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" , I ' , . ' \ ( . . ' : , PRESiDENT OUTLINES . ISSUES . OF THE DAY ' . important Rccommendations a.s to Lctislatlon Made in Annual Mcssane to Congrcss-Large Part of Documcnt Devoted to Corporatons and Rairoad Rate Lcgisation-Rolations } of Labor and Capial ! DeaH Wih ' Fuly. L The message oC Presllent Roose. "eU , reat nt the frst sessIon oC the Fiy-nInth Congress , congrtulate . the people on the contnued prosper. Iy of the IUtOU , 'fho coso reaton , shIp mutunl dependence upon nnt , ench ether or cnpllll nnd Ilbor Ire . pInted out , and the message con. : tnues Corporatons , , ' not mcrly ndmltng , hut In- . Illtnl ye , 'hlc thIs , I Islao lue thnt' ' Is ' ' reatralnt ' "hero there no Jo\'el'nmo/tnl or HUpel'\11lon IwnH1 of the exceptunnl men use their clwlJlelnt In wa 's that are for the COlmOI001 , hut In way ! which tll n nhilt thll common Jood , Thc fort Ulel I I I 11 ell throuJh corpurte orl/nl nlo 10W so InrJo OHI / ntun luch In thuse that , . po\r wloll thor /I I to mnl < It / malr of necolslty to glvo to the lovrelgl-thnt II , to the Government - ment , which rprewnll the people ni a . 'whole-sole effectvc power of Hupol'I- Ion over ' . In ardor to ule. thei' cOflomle . In ure / henlhy soclnl nnl Indullrlnl le , , every shoull be held re- hlJ corpur ton I IPOlullble hYl Ind be nccountnblo to , lome 10vcelKn f rong onouJh to control Is conduct. 1 nm In no sense hostlo to cor- . 'Ihls Is an of comblnnton , poratons. nJo , , and nlY erort to prevent ni comhlna- ton wi be lut only uloles9 , but In the , end vicious , uecnu/o of the contempt for lw which Ihe fnlure to enforce law In- j evlahly pruduccs. 'Vo should , moreover , recoKnl e In cordlnl nld Imple tashln the \ by to Immenle cool elected corpor IgenclCI In n cOUll'y such as ours , al11 t the of , , - wenlh Intelect enrg nnl fdei- , ; I devoted to tholr acrvlco .nnd thoro- toro normnlly to the service or the puhlc , ; by their ulcara nnd dlrectorl The cor- I pornton has core 10 slny , just R the tmde unlol hns cOle to IIIY. Each cnn 0 nnd Ils dOle rent Hood , Ench should , < favored so IUII nR I docs ood. Dut I , each should he shnnlly checked where It aots Igallst law and JustCI. , The Prosltent aho\ts the Impossl , : blty oC the IndivIdual states deal. " Ing nuccessuly wih corpornton reed and the , necesslly oC conferrIng power Uon the general government ( even to the extent of a proper amend. ment to the consluton. He says : , I has been a misfortune thnt the atonal laws on this auuJect have hlthor- to been of a nelntve or prohlblUve rther \ ' , nml more 'j tlan ni nlrmlU\'e Ilnd 8t1 I that they hnvo In purt suuHht to prohibit - hibit what could not ue olecU\'ely pr- hlhlted , and have In Ilnrt In tholr llro- hlbltons confound(11 what should bo whnt he , alowed ald Rhoull not alowed I Is &enerly Iselesl to try to prohlhlt \ al restraint on competton , whether this re rlnt be reasonable or unleaaonnulo ; and where It Is Ilot useless I Is cenerly hurtul. Events have 8hoWI thut I 11 not pO'llblo adeqUntell to lecuro the enforcement of nny law a this kind by hlcl'Hsant nl'lenl ) to the courts. The Depnrtmlnt of JUltlce hns tor the Iut tour ' ' dovotcd more 'enl'l nttenton to the enforclment ! of the - - nnt-trust leJls- laton thnn to nnythlll else , Much hn been ; mnrked accomlllshd pnrtcularly )111 heen the mornl efect of the prosecu. ton : hut It Is IncrenllnHly evldont thai thel'e wi be a'ery Insulcent beenclaJ resul tn the wa ) ' of ec nomlc chnnHe. . The sUccessful prosceuton of enl dovlcl to evude