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GENERAL NEWS. .
United States. Mr. George Sharswood, the Democratic candidate for the office of Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, has been elected by a majority of between eight and nine thou sand votes over his opponent, Mr. Williams, the candidate | put forward by the Republican party. In Ohio the proposed “negro suffrage” amendment to the State Constitution appears to have been defeated by a con siderable majority; but it is believed that the Republican State ticket has been elected. The Republicans have carried Iowa, although the Sunday and liquor questions have, in some considerable degree, diminished their strength. The reception of General Sheridan in Boston, Mass., on Monday, October 7th, appears to have been a magnificent demonstration of public respect and confidence. He was addressed, in a neat speech, by Mayor Norcross, to whom he replied as follows: “Mr. Mayor: I regret that want of wordR prevents my expressing in flattering terms my gratitude and high esteem for the reception and welcome I have received here to-day. 1 am greatly obliged for your approval of my actions hereto fore, during the time our country was in trouble, in the cause of freedom and progress. I return my sincere thanks to yourself and citizens of =Boston for this kind welcome.” He was then conducted to the Mayor’s carriage, which, with the others, moved down the line of troops, taking a position at the head of the column. The military, in line, extended over one mile in length. The troops presented arms as he rode past, and there was continuous cheering by the crowd who filled the streets. The procession started shortly before 12 m., and was one hour passing a given point. It included about six thousand soldiers and eleven bands. The enthusi asm everywhere was very great. Crowds filled every street through which the procession passed, and Sheridan’s appear ance was the signal for prolonged cheering, and waving of handkerchiefs, and other demonstrations of welcome. Flags were displayed upon hundreds of dwellings, stores, and public buildings, and at several points the General was showered with bouquets. The General reached the Revere House shortly after two. The occasion was observed in Boston as a holiday, the schools and business in a great measure being suspended. The banks, insurance offices, custom house and post office were closed between 2 and 3 o’clock. In the evening the members of the city government, a large number of army officers, and nearly a thousand citizens were introduced to the General, who held his levee in the parlors of the hotel. At least fifty thousand persons were in Bowdoin Square in the evening in torchlight procession, comprising nine Posts of the Grand Army of the Republic and about one thousand men. They marched through some of the principal streets to the square, where Gilmore’s band was stationed, and per formed several patriotic airs. The General was received with tremendous cheers as he made his appearance on the balcony of the hotel. He said : Comrades, I am very glad to meet you here to-night; am very glad to see you animated by the spirit which 1 have seen here exhibited. I see that you still retain the same spirit that you had when there was danger to the Union. I feel that there can be no danger now, so long as you continue in the same spirit that I see mani fested this evening. In traveling from the West to the East, I find that you are not alone. I find our comrades in every section of the country are still animated by the recollection of their toils and sufferings to preserve our country. I feel that the country is entirely safe, and always will be. 1 believe that the Government will take such action as will indorse the sentiments of the veterans of the Northern army. I will say good night to you.” We give the following on the authority of the New York Times: On the ears coming from Baltimore General Sheridan spoke as follows on the vital subject of the hour: “The reconstruc tion acts of Congress are the only measures calculated to benefit the people of the Southern States. All my acts while in command of the Department of Mississippi and Louisiana were not only fully indorsed by General Grant, but in reality might be considered the execution of General Grant’s own orders. If the first letter written by General Grant to Presi dent Johnson, regarding my removal, was to be made public, the people of the North would be astonished at its radical tone; and when it is published the people will find that he (Grant) is Radical to the core.” It is announced that a movement has been inaugurated by prominent members of Congress, which is intended to secure harmony between the President and the legislative bodies on the question of Southern reconstruction. The special correspondent of one of the New York jour nals, writing from Washington, says: “The telegram from the President to General Sherman, ordering him to report here in person immediately, did not specify any cause for his relief from duty on the Indian Com mission, and it is supposed that, notwithstanding the asser tion of the administration press to the contrary, Mr. Johnson uitended to offer him the War Office. Finding, however, that the general’s fast friendship for General Grant and his pol ltica principles, which, whatever they have been in the past, are now similar to those entertained by his brother, Senator herman, rendered the acceptance of the offer uncertain, the 1 resident hesitated to make it, and it is probable that the General will return to the West without having ac complished anything beyond having several fruitless inter views with the President.” Genera1 Grant, in a conversation a few' days since with two Republican Congressmen, in replying to a direct ques tion as to the Presidency, said that if ft should seem to be the will of Providence, and the desire of the American people, that lie should be President, he would not feel at liberty to resist the one, nor disappoint the other. Official election returns have been received from about one-third of the counties in Louisiana. The registration in these was 54,135, and the aggregate vote polled is 28,681. All the parishes heard from, except Orleans, polled more than half their registration, while that polled 2,260 less than half. The Convention has carried by an excess of from 5,000 to 8,000. Nine-tenths of the votes cast were for the Con vention. Thirty-one counties of the State of Alabama, with