?" he exclaimed. "*#S^_SS_B_ae__Sfi
-.."Yes.".:-- '•;»- ■
"Because I am not rich ?"
"Yes, George; that is why."
"Yet you s.«iu that you could be con
tent with love in a cottage," he went ou
bitterly. '
"Ob; George! That was three months
ago. I meant a cottage at a summer re
sort, vnn know."

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