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In Escobedo is exhibited a malignant typo of a political
heresy with which we, in a milder form, have been familiar. He is a Mexican Know-Nothing; a know-nothing alike in a political and in a literal sense. He lacks the first idea, we will not say of statesmanship, but of common sense, in public affairs. He is not demagogue and barbarian only, but fool also; for what folly greater than that of him who imagines, or alleges, in this nineteenth century, that his nation to be orosperous must rob and exile, ana then exclude from her territory all except her own native citizens ? “ So long as one foreigner remains on our soil,” says this would-be Presi dent, “our liberty is in jeopardy. By every means in our power we should make the country Mexican; and as all the property in the hands of foreigners was made by our misfor tunes, we should lake it, now that we have the power, and hunt them from the country / My motto now is, ‘ Death to all foreigners I’ ” It is astonishing that even one madman should be found, occupying an influential position, who dares recom mend such a policy: it is utterly incredible that a nation, civilized or half-civilized, should, even in the first moments of indignation for years of wrong and outrage, select that madman for her chief. Many worthless men floated into office among us on the first spring-tide of Native American ism ; but all they proposed was to deprive the foreigner of his political rights, not of his property, nor of his adopted home, nor of his life. Escobedo may have no other chance to become Chief-Magistrate of his native country than in en deavoring to render her the Ishmael of modern nations—her hand against every one and every one’s hand against her— but, in our judgment, the chance is desperate. That he is a candidate there can, if his letter is genuine, be no doubt. “ Should I by any chance whatever,” he says to Gomez, “ be a candidate, you understand my unalterable platform. When ever the time comes you can make this letter public.” The time, it seems, has come. Escobedo has but a single excuse for the atrocity of his proposal. Having caught what in our country has sometimes been called “ the White House fever,” it behooved him to find a weak point in the record of his opponent. Now Juarez, of the pure native blood though he be, has, in his general policy, ever exhibited justice and liberality towards foreign ers. In a circular, addressed by his order to the Governors of the several States of Mexico before the French invasion, these words occur: “ The Citizen President, whose faith in the destiny of the nation has never faltered, confides in that you and all the inhabitants of your State will sustain him in seeing that foreigners shall enjoy complete security in their persons and property.” The only complaints on this score which we know to have been made against Juarez personally, even when the European interventionists were trumping up all possible charges, was, that in February, 1862, he authorized a tax of two per cent, on all property, native and foreign. Our Minister (Corwin,) alluding, in a dispatch of March 6, 1862, to the European protests against this, says: “ I have care fully considered the subject, and have come to the conclusion that American citizens are obliged to pay this tax.” Un doubtedly he was right; foreigners residing among us during the war of the rebellion bore an equal share of the national expenses incident to that war. Aside from this, the platform i of the Constitutional party, adopted in 1859, embraces, among its articles, one in point. The articles are: 1. A Constitu tional Government. 2. Freedom of religion and of the press. 3. Nationalization of Church property. 4. Army subordinate to civil power. 5. Free immigration. In the platform of the reactionary or Church party the article ger mane to this last is: No immigration except from Catholic countries, By the Liberal platform of 1859, Juarez and all his party are bound. Nor is there cause for believing that the Mexican President, because of the war of intervention, has changed his principles, so far, at least, as we are concerned. Gen. Lew. Wallace, who accompanied him on his progress northward last spring, writes: “ At the grand ball given by Juarez in farewell to the citizens of Chihuahua, as part of the beautiful decorations put up on the northern wall of the 1 patio, the American flag occupied the post of honor. In all the speeches he made to his people, on reception occasions, while en route to the capital, he never failed, when they were at all appropriate, to make the most friendly allusions to our peo Ele and Government.” Thus, the defeated Church party eing no longer, as a political organization, able to keep the field, the two contending bodies at the approaching Presi dential election will be, probably, the Native Mexican party, headed by Escobedo, and the Constitutional party, led by Juarez; that