the Inw ImlClntely develop ! another device to the Hm ( nccomlllsh purllo e , " 'hat II neeld Is not aweeilim pro Ilbllon of evolY nrrlloment , geol 0 bad , which In ) ' tend to reltrlct compet ton , hut sueh nloluate supervisIon nl regulaton as wi Il'ovent uny restrlctO of helng to the u competton tlom detll t ' ment of the - wol nR Hucl llhlc-ns f luporvlRlon nnd Ielulnton ns wi 11'0 . vent othe' nhuset In no wny connectel I wih Ilalrlcton of competton. Of thos , f abuses , Ilerhnlls the chlof , nlhough b : , no mennt the enl ' one , Is overcnplnl a - the l'cRull of tlon-Jelerly Isel 11s t honest promoton-hecnuse of the m 'ln' ' . , evis I hllncs In Is truln : tor luch over Cpl n1znlun ofon menns UI Infalo that ' It ' pnnlc f Invlel bUlhles al\I 's con , ceal the of t ! ! tlue relaton Ie pro ! enrne t , to the nctunl caplnl Investel , nll I crentes n bunlll of Interest Im 'mont which Is a fOltlo cnuse of Improper re . duclol or In Imlntol of wngel : 1 damages the mnl ' ! dlRcoutJe thrif anl encourngs gnmhl ng nnd spec ulaton : whie Ilerll\s WOISt of ni Is th trlcldness and dlshoncsty which It Imple -for hnrm to mOlnls worse thnn nn posslhlo hnrm to mnterlnl Interests , nn the debnuchery of Iloltcs nnd bUBln ( by great dishonest corportons Is f worse than nny aelunl matorlal evi the , (0 the Iluhlc. Untl the natonnl goverr " ment obtnlns. In Bomo mnnner which II , , wisdom of the Conlress may sUles proper conlrol over the hlg corpomtor en&ced In Interltnte commerce-that . I < the grent mnjorlt of the bIg COI , ortonl-It wi be Imllosslble to del adequately wih these evis. i I nm wel nwnre of the dlfcultes I the leglslnton , thnt I nm lugJesthll 11 I of the need of tempernte nnd ' CIUtol , aclon'ln securing It. I shoull em\llltc \ I aly Ilrotest against cnl e , hat ) ' ncton. 'he frst t \ ling rnl 10 to denl with the creat cotorntons el &ced In the buslneBI of Interstate trnl , Ilortnton. As I snll In my message , Dec. , 6 Inst , the Immediate Ind 10 r pressing need , so fnr ni leJIHlnton coneerntd , Is the ennctmont Into la\y , aome sc11ele to secure to the ngonts ' , the government such lupervlslun nl of the chnrced b ' itg laton rtos I riroads of the , ' enJned In Inte .tnte ns aha I ! nr trfe sumllUly electveIlre'ent the Impositon at UI ust or unrnsonnble rtes , I mUlt II elude putng a complelo stop to rebnt In eery shnpe nnd form , ThIs power regula to rntos , Iko RI Ilmlnr powe over the business worl1 , should be oxe csed with mOderaton cauton , nnd sol retrnlnt ; but It shou , d exist , so that , cnn be erectvel ' exercised when tl need arises. The nrst consIderaton to bo kept mind Is that the power should be alr atvp nnd should be given to some a mlnlstrUve hod ' created by the ConJI'e It Gtven to the Ilcsont Interslnte COI meree commission or to 1 reorgnnl Interlnte Commerce commission , au be unequh'ocn oomlllllon shoull male admlnlsttt\'e. 1 do not belovo In t covcrnment Interterlng wih prh'nte bu pess 10le lmn Is nccessnr ' . I do I beleve In the covernment undel'tllll an ' worle which cnn wih propriety lef In hands. But nelhor d ( belhwo n the coverment Inchlng frl overseeing nn work when It boeon evldont that nbuses are sure to obi thlreln unles ! there Is covermon lupervlslon. I Is not my Ilrovlnce Indlcute the exucl tells of the la w wh Ihould be enncteli but I cnl the ntentl ot the Conre:11 : to certnln existng C ( ! which It Is deslrblo to ( ( itons wih I In m ' judJlcnt the most Importnnt J viion which such law should conti Is thut conferl'hlg Ullon Home cOlllet' ' admlnlslrlh'c body the Ilower to l ecl lupon the case beln brouJht before ! 