a regis tration of 104,000, foot up 60,000 votes, nearly all for the Convention. The remaining counties had a registration of 58,000. The Convention will be carried by 10,000 to 12,000. We take the following history of the new Constitution of Maryland from the New York Tribune: “In the absence of the braver and manlier portion of the Conservative party of Maryland, fighting in Lee’s army or raiding under Moseby and Harry Gilmor, the Republican Unionists carried that State in 1864, abolished slavery, dis franchised the rebels, and gave her electoral vote to Lincoln. Peace brought home the boys in gray, who had made them selves hoarse singing “Dixie’s Land,” “The Bonnie Blue Flag,” and “Maryland, my Maryland,” all over the South; Johnson turned against those who elected him, and Gov ernor Swan & Co. followed: so the “ Conservatives” gained control of the State. But, in order to vote, they were obliged to swear that they had not helped the rebellion, which not a third of them could truthfully do; so they called a Conven tion, chose the delegates at a special election, and proceeded to remodel the Constitution so as to obviate the necessity for committing perjury thereafter. This Constitution they sub mitted at a second special election, last month, and ratified it by over twenty thousand majority. That is to say: they called out their entire vote; while the Radicals, outnumbered and overawed, polled a little more than half their full strength. So Maryland, by the easy process of enfranchising all her rebels, and keeping her blacks disfranchised, is secured to the Democratic party.” It is now conceded by the rebels themselves that the major ity of black voters in Mississippi will exceed 20,000. It is scarcely to be doubted that their vote will be given solid for the Republican party. This fact, being conceded, gives the highest consequence and significance to all the doings of the organizations that control the exercise of this great political power. In this view the meeting of the State Republican Convention at Jackson has become a matter of the greatest moment. It perfects the organization of the party for the State, and it enables the few leaders who control it to pull the wires simultaneously through the sixty counties of Mis sissippi. A considerable portion of the Convention con sisted of blacks, among whom it would be unjust not to ad mit that a very respectable proportion of the talent of the Convention was found. The Vice-President was a colored preacher—all the chief leaders of that people are preachers —and was perhaps the best speaker in the body. One chief object of the meeting was to lay down the principles of the party in a technical “platform.” It was rumored at the out set that there was to be a fight over this part of their work. But it turned out to be only a personal contest of certain aspirants for political preferment, who used this hobby to ingratiate themselves with this or that class to further their personal ends. This seemed to be so understood, and the Convention subsided into harmony, and almost unanimity. The person who started the difficulty was floored by the election of his rival to the Chairmanship of the Central Executive Committee by the loud and vociferous acclamations of the whole Convention—a compliment well deserved, if fidelity to the Union by a Southern man, amid the greatest perils and through all the Rebellion, deserves such a recog nition. To the Convention, however, it doubtless seemed more fitting that the man most hated by the rebels should stand as the proper representative of the Radical party. The negroes especially seem to think that he whom their oppon ents most hate is the safest man for them to vote for. The platform has but six planks: 1. It pledges the party to the principles and measures of the Republican party of the Union. 2. It promises to keep step with that party in every step of progress. 3. It approves CongresB and its plan of “reconstruction.” 4. It pledges the party to the education of every child in Mississippi—black or white. 5. Rejects all distinctions of race or color; and 6. Promises to honor hon est industry everywhere. We are very glad to hear that peace between the United States forces and the Indian tribes of the West is likely to be restored. Some of them are said to be most anxious to be on friendly terms with us. We are told, on good authority, that— “ During the long, cold winter of last year, the Crows car ried the mail for our soldiers between Phil. Kearney and Fort C. F. Smith, a distance of about 400 miles, which was the only communication our troops had. I had the pleasure of reading the speech which White Forehead (one of the principal chiefs of the Crows) made in answer to Judge Kinney, and it was certainly one of the most eloquent speci mens of Indian oratory that I have ever seen. He pledges himself to keep alive the friendly feeling which his tribe has always expressed towards the whites, and also asked the Com missioners to send them men to teach them agriculture, and wished to grow rich and live as the whites do. Their horses are magnificent blooded animals; their country is rich in agricultural and mineral wealth ; and their mountain streams abound with speckled trout in great abundance.” On Tuesday, in accordance with orders received at the Washington arsenal by General Ramsey, commandant of the post, from General Grant, Secretary of War, the bodies of the assassination conspirators, and also the body of Henry Wirz, the Andersonville jailor, were removed from their graves and reinterred in another portion of the grounds. This removal was rendered necessary in consequence of the pro jected improvement of the arsenal grounds, the contractor for the removal of the old penitentiary building being about to commence work. The body of J. Wilkes Booth was buried in what was known as the wareroom of the Penitentiary building. It was inclosed in an ammunition box. After the grave was filled up with dirt, the brick flooring was replaced. The burial having been accomplished, the windows were boarded up and the door made secure, Secretary Stanton tak ing the key w'ith him, and it was kept at the War Depart ment until a few weeks ago, when it was returned to the arsenal officers. On the receipt of the order for the removal of the bodies, including Booth’s, on Tuesday, laborers were at once set to work. The bodies were taken from the graves before mentioned, and carried to No. 1 Warehouse, where a trench was dug a few feet from