is, unless the Mexican Orlando Furioso should discover that his case is hopeless, and so withdraw from the contest. It is said that five-sixths of the Mexican people will vote to re-elect their present President, and it will be especially to their credit if they re-elect him over Escobedo. Meanwhile, Juarez seems to be acting with vigor and sound judgment. He lias issued a proclamation strictly enforcing the sale of the Church property, and directing that 40 per cent, be paid in gold, the remainder in bonds of the Republic. A number of lotteries, it appears, had been authorized by Maximilian for the benefit of charitable institutions, and the ladies concerned in these enterprizes applied to Juarez for permission to continue them. His action on this occasion might put.to shame that of more pretentious governments. He sent a sum of money for the charities and raffles, “ for the reason that they consume the fruit of the labor of the working and needy classes, and because, through the incentive of a great gain, although an improbable one, they weaken the stimulus to labor, which is trie first basis of social welfare.” This has the true ring. If the Mexican people, appreciating such sentiments as these, rally round the man who utters them, and re-elect him President, there is hope for the future of their country. But if they take the text of the Escobedo letter to Gomez as a platform, and for calm, wise, liberal Constitutional reforms, substitute national ebullitions of law less fury, the bloodthirsty recommendations of a bandit, then we shall augur for them a long term of trial and Buffering ere they learn, by bitter experience, that nations, like individuals, can only enjoy tranquillity and happiness by living on terms of amity, hospitality, and good fellowship with their neigh bors. We await the issue with interest, and with fair hope that the Mexican people, misled for a time by the glamour of passion, may yet prove to Europe their capacity for self government.—N. Y. Tribune. Two Rascals—Givkr and Ebcbiybk.—Sometimes, to amuse myself, I give a beggar a guinea. He thinks it a mistake, and, for fear that I should find it out, off he runs as fast as he can. I advise you to give a beggar a guinea sometimes, it is very amusing.—Botmhiid. THE OMNIBUS. THE SUMMER WIND. Speak for me, winds of summer, Blowing over the moorland, Over the crested billows, Over the mountain summits, Over the forest branches, And chimneys of the town ! Speak for me, melancholy wind, And say to suffering human kind The hopeful things that I might tell, Had I a voice to fall and swell, Like thine, upon the land and sen, As all-pervading and as free. Breathe gently in the cottage, Murmur through door and keyhole, Or pipe in the cozy ingle, Where, sitting with his loved ones, The poor man dreams of Fortune, Or mourns his low estate! And tell him, ere he goes to rest, Of all Earth’s blessings Love is best. That honest bread and strength and health Are better than a Prince’s wealth, And good men’s sleep a richer boon Than all the gold beneath the moon. Breathe soft in shady alleys, Where lovers at the twilight Hit under hawthorn branches And paint tho rosy future, And tell them Youth and Beauty Pass over like the spring ; But that if Love and Virtue lean, Time shall not dim its golden mean, But light it on its earthly way, Until the mortal shall decay ; Then lead it through the immortal door, Where Love is young for evermore. Breathe gently, wind of summer, To the exile and the captive, Heart-smitten and desponding, Dreaming of distant landscapes, And joys forever vanish’d, And home they love so well I Tell them, whatever tempests roll, To keep their summer in the soul, And that the Wrong which seems to stand, And overshadow all the land, Is but a breath of vain endeavor: While Right is Right, and lasts forever. The Sultan of Turkey.—Abul Aziz, the present Sultan of Turkey, was born on the 9th of February, 1830. He is the second son of Sultan Mahmoud II., and ascended the throne at the death of his elder brother, on the 25th of June, 1861. He is the thirty-second sovereign of Turkey of the house of Othman, the founder of the dynasty, and the twenty sixth Sultan who lias ruled Constantinople and the territory of the old Byzantine empire. He is described by Mr. C. M. Kennedy, an English tourist, as a man of great energy, and his appearance indicates that he possesses considerable ability. According to this writer, the Sultan is a zealous Mussulman. One of his first acts was to issue an edict against the thin vails that the Mohammedan women began to wear. He also greatly restricted the liberty which the ladies of the court had enjoyed during liis brother’s reign. Every Friday he attends service at one of the mosques, visiting the chief mosques in succession, according to hiB pleasure. In the morning it is given out that he intends going, when strangers generally repair to some place in the line of the procession, in order to