'helher 1 given rte plccltbel1 1) n t rod Is reasonable nnd JUlt , Bnd If It found to be unrensonablc nndnH then. of the co nfer ful Investgaton plnlnt , to 11rescrlbo the lmi of r beyond whIch I shnl not be lawful to I -the Innxlmul I ( lsonnulo rte , IS I to I . commonly caled-this dlclslon co a l'en90nnhlc amI elect wihin thence onwnll. suhJct review by the courts , I Homelmes hi penf at prelent , not thlt n rte Is Jlllh but that a tavolod shlllJer Is ,11 too Iowa rate , In Ilch cnHO the comn' , Ion would have the rhht to Ix t QlreadY estnbl9hed Ilnlmum rate the maximum nnd I woul1 n' ' pnly one or two such declsl , , bY the commission to cure rnlrod cc Ipanle of the practce ot Klvln& Impro klnlmum rat _ t cal four atenton Iho fnct thnt my proposl hI not to .Ive . the commlRslon Ilower to Inltnte or , orlllnnto IltCI Iclelly , hut to 10Kulnto ' or orllnated u ' the I I I/to ahenly Ixl'l ! road , - i I uJon COllllalnt anl nfer Invesl- , A hl"IV pClnlty should be ox- J1ton from nm' ) COrlrnton which tnlR i ' to HRpect ! nn oder of the cummlslion. 1 I rognrd tdH IIwlr to Pltablh n maximum II to ns Ilclng cRsl'ntl1 to nny fCllJI of rul ! eforl In the mater of Inlwa ' t eKuln Uun , 'I'ho Irlt 10CCRlly Is to secure - cure I ; amI unlosR It II Jr"ntcd to the commlslon thcre II lte use In touch- Ine the sUbject at ni. . . . . . . ContnuIng , the PresIdent earnesty dlscllms any Rplrlt of hostly to the rairoads , pointing out the beno. fl to bo torlved by the Calr-dealng roads In the oven.handed odmlnlstra' ton of justco. In thIs bolh the hon- est the honest ' ralroat man Ind shIp' per ole woult be honelted. Ending the slbject , the PresIdent says : Al pri'ate-cn r Inel Im1utrlnl roals , refrlgorntor chnrlcl nnd the lke shoull he oxpresslut under the supervision of the Interstnte Commerce commission or some Ilmlar uOl ' so far ns mtes , 111 agreemontu ttes , nre Ilrnctcnly neectng concI'ne , 'rho prlvato-car owner nnd' ' the owners of Inlustrlnl rlloa s nre entted to n fnlr mil renMonable compn- ! mtol on thell Ilvstment , but neiher prlvale nor hlllstllll clrs 10r rlronlls ed dovlces Mpur trells shoiid lo 1tI ns for rtes , A rebnte ltclrlnl Ileforentnl In Icing chnrJes. 01' In mlenJe , or In a division of the mte for rofrllorntng I jlst pernicious ns a relmte ohnrles ! ni In nny other WiY. No lower mte shoull npply on coodl Imported than nctun1y oltnlns to l0meste goods from the Amerlcnn lelbonrd to leRtnnton except In Mses whern wnter compotllon Is the , There be controllnl Infuence Ihoull llblcly ot the nccounts of common cnr- rlerl : no common cnJuged In Interstate bUllne ! ! shouli cnrrer any bookl or momotnla ether tln these reported pursuant to law ' regulntonnnd these 0' regulnton\ hoolts or memoranda fhould De open to the Inlpecton of the government. Only In this wny can violaton ! or ovnslons of the law he SU eb' dotccted. A lystem of oxnmlnnton of rnlrond accounts should be provided ' to thnt now conducted shnlnl' Into the nntonnl bnnkl by the lanlt exnmlners ; a few Olst-cass mlroad nc- cOIantH , I the ' hld proper directon nld proper nlthorly to Inspect books nnd , could nccomplsh much In pallers Ig wilful vlolntons of the law. I wOlld not bo necessary for them to examlno Into the nccountR of any rnlrond unleRs for good rensols the ' wcro direct- Il to dl 10 by the Intcrstate Commerce commission , I I ! Jroaty to bo desired thnt some wny mllht bo found b which ) nn ngreement ni to transportaton withIn - In a stnte Inteldell to operuto UI a frud the Inlerstato upon feleml commerce la ws could bo blought under the jurl- dicton of the fel0rul nuthorltel. At Ilrl'Rent It occur/ that Inre shipments of Interstate by con- trllc Ire controled cesslonl on purely state buslncsl , which of courle amounts to nn evnlion ot the Inw. 