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The Irish republic. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1867-18??, June 22, 1867, Image 14

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The scorching flames, with their ill-omen’d light,
Sadly illumed the features of the knight.
His blood, which erst was for bis country shed,
Still trickled ; but, alas ! in vain he bled ;
That blood his nation’s fortunes to restore
Served not; he lives, bis country is no more !
Despised and banish’d from his home at last,
* He is a branch torn by the wintry blast
From off the parent tree whereon it grew,
And wildly hurried on, the wide world through.
The tempest bore him onward, tarrying not,
But when his footsteps reach’d the sacred spot
Where erst his country’s boundary stone did stand,
He threw himself upon the burning sand,
And there the last drops of his tears he gave
Unto the earth, now made his people’s grave.
Tears were bis only fortune now, so he
Must needs expend them only sparingly.
He then arose, to wander far and wide,
His mute grief liKe a tjhadow by his side.
When weary with his wandering®, and distress’d,
Within a silent vale he sought for rest,
In a strange country, ’midst a foreign nation ;
And there it was his secret consolation
That death would find him out more easily
Than if he wildly ro til'd o’er land and sea.
The greatest prize upon earth’s face the knight
Full surely deem’d to be death’s blossom white.
For this he waited in the vale each day
Whither he came, and where he now would stay.
Within that valley lived a maiden fair,
A very paragon of beauty rare;
And yet the knight her beauty could not see,
His soul saw but, his country’s misery.
He saw not bow upon his countenance
The maid was wont to cast her timid glance;
He wa® unconscious of the fiery glow
That glance was wont upon his face to throw,—
So pass’d the maid’s sad days within that vale,
Her face grew paler than the lilv pale
With the fierce pain of yearning long suppress’d;
For she, the peasant maiden, ne’er confess’d
(Although she was of wealthy race) that she
Did love the high-born knight so tenderly.
In that same valley lived a homely youth,
Honest but poor, of humble birth in truth;
He spent his days in hopeless misery,
And would have surely perish’d, had not he
From time to time his drooping strength restored
By gazing on the maiden’s face adored.
Only in secret he her charms dared view
"Which o’er life’s gloom their magic lustre threw,
For he, who deem’d himself well off whene’er
Somewhat more food than usual was his share,
How could he tell the wealthy peasant maiden
How with love’s pangs his heart was deeply laden ?
Yet he was happy and of cheerful mien,
Could he but see her at a distance e’en.
At length the solemn hourarrivid which bore
The hapless knight to that eternal shore
Where ’gainst brave nations no proud tyrant churl
Ilis puny thunderbolts has power to hurl.
Back to his mother earth bis corpse they gave,
But, ah ! no stone was there to mark his grave.
The maiden’s heart, with speechless grief oppress’d,
Was turn’d to stone already in her breast;
And when the heait hath lost its feelings thus,
What charms can this vain world hold out to us?
She died, borne down by her great sorrow’s burden,
And slept where pain was still’d, and peace her guerdon.
And the poor wight, disconsolate and lonely,
How could he live a life of sorrow only,
When she, for whom alone he lived, had died?—
He healed his bleeding heart by suicide !
At midnight, when the graves give up their dead,
The poor youth rose from out his narrow bed,
And wander’d forth to seek the grassy dell
Where they had buried her he loved so well.
That face now glorified he fain would see,
Whose earthly eyes had beam’d so tenderly.
Yet in her tomb he found her not; alone
Had she along the spirit pathway gone
To the knight’s grave, once more to see him there:
His grave was empty, vain was all her prayer ;
The knight had gone to a far land, to see
If his dear native country yet was free!
In his paper “ La CoJonie Angla'ist" M. Lcrmine observes
that while in Paris there are Englishmen and English
women, there is no English society properly so called. The
English never care about, making each other’s acquaintance,
though t ev do make acquaintance, with strangers, very freely.
When they quit England it is not to fall in with their country
m m ; it is to see new men and new things. Even when a
Frenchman understands their language, Englishmen prefer
speaking their bad French, because they travel to improve
themselves, not others. The foreigner must be utilized ; he is
good only for that. The Englishman is so iraj r .'gnated with
his nationality, it is so kneaded up ia him, that he is actually
tiresome and offensive. An Ei glishman is in himself England.