see it pass. The procession is short and without any great display. It is headed by a party of officers; then come Omar and Fuad Pasha, attended by aides-de-camp; the Sultan and his personal attendants, followed by a squadron of household cavalry. At Constantinople every one goes about with an umbrella to keep off the sun’s rays; this is lowered as he passes, being the proper Turkish mode of salutation to a sovereign. The Sultan never bows, nor does he often return salutations; when he does, it is by looking at the person he so honors. On the day when I went to see him, says Kennedy, the line of procession was very short, extending only from the Palace of Dolina-Bagtchi to a mosque about three hundred yards from it. Rows of Turkish spec tators lined the way, which was kept by a few soldiers. A member of the Froncli corps diplomatique and myself were the only Europeans present. We took up a position at a bend of the road, and obtained a good view, besides receiving the honor of being looked at by his majesty. He was very plainly dressed in the ordinary costume of a Turkish gentle man, the sole distinguishing mark being the diamond orna ment worn on the fez. He is very particular in requiring the attendance of all the officers of state at mosque; the order of procession is so formed that he sees them all in coming out of mosque; and scandal says that several of them drop in toward the end of the service—juBt in time to take their place in the rows of ministers through which he passes. The Sul tan is very fond of his army, and has taken active measures for Borne years past to get it in good order with regard to equipment as well as discipline. The soldiers have been clothed in a uniform somewhat similar to that of the French army. The navy has also engaged the Sultan’s attention. He often inspects vessels of war; and a good story was told of the captain of a certain vessel on one of these occasions. The Sultan’s intended visit had become known to the captain, who sent away all the inferior looking men belonging to his ship, and borrowed the finest looking portion of the crews of other vessels then in the harbor. He was quite pleased with his new crew, when some suggested that the Sultan would ask why so many men had so few medals among them. There was just time enough to send and borrow medals as well as men, and to distribute them before his majesty arrived. The captain was highly approved by his sovereign, the new crew greatly admired, and a handsome gratuity sent to be divided among all on board. The captain got the lion’s share, and expects to be made an admiral, it is thought, by this “Yankee trick.” The Sultan is a yachtsman, and makes frequent trips in his favorite yacht. It is a large and magnificent vessel, and has first rate sea-going qualities. The state cabin, occu pying the whole aft part of the ship, is splendidly fitted up, with handsome couches and very fine silver lamps, the panels being prettily painted with landscapes and flowers. The windows are large and liung with brocade curtains.. The •Sultan’s bedroom, which adjoins, is smaller but similarly furnished; it conta’ elaborately curved chamberlains’ w'aiting rooms and their several cabins. Tho deck is quite open. The Sultan often goes on board in tho afternoon to smoke a pipe and contemplate bis capital.. The Sultan has a snug little income. There are different estimates of it. Tho minister of finance states that the civil list amounts to over 240,000 purses, or more than five millions of dollars in gold. This is only one item of his income. There are other authorities who reckon the personal expenditures of the Sultan at about $45,000,000 in gold; or rather more than three-fourths of the entire revenue of the empire. This income is largely incumbered. Still, what with this revenue, the rentage of crown domains, presents from tributary princes and high state officers, the Sultan manages to squeeze along. Jt is not written that lie pays any income tax. The Sultana Valide is said to be an amiable woman, and to exercise con siderable influence over her son. She is the only woman whom he ever can notice in public without violating Turkish etiquette. A few years ago, a report was widely circulated in Europe that the Sultan was about to depart from the cus toms of his predecessors, and to discontinue polygamy ; but no one who possessed local information believed it. The truth is that the reigning Sultan differs little from his prede cessors, except that, as be has a taste for naval and military affairs, he restricts the expenditure of the imperial harem as much as possible. Most of the great pashas, (such as Fuad, Aali, Kiamel, Mehemet Ali and Aclimet Yefyk Effendi,) :is well as the lower orders, have only one legal wife. Namich Dasha is now almost a solitary instance among the great men of the empire of the exercise of the right to marry four wives. Bolow the legal wife, who is mistress of the household, come the odalisques, when