'Iho commlslion fhould hnve power to 'enforce fnlr treatment b ' the greut trunk lnes of Inteml and hrnch lnes. I ur e Ipon the ConJress the need for expediious neton b ) ' the lnterstato Cor- merco commIssion In 11 these mators. whether In reulltng rntel for trnnspor- taton or tor Htorlng or for hanllng , or commolltes In tmnsl 'rho \ Iistory of the cnses Itgnted under the Ilrcsent commel co act Iho\\ ' ! thnt Is olclenc ) ' hnR he en to a h'eat dereo destroyed by the wenpon of delay , nlmost the most fOmllable weapon In the hnnls o those whoso purpose I Is to vtolate the law. ' The ( uston of trnnlportnton les nt the root of ni Industrial sueceRS , nnd thc lo\'olutol In 1 n 181111'ta tnn , which Im tnlln Illnco dlrllJ the lalt Imlf contur ' hnl heen thn most Imllortant factor In the glwth of the lew Industrlnl condltons , lost cmphntcnly do not wish to see the mnl of ' tnlnts refused the re , wnrd for his tnlentl Sti lels do we wls\ to SI'O him Ilennl7od ; hut wo do delre l - see the ! 'stom of mlronl1 U'Insl10rta tO so hnndlod thnt the ttrolJ mnn "Iml bt Jlven 10 nd\'nntllo 0\1'1 the wcnlt mln \Vo wish .to Insure ns flir trentment fOI the Imnl town ni for the bll city , for tll Hmnl ( ' 11 for the big shipper. I the old 1 n 's the hl hway of commerce : - whether by wn ter 01 by I road on land wns OpOl to nli It helonged to the pUbl , Ind the trnlc nlol ! It wns free. : present the Ilwl ' 1M this highway , nnl we mUlt do our best to see that I Is kop to n1 on oqlal terms , Unlle th 011e1 ' Is ' dlmeult hlgh"n ) I I ver unl complex to mnnage , anll I Is fn beter thll' t IhOlld he mnnaged b : prl'nte IndivIduals than by the gover lent. But It cnn only be so Ilnnged a conditon thnt justce Is dOle the publh I Is because , In my jldmnt , Ilbl ownership of rlrndl Is hhhly umleslr able and wouhl probnbly In thll countr entai fnr-relehlnK disaster , that I wil to see such , nn(1 rOlulato of th m In the \ nterest of the pUbla I wi mnle It ovldent thnt there Is no nee for pUblc ownership , 'he opponentl ( Jovermnent regulaton dwel Ul10n t1 dllcultes to be encountered und t1 Intrl nte and lIvoh'el natue of the prol lem. 'lhelr contnton Is true. I Is complcnted nnll delcato problem , and n Itnds of dllcultcs nre sure to artse I connecton wih an ' plal of solutol no plnn bring the whie wi al benefl hoped for by Is more optmistc adhel ontl. Moro\'er , under any henlhy plm the benels wi develop crudun1y and I rapldl ) Flnnlb' , we must cenrundel Btnnd thlt the pUblc lervnnts who II to do this Ileculnrly responsIble ar de1cato work must themselves be of t highest t 'pe both ns regnrds ar ellelenc ) ' , 'he ' must bo Integrlr f , otherwise nblo men cnn not In the 101 run be securel' : nnd they must pOlse : a lofty probity which wi revel ns qulcl Iy nt the thouht of Ilnnlerllg to nl cust of Ilol'ulnr prejudice ngnlnst rl men the thought of ' ' R an 'thlng e\1 In remote ! reselblng subserviency to rll _ men , Dut whie I fuly ndmlt the dil 3cultes In the wn ' , I do not for 1 mome' ' ss . admit that these dttcliites wnrrnt 1 In stopping In our elort to seclre n wi , i nnl just H 'stem. ' 1he ' should have 1 cl other ( lect tln to Sllur us on to tl exerclso of the resoluton , the even-lln' ' \ I Nt justce. nnd the tfrtlty of resourc s\ \ which we 111 to think of ns t 'plcal lOt American , nl1 which wi In the el nchlevo coed resuls In this ni In olh ng be nehls of ueth'U ) The tnsle Is a gr ( I ono nld unlerles the tnslt ot deall m wih the whole Industrlnl problem. B IIS the tnct thnt It 1 [ 1 Jrent problem do ' , in not wnrrnnt us In shrlnltng from t Inl atempt to Boh'e I. At present W8 tn to such uter Inok of supervision , su leh freedom from the restrnlnts of law , t1 Ion excelelt men have oUen been ler I I _ torced Into doing what they deplor ' I because otherwisE tle ' were lef ut t . : merey or unscrllllious compettors. 