the north wall. In this t the bodies were placed, and, as secrecy had been enjo but few persons were aware that the removals had been m It would seem from this that the Government does not int to give up the bodies to the relatives. The bodies of Booth, Payne, Harold, Atzerdot, Wirz, and Mrs. Surratt were placed in a common grave. - Italy. The revolutionary volunteers are invading the Roman territory on all sides. On Sunday, October 6th, a detachment of troops were sent out from Rome to meet the invaders in Frosinone, a province lying southeast of that city. A light took place between them and the Garibaldians near the Abruzzo frontier. The papal troops were again defeated, and compelled to fall back towards Rome. Great agitation and alarm prevail in the city. I The press throughout the country are urging subscriptions and money for the Garibaldi volunteers who have been wounded in the fights which have occurred around Viterbo. Deputations are arriving in Florence, and memorials are pouring in from all parts of the kingdom, demanding that Rome be made the capital of Italy. The Emperor of the French has informed the Italian Government that it may occupy the Roman territory with its troops, but they must not enter the city of Rome. Prussia receives with favor the appeal of the Italian Gov ernment to the European powers against the treaty of September, and will support the demands of Italy in regard to Rome. We may, therefore, look out for lively times in Europe. Are Irish nationalists ready, not to fight for one tyrant or the other, but to strike for their own country ? This is just precisely what, when the opportunity offered, they never yet were. The New York Tribune, in an able article, from which we quote the following, discusses the entire Italian question: “More than ever before do the representatives of ev6n Roman Catholic nations declare against the political claims of the Church. The Italian Parliament has but recently passed, by an almost unanimous vote, resolutions for the sale of the Church property. The Austrian Parliament, likewise, with almost entire unanimity, has demanded the abolition of the Concordat, and the Emperor has appointed Ministers who were in this question the leaders of the Parliament. In every Roman Catholic country of Europe public opinion begins to express itself in this way, and the universality of this opinion will prove a powerful ally of Italy. The people, informed of the public opinion in Europe, are fully aware that they are struggling for the removal of an institution which the nineteenth century regards as an absurdity; and this consciousness gives a force to the Italian movement against which, in the end, neither ecclesiastical censures nor French bayonets will avail. The French patronage awarded to the Pope must be admitted to be a powerful obstacle, but fortunately for the Italian people they have a natural ally in reconstructed Germany. The selfishness of Louis Napoleon —who, after pompously parading the nationality principle as a great discovery in international politics, combats the same principle more persistently than any European monarch—is driving both Germany and Italy into a bitter enmity toward France, and thus toward a close alliance among each other. The Italian statesman ■who would be wise enough to avail himself of this opportunity could have a population of over 70,000,000 at his back to support his claim against 38,000,000 Frenchmen. Ratazzi has missed the opportunity, but where such an opportunity offers it may be assumed that the states man will be found who will know how to turn it to ad vantage.” The Unita Italiana publishes a letter addressed by Signor Mazzini to the members of the late Congress at Geneva, in which he explains the reasons which would have prevented him from participating in the proceedings had it been pos sible for him to be present. Peace, he says, can only exist as the result of liberty and justice. He abhors equivocation, which for the last quarter of a century has been the source of the errors and powerlessness of his party. A struggle as holy as peace must ensue before many nations can enjoy real justice and freedom. He asks if Garibaldi himself is not contemplating a war against the Papal hordes, and observes that the emancipation of the American slaves, of which the presence of Mr. William Lloyd Garrison will remind them, is due to four years of gigantic battles. Assuming standing armies to be the only safeguards of existing governments, he contends that it would be wrong to expect a nation here and there to proceed to such a course, and place itself at the mercy of the others; and a Congress which would be empowered to decree a simultaneous disarmament is impossible before a revolution or a v/ar. Mazzini then enlarges on what he be lieves to be the enervating influence of the Manchester school in England. The policy of non-intervention is the policy of selfishness, of egotism. It was one of the causes of the Crimean war, and it also prevented that war from resulting in the emancipation of Poland and the freedom of the European populations subject to Turkey. The action of the Genevan Congress would but disorganize the forces destined to be used in the war of the peoples. The objects for which all who hate oppression should unite include the re-establish ment ol Poland, the completion of German unity, of Italian unity, of Greek unity, a Danubian Confederation substituted for the Austrian Empire, an Eastern Switzerland in place of the Turkish Empire in Europe, Scandinavian union, Iberian union, liberty for France—in a word, the United States of Europe, a permanent international congress supreme. “ The object,” concludes Mazzini—“why should we conceal it?—is one last great and holy crusade—a battle of Marathon for the profit of Europe, for the triumph of the principle of progress over the principle of inertia. Such is the end. Do not hide it, do not mask it. Have the courage of your faith, and inspire with this faith and this courage the sleeping peoples. Transform your congress; let it become the con gress of men of duty, of liberty, of association; let it extend through all Europe the universal republican alliance. The little time which remains to me in this world shall be con secrated to the development of your work. For the moment you leave me in uncertainty, and I esteem you too much not to say it openly.” At a Consistory a speech was delivered by the Pope. His Holiness solemnly condemned the recent decree of the