there are any, whose position is accur ately defined by usage; their number is not limited by law, but is restrained practically by the obligation to afford them maintenance during their lifetime. Below them come the slaves, or servants of the establishments, from whom tho odalisques are generally selected. By Mussulman law, all children inherit alike, sons and daughters receiving equal shares, and are of equal rank, with the exception of those of the Sultan. The Sultan never marries. He confers the title of Kadine on one or more of his odalisques, and only a son of a Kadine can succeed to the tin-one. To render this limit ation more secure, the male children of the odalisques are generally put to death as soon as they are born. Formerly, the same rule was observed with regard to the sons of all members of the Sultan’s family; but how far this is the case now it is difficult to discover. A prince in the order of succession never contracts a legal marriage. The title of Sultana is, therefore, generally applied by Europeans incor rectly. The only person who can properly assume it is the mother of tho reigning sovereign, and then only during his lifetime. Emic/ration to Utah.—Less than twenty years ago, the Latter Day Saints were a poor and persecuted sect. Now, they number over 100,000, and control a large and fertile territory. It was in 1848 that the main body of the sect encamped upon the ehox-es of Salt Lake, where they have founded an empire, a despotism the most absolute that exists on earth. An unmixed patriarchal government, nourishing in modern times, and within the boundaries of the great liepulic, presents a singular anomaly. Political philosophers of the Carlyle school would Bay that it is a natural reaction from free institutions, the revulsion of a people wearied with self government, liarrassed by the petty tyrannies of a thousand demagogues, and seeking refuge and rest in the absolute despotism of a single ruler who combines in himself the attributes of prophet, priest and king. Unfortunately for this theory of hero worship, the facts do not sustain it. A. very small proportion of the rank and file of Mormonism is com posed of native Americans. The leaders, it is true, are and always have been native born Americans, and most of them Yankees. The whole spiritual and temporal power of the church is centered in a few elders forming a close corporation, with Brigham Young, “ the Lion of the Lord,” (himself a New England Yankee of the shrewdest type,) at the head of it, and no man of foreign birth has thus far been able to thrust his head into the secret conclave that silently but effectively rules the destinies of the Saints in Utah. On the contrary, the great mass of the population, the tithe payers and poor nose-led dupes, are foreigners expressly imported from Europe to reinforce Zion, to make the desert to blossom as the rose—in short, to becomo “ hewers of wood and drawers of water” for the Yankee church magnates. Foreign prose lytism is the main stay of Mormonism. The very first earnings of the brethren in their new Canaan of the West were devoted to this object. As early as 1850, an emigration fund was established, and a complete system organized for I the transportation of proselytes from the old world. These converts were chiefly obtained among the working classes of England and Wales—the hard-worked, under-paid laborers of the mining and manufacturing districts of those countries naturally falling the easiest victims to the stupendous delu sion. We can fancy with what open-mouthed wonder those pariahs of society, whose inheritance was life-long toil, would listen to the glib-tongued missionaries, as they painted the sensual delights of the new paradise, and how eager they would be to accept a free passage thither. Scarcely any effort is made to obtain converts from the States, the foreign element being so much easier to manipulate and mould to the strict requirements of the church. .On the 5th of tho present month, over 400 of these sectaries arrived at New York, on their way to Salt Lake. They are described as composed of “laborers, matrons, wives without limitation, children in abundance. But more numerous than all these were the well-shaped and pretty buxom young maidens who came out under the care of two missionaries, who had been appointed to keep watch and ward over them during their journey to the promised land.” When the Mormon digni taries who are now in Paris return, they are expected to bring with them the largest delegation of miscellaneous converts, gathered from all parts of Europe, and speaking all known tongues, that has ever yet landed upon the shores of the new world. Too Truk.—Speaking of pollytix, Nashy says: “I never saw but one man who ever saw any good in it. He aed he liked it, cos, next to counterfeiting and bigamy, two pursoots he doted onto, there was in it the greatest room tor develops the dormant raskality which is in every wan,"