10 Inl at nnl' assnl the mln who have dent , II ns the ' best cOlld under the condltc dl' ICC0l111shes IUo , Whnt we neell to I' Is to develop nn onl'rly s 'stem ; a \ ; slch a 1 'ltem can 011' coma thlou \1 the ' Incl'asl exercise &rdll1 ( ( of t 11 1st. rlcht of elciont go\'ermont control I : ; The necessl ) ' for safety npplanc on rlroluls , recommended In tit (0 i\t Proshlent's messnge to the Inst Cc to grc s , Is elllhnslzol , together wi Itl the necoRsl ) ' for a Inw regulatng t too hours ot lahor ot rlrm\d mono 't : On the labor qleston , the U his sago anys : ns eed 'I'here hns been demand tor deprlv courts of the to ' OiS Jower lsll InJunct' - In lauor . Ruch 8peclal 11In 11- 119pute8. 8peclalmlnt per ot tht equiy powers of our court. wo to bo most Ulwln. I II true that IC , , . . - - , , jU , ' , . nut have nUlsl . I , 1111 I I I power' ot the but ! , ewer , at lY 10e lmn ni IIJtJor exorc le Iho IloWlr to cal 1 Itlko by a Inbor the ot Iho woull jllUy lunlnl rllht wnler 10 /t rlke , 'Ihe r , , - "d V 11 to Illuln to 'ho Ilrocllre b ' rljllllnl the jllKo to give IUe nutco to thl11er"o 111.te , bloro 'grntnI the WI'I , the henrlli to he e , llto I the ndvellu I.Rt . ) ' Iloos lCt np- ' the thno 1l'ce ordord. I'llr 1t Rnl ( ! Whal II 111" n t . ( , mu"t depEIHI Ulln the ( ' of th e ; not un f1 ! ! I Ihoulll IIed to ot Inw , lS n Ilretxt' Ilormlt vlolaton ' the or I" ! , oIrty I' Ifo Cr Of , , ' ' jollnrdltllK , " , not authOIIn the I/Kullf of n l'lttlnln clI"r or InJunc. tel II ni " CISO II whkh It Is not nlrendy aUthol'lzl1 ! by cxlslnl Inw , I rOlcw Ihe rlcoml1nlnton I mldo In I my last annual mCKH'IJO for nn Investga- tion h ' the Velll'tll'lt of Commerce Lobar of enoml Inhur con ll Ions , e811eclnl ntl'nton ! bo 1111 to the condltons of I lahor nnd ehlM-labor In chil leJlllnton the leveral "tntcs. Such nn Ilvestcnton I fhoul'tnle ' Inlo account the vnrlous prob- 10ml wih which the Quston of chid lahor 1/ connectl/ , I Is true that thso prohlems cnn he netunly met In most calR only h ' the Ilntcl thlnlolvel hut It woull he wel for the naton to enlonv- or to lecure nnl Ilhlsh comlrehenlive 'Infol'moton ns to the conlitons of the labor of chlllel In the different Itntel to ' thnt hehlnll- 10 11 up thole nro hnnd , Inl 1\11' secure unt- fOlm leHlllaton of 1high charcter nmon the , In sovrrltntes luch I Hepuhlc ni ours the one thing that wo cnn not Ilo,1 to 1tJlect II the prohlmn ot turning out decent cltzens. 'rho future of Iho Ilellenls upon the nnton clt enlhlp of the Icnmntons to come : the chlll en of to-ay nre those who to- morrow wi SIIIIO the deltnY of our Innd , nnd wo not to them. cln nford neJlect The 1llslnture of Colorndo has recom- menlcd thnt Ihe natonnl governlent the provllte 10mo Jcnernl measurc for prtocton frm nbuse , of chldl'en nnd dumb the Inlmlls IhrouJhout Unied Stnlel. I IlY the mnter before you for sideraton whnt I trult , wi be your favornble con- 'rho Departmcnt of Commerce nnd' rahor Ihould nlso mnle a thoroulh InveRt - of the of wumen In veRt nton condiions hldultry. O\'er f\'o miion Amerlcnn women are now en In Jalnful oecu- pntons : Iet there Is agel almost complete learth of datn upon which to base nny trstworthy concluRlons ns regard ! n sub- ject I and com- 11 Imllrtant lS I ! valt plcntel , ' 1here II neell of ful Imowledgo on which to hnRc ncton lookIng toward Mtato Ind ( le lslntol for the prolecton mUnIC\11 \ women. 