Says M Lenioine,—
“ How well these pretty Englishwomen, white and red, bear
their sherry and their champagne ! Look at them going to a
pastrycook’s in the middle oi the day io take coffee, chocolate,
ices, and all sorts of cakes and sandwiches. What an astonish
ing quality of little pies they contain ! It is pleasant to behold,
particularly when one knows that such an appetite is no bar to
sent merit,.”
; A Kymchman who has had experience of a Sunday in Eng
land during church time will understand the relief of an Eng
lishman on finding that all is open to him in 1 a is, Versailles,
St. Germain, everywhere. There are a few English families
who will not “ receive” on Saturday night, I e auso pleasure
might encroach on Sunday; but that which is a sin in England
is not so in France, and Englishwomen make no scruple of re
mu ning pa*t midnight in French saloons. There are many
things the English would not do at home, but which they do
abroad without feeling the slightest shame. Once they cross the
Channel, they fling all restraint to the winds. In London they
will not go to the opera but in a black dress ; in Paris they go
enneglige. He says:—
“Behold Englishmen on the Boulevards, looking dislocated,
with their paletots from ready made shops, the product of the
Belle Jardiniere! Such jackets, such an appearance, such legs,
such beards, and such moustaches ! One of the peculiarities of
the Englishman of our days is the resemblance he seeks to give
himself to an ape of large species. He is of the past, the
Englishman carefully shaved, correctly dressed, antipathetic to
anything that resembled the soldier, and who thought he was
not washed if he had but one day’s beard.”
This military fashion dates from the Crimean war, and it
reached perfection with the Volunteers. With this negligent
appearance, their aspect like a virgin forest, those legs of im
moderate length made still longer by the schoolboy jackets,
those great arms that push through all crowds, those capacious
stomachs that engulf all sorts of eatables, Englishmen let loose
on Pal is look like barbarians entering a conquered country.
It is impossible to show more complete contempt for the na
tives of the country which they visit. Neither can it be said
that in acting thus at their ease they only act as if they were
at home. No such thing; they never would think of doing so
at home.
Englishwomen are quite as strange as the men :—
“ When Palis has not yet produced on them the effect of the
Garden of Acclimatisation, the women seem to belong to ano
ther species. They are recognizable by their incredible traves
ties in diess—bonnets that look like cabbage-gardens, casaqws
gaudy in color, impossible crinolines, French cashmers, so called
because they are worn only by Englishwomen! None but
Englishwomen are capable of wearing straw bonnets in January
and furs in July. Look at them as they stride along the Boule
vards, and step out like the Cent Gardes !”
Three elapses of the popular songs and ballads of Brittany
are distinguished. The first of these consists of mythological
pieces, historic and heroic legends, and popular ballads con
cerning popular or domestic events; the second contains love
songs and festal ditties ; and the third comprises religious can
tied* said legends. Among the first of these categories are
found the earliest and most distinctively national of "Breton
poems. One of the most striking, as well as in all probability
one of the oldest, fragments of Celtic literature is called Ar
Ilannou {Les Series) and is a sort of catechetical dialogue be
tween a Druid and a child. It is made up of a kind of reca
pitulation, in a dozen questions and answers, of the Druidical
doctrines on destiny, cosmogony, geography, chronology, as
tronomy, magic, medicine, and the metempsycosis. An entire
Christian counterpart to the whole has been met with in Latin.
It is certainly strange to find mothers still teaching their chil
dren, without knowing it, the mysterious song which the Dru
ids of old taught their forefathers. This song is most popular
in the Cornouaille district. It was taken down by the editor
from the lips of a young peasant of the parish of Nizon, whose
mother had taught it him “to form his memory.” The Armo
riean race, having nearly all become Christians by the end of
the sixth century, as attested by Procopius and others, this cu
rious pagan relic goes back to a date more remote, when the
Druid order had still its colleges and schools for the priest
hood. At the same time there is no trace in it of certain doc
trines peculiar to the Druids anterior to the Roman invasion,
while in other points it reflects the mythological tenets of the
Cumbrian bards, their successors. On these grounds \1. de Vil
Iemarqu6 is probably right, in referring it to the early part of
the fifth century. The “ Prophecy of Gwenc’hlar.,” (“ pure of
race”) is attributed to a bard of the same century, who was
blinded and left to die in prison by a foreign prince. There is
a grim sublimity in the blind bard’s prediction of the rout and
slaughter of his enemies. In bis tomb be dreams of the eagle
calling to her young, and to all the birds of heaven :—“ It is not
the putrid flesh of dogs or sheep ; it is Christian flesh we seek.”