'rhe Intr- nl 11ucton of w men Into Inlutry Is work- Ing nnd In the do- chnnJe Ilsturhnnce soclnl le or Ihe nnton. The mestc nnl mltlaHe , nnd cllecialy In the hlrth rnte. hnl heen coIncident with I. \Vo must face nccomplshel tacts , nnd the alJustment 10 taetor ) ' conditons mUft be mnde ; but Rurely It cnn be made wih less frlcton nnd less harmful efects on tnmly lfe than Is now the cnse. 'hls whole mater In realy torml ono ot the greut- est soclologlcnt phenomenl ot our tme ; It Is a 60clal of the Irst 1m- portnnce , ot queston Importance thnn nny merely poltcal or economic queston can be : nnd to solve It we need nmple Intn , gathered In u Bnno nll scientfc spiri In the , course of nn exhuustvc In- vestgnton In nny Jreat Inbor dlsturblUce not only nre employer emllloye Interested , but nlso 1 third pnrty-the gonernl publc. Every consldernble labor dlmcul In which Intorslate cOlmerce Is Involved should be Inveithmted by the goverment /nl ] the . facts oUclnlY rellorted to the Dublc. ' 1he queston of lecurlng 1 healh ) ' . leI- mutunly sympnthetc respcctngL otween eml110yer and emplo 'e , ltudo ni wnge-worker , Is a dlleult cnplnlst anl one. Al phnses of the labor problem Ilrove dlfcult when approached. But the underlying prlnchlles , the root prlnehlles , In accordance 'vlth which the Ilroblem must be solved Ire entrely simp e. " 'e cnn get justce nl1 IIRht denlng only I \Vo must fnce nccomplshed facts , nnd the Ilrlnelple of tlcntng I man on his worth n mnn rther thnn with reference to ni ! soclnl posiion , hi ! occupaton. or the to which he belonls. ' 1hero nro cuRs sellsh nnd brutnl men In ni rankl of Ifo. I they nro caillal'tl theIr sellRhness nnd brutnlty may tlke the term of harl Indllerence to sulerlnl. Rreedy dlsregnrd of every morl I'estrlnt which Interferes the of , and wealh wih accumulntnn of the wenll : or. coll-blooded Inborers , the form of Inzlness. of ! Hlen envy of the more fortunate , 111 deeds of mur- of to 1'lfol m wllnJness . Such conduct Is just lS reprehensible In one calo ns In the other , and ni honeRt and fnrRcelng men should Join In wnlrhll n nlnst I wherver . It becomes manlflst , Inll'Ilunl caplnl. . I. , - 1st wnge-worker nll Illvlluul cot10ra- union. to the ton nl1 I ( Illto entted of thl law , and mURt nllo Plotocton Inw , MO ' , In ndilton to mere obedience to the law. each man , t he be n rlaly w'od ct en. lust show I hroall s 'mI1th ' for hi ! lelghbor and dlllo to 10011 at nny queston ! Ionulne ! nrlslng bet" en th(1 from the stnndpolnt of thnt nchhhor 10 10sR lmn frol his own ; nnl to this ( ' 11 It Is essentnl that nnd wl e-worl\r should consult - sult freely ono wih the other , should each ftrlvo to hrll .clo or the dny when both thn t I hey nr ( IlrOPclly part- shnl renlze . the amI not enemies. ' 0 npproach nell which nrle between ! questons lolel' from the standpoint which tl'ents ench ! lle In the mass ns thu en- cmy of the other alII In the mnss It both wlcled nnd foolsh , In the pnst the most direful nmong the Intunces which have hrought nhout the llownfll of republcs hns over becn the glowth of the clnss Iplllt , the JrOyth or the spirIt which tends to mnlle a mnn subordinate the welfare - faro of the ImbUe ns a whole to the wel- fnre of the ' to which he thelnrtCUIII' ca1s belons. 