The same fierce pagan thirst for blood and vengeance breathes
through the “ March of Arthur” {Bute Arzur), which M. de Vi 1 -
lemarquG obtained from Mikel Kloc’h, an old mountaineer of
Leuhan. More ruthless than the old Semitic demand of an
eve for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, the wild Breton chant lays
down a more terrible rule of lex lalionis :—
Be’t head for hand, and heart for eye,
Death-wound for scratch—a-low, on high—
Matron for maid, and man for boy 1
Stone-horse for mare, for heifers steers ;
War chief for warrior, ynuih for yearn ;
And fire for sweat, and blood for teais.
And three for one—by strath and scaur,
By dav, by night, till near and far
The streams run red with waves of war.
The very first thing necessary for the student of mental sci
ence is to form a just conception of what is meant by mind.
Tlie metaphysical conception of it as a peculiar entity, the laws
of which can be known in a way peculiar to themselves, must
be discarded. Upon this abstraction, an imaginary substance,
the supposed source of power and self-sufficient cause of cau
ses, have been built all the endless and contradictory systems
of philosophy. On the < the” hand, the crude proposition of
Oabanis, that the brain secretes thought as the liver secretes
bile, is not a true expression of the lacts. Mind may best be
described as a natural force or energy manifested to us only
through certain changes in matter. As there are different
kinds of matter, so there are different modes of force in the
universe. We rise from mere physical matter, in which physical
laws hold sway, up to chemical matter and chemical forces, and
from chemicai matter again up to living matter; so we rise in
the scale of life from the lowest kind of living matter up to
the highest kind with which we are acquainted—namely, nerve
tissue, with its corresponding nerve force. The highest devel
opment of force is necessarily the most dependent, as to its
existence all the lower natural forces are indispensably requi
site. All exaltation of for ce is a concentration of it. As one
equivalent of chemical force corresponds to several equivalents
of inferior force, and one equivalent of vital force to several
equivalents of chemical force, so in the scale of tissues the
higher kind represents a more complex constitution and a
greater nuinbt r of simultaneously acting forces than the kind
of tissue bt 1 iw it in dignity. The highest energy in nature
implicitly contains all the lower kinds of energy. The idea of
organization is therefore nec.-ssary to the interpretation of ev
ery manifestition of life. The mind implies a plastic power
minister’ll g to a complex process of organization during which
what is suited to a development is assimilated, what is unsuit
able is rejected. Looking at mni as a small and subordinate
part of a vast and harmonious whole, the history of mankind
is the history of the latest organic development of nature. In
the evolution of the human mind nature is undergoing its con
summate development. The law of this development is the
law of progressive specialization and increasing complexity.—
The first requisite being, of course, to cut the stick, a small
pocket hand saw is the best tobl for the puipose, care being
taken to get a bushy stem with the lowest branch at right angles,
or nearly so, to serve for a handle ; trim and boil, either in the
coppers or in some other convenient place—this destroys the
gap and at once seasons the wood ; then strip off the bark
whilst wet and hot, rubbing the stick well afterwards with clean
canvas, to ensure the inner bark being thoroughly detached ;
finally, round off the knots, sandpaper them, and polish. In
stead of boiling them in the coppers, wc used occasionally to
put them into the engineer’s bath, with six inches ot water iu
it, and then introduce a jet of steam for two or three hours,
afterwards allowing them to soak awhile in cold salt water.
This used to give them a most delicate tint, a sort of pale pink.
Occasionally we would put them into a boiler for two or three
days, when we were condensing, and that would give them a
chocolate color. But the most ordinary method of liuting them
was, after they were trimmed and ready for polishing, to white
wash them, allowing the lime to remain on all night, or a few
hours or minutes, according to the degree of staining required.
This would give them every shade of color, from a deep red to
a delicate orange; and, by mixing the lime with sise, as is
sometimes done for whitewashing the beams, the color will turn
out a most beautiful mauve.
General Butler, when sent in 1864 to command the military
force in New York, was considered on all hands as rernaikably
successful in controlling the lawless elements. It is reported
that after ascertaining who the leaders in the lawless element
were, he sent for them and said to tliem :
“ There is a good deal of apprehension here of a riot on elec
tion day. Such an occurrence would be a great calamity and
disgrace. It is of the utmost importance that the election
will pass over without disturbance. I have ascertained that
you have great influence with that portion of the population
from which the disturbance is apprehended. I have called you,
therefore, to request that you will use that influence for the
preservation of order; and 1 have no doubt you will be able to
do what is ne ossary to this end, for your influence is sufficient.
If there should be a riot, I should had it my duty immediately
to seize you and hang you on the most conspicuous lamp-post.
And I give you my word that I will do that.”
What especially strikes a foreigner, both in the Bicetre and
the Salpetriere, is the vastness of their size. The former is a
species of combination of our union workhouse with the asy
lum, and contains, including officials and servants, nearly 3,000
persons, of whom about 800 are afflicted with insanity and
idiocy in all their terr b'e varieties. The management is on the
whole admirable, and shows the gift of the French nation for
organization in every detail of life. In the matter of the
awakening of a certain amount of intellectual life in the imbe
cile, the success of the French system is said to be inferior to
that pursued at the Earlswood Asylum, to the wonderful suc
cess of which the French physicians are in the habit of doing
ample justice. The Salpetriere is exclusively for women and
girls, as Bicetre is for the other sex. Its size is enormous, the
buildings and grounds extending over more than sixty-five
acres, and the whole number of inmates, including officials and
servants, is about 5,600. Of these nearly 2,000 are idiotic or
insane. The principal cause of mania among the inmates is
stated to be the exhausting effects of over much needlework,
especially when carried on at night. The brain gives way
under the severe demands made upon it, and all the more read
ily from the want of sufficient food and fresh air. It is the
game in Paris as in London, or rather it is worse, inasmuch as
the piss.on for dress among French ladies is more unspaii,ng
and exacting than among English women. Of the semi-idiots,
a large proportion come from the class of the “ unfortunates ;”
and it is said that since absinthe has come to be- drunk in such
quantities by the lower classes in Palis the increase in madness
be th among men and women, has been fearfully on the advance.
There are fete days and amusements in these asylums, as in
Ei gland, but scarcely to the same extent. French ladies, a re
< eut visitor was told, never go over the establishment, dread
ing the sight too much. Bui German. Swedish, and American
ladies are by no means unknown as deeply interested visitors,
and there is no difficulty in obtaining permission to visit both
of the institutions.
A correspondent of “ Public Opinion” thinks that South
American meat might be preserved sweet for European use by
dip ting it in melted wax. When a snail or a mouse gets into a
hive, the bees sting the intruder to death and cover its body
over with wax. A mouse thus preserved will, he has been
told, keep sweet for years. As beef has been growing dearer
and dearer in Europe for many years, tidings of cheap and
abundant meat at the Antipodes has been more and more ex
citing the query, “ How can we get it to eat?” Jerked beef
appears to have been a failure. Liebig’s extract is excellent ;
but having fallen into the hands of the chemists for retail, has
been burdened with their rate of profits, and k« pt dear. Aus
tralian beef in tin cans is now offered for sale by tbc groceis ;
but the question, how the experiment will turn out, remains to
be determined. Meanwhile, the wax process might be tried.
Not that we are able to avouch tl e statement that the mice
are by this process preserved sweet for years, for we know not
the testimony on which it rests, often as we have heard the
story ; but we see no improbability in it, and btlie\e that the
bees have not selfishly protected their process by taking out a
vexatious patent.
Goodspeed’s Gold Pens,
The Chicago Tribune says, “ We have used these pons, and .
fin l them to be all that they, are represented. Send us five

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