'h \lnrtCUIII' \ > ' brings nbout I ! his to trent each man not on tenlnncy nn , but on hIs posl. 111vidual meris al belonGtng to n crtnln cllss In ton , such a S\1lrlt glOWS Uf communiy I In \ mntel ' pro\ ' thll Hepublc I wi ul rntnl to us , ns In the It hns proved fatui to every commun 11st In which It hm . become dominant. Unles we con. tnue to Iteep a quick nnd Ivol3 of the fense Jreat fUllnmentn the Individual truth that our concern Is wih . worth or tbe Individual man , thll govern. mont cannot hold the place which I bal Icbleved permanent ) the natone. Tbe vital lnes or cleavnge among our people de , not correspond , and hldeed run at right an elel to , tbo lnes or clenvage wblcb dlvldl from , wblch dlvldl wage.worker occullaton from occupaton capialsts , farm en tron banker men or smal means from mel 01 large meanl , mcn who lve In the tOWD fror men who lve In the country ; for the \'la or cleavagl II the lne which dlvldel thl lne man who tries to do wel by bll ; from the dishonest man who doel I b his nehhbor , In other words. the stand ard we shoulJ utablsh Is the standarl or conduct , not the standard of occupaton of meanl or of social positon. 1 Is tbl man's moral qual . his atitude toward th , grelt which concer al bumlnltT questons do him his of , hie power to lennlnen le m duty toward hlmsel lud townrd other whlel , h count : and Ir we eubsttute for th IIItandard of peronal Judgment wblch treat nt each lIn accurdlng to his meris , anothe In accorllance which mel stalllrd wih al LS se o. oue clal are favored and al men of anne no other clan dlscrhnlulted aKllnst , we Ihal d he damage te tle body poltc , I bed d- Irrtllrable our people are too snne , too sel dle'e : , . too nt ror sel-governmeut , eve f r08pectng. Ily to adopt 8uch In ntttnde ThIs governmen II not aud never 8hal be Kovernment by 11 Illntocracy. TIls ! overnment Is not an n t never shal be go\'ernmelt bT a mob. I to be In the future what I IJ hu been In the put , a govrnment based 0 'os the theory that each mnn , rIch or poor , Is t ue treated Ilmpl , and 80loly on his worth 8 hf ce a man , that 11 his Ilenonal and propert ch rlKhtl at to be sreguardQd , and that he I Int neither to wrong otlen uor to lurer wren Ih' from othen , cd ' 'be noblet of al forms or government I he . ; but It Is alee the most dl 10 sel.govtrnment possen this Irlcelen bool ne aU11 wbo dellre to haud I on to our chldre IS and our chldren'l chidren. should eVI do bear In mind the thought 00 nnel1 expreul nl bT Durke : "Men nre quai ted for civi 1 h utT In exnct 11roporton to their dlspollt , be te put mornl chnlns upon their oIn nplete In are disposed to proporton lS twy Iste to the couuoels of the wile nnd good In pre es ertnce to tbe tatery nf knnes , Society cal he not exist unles8 a cOHrolllg power upon I : and appette bo plnced sOleIhfI. nnd tl ) : less of I tbere be Ilhln the morC there mu Ith tIe wihout , I Is otlnlncd 1 the eternnl cn of things that men of Intempera I 10 stlutun mlulll be free , Tholr ror , luslons their feter " es. Insurance , The gret Insurance companie aCord It 11 In" examptel of con'ortlons whole buslne Ing Ins extended so Ilr heyond the Jurlsdlcten on8 the stal's whlrh cr 'ltrd them a to PI 101 elude atrlct enrorcemenl of IUPfvlllon a uld reculaton by tbe parent StltU , In IT I Ime anuual W8IU I recommtnd.d "that t . , - . . Cln'reu cnrefulT cnnslder whether the pow- rr or the Uurenu or Corporatonl eannot con- Etltutonaly be etended to cover Inteutnte In . " trnnMrtol1 118urnnce. Bccent cventl hlvo ftllhnsl1Id the Im'portnco of an ( orly and cxbauBtve consideraton of thll ques- tOI to l e vdltther It II uot IJos lblo to fur- 1IIIhIltor IfeRuardl thnn tbe lenral slal ' been furnish hl\'O able to Rgnlnlt cor- ellosed. rupton of tbo fnerRnt klud wblehu ben The Revenues. TouchIng the queston of tarIf nnd revenue , the vIews of the Prosldenl are ns folows : Tbere 19 m're nced or ItnbllT tban of tbe atempt to ntaln an Idellerfecton In tbe metbods of raising revenne : anl tb. sbock and strain to thl blulneB world rer- tall to atend any Bcrloul cbnnge In theS methods rcnder SU1 chnnge Inadvlsblo unless - less for crave reo son. I Is not posible to la ) down any ccnetl rule bT wllch to de- termin the moment when thf realonl for wi outwlllh the re180nl against lucb a cuance. Much must dpenl , not merelT 01 the needs , hut on the dpslres , of thl pcopll & a whole ; for leeds nnd Ile lrO are not nec. essarly Idontcal. Of course no cbaltS can bl made on Inel benllclal to , or desired by. one ccton or onr stat ! onl' There lust bo lomethlng Ikn n General fHreement among tbo citzens of the scveal stntes , 18 repre- Bented In tbe Conres thaI the cbane Is needed desired In tbe Interest or the anl people RS a wbole ; and thcre should then be a Iincere , IntellKent ! and dl81nterested eCort to make It In luch snape a wil combine , 80 fa a possible , the mnxlmum o good to tbe people nt large wlb the minimum or neces- ry dlsrenrd for the special Interelts of 10caltcI ! classes. Uut In tm ! of peace the revenue IU t on the avernel , taking a erlel of years tOletber , equnl thl epcndl- turel or else the revenues mlst be Incrensed , I.ast year there was n llenclt. Unles 'our expenditures - penditures can bo kept wihin thp : evenues then our revenue laws must be readjusted. I II a yet too early to atempt to outno what shap. such a readJultment houll take , for It Is ns yet too ealy to MY , brther thcre be need for I. I should be considered - sidered whether It Is not de lrable that the , tarll laws should plovlde for npplylng a I agAInst or In favor of any other naton maxi. mum and minimum tarlC rate. etablished by the Conpress. so lS to lecuro a certlin reci- procity of treament betwecn other natons and ourelve. Having In view even larger conllderatons or polcy than thos or a purely , economIc nature , It would. In mT Judgment. be wel to eodeavor to bring about cloler commercIal the other connectons wih people of thll contnent. 1 am happy to be able to announce to yt. tht Hussla now tnat UI on the most.favored.naton baIl. Economy In Expenditures , The necessIty for economy and I rigid scrutny oC appror 'atons Is made manlest , wih thIs provIso : Yet. In speaking ot economT , I mUlt In no wlso be understood as advocatng the false economy wblch ts In the end the worst ex- travagance. To cut down on tbe navy , for Instance , would be a crime 'sKalnst ' the na- . To tal to push forward al work on ton. tl. Panama canal would b , a eret a fOIT. Currency , The currency queston Is dealt wih a3 Cole .g : Every consideraton of prudence emands the additon of tbe element of elastcity to our curreucy system , The evi does not con. slst , In an adequate yolu , 0 of moneT , but In the. rlgldlt or this volume whlcb does not respond as ) I should to tbe varying needs or communites and of selsons. lalaton must be avoided ; but some provhton should be made that wi Insure a larger yolume or moueT during the fal and winter monthl than In the less nctve seasons of tbe year : so that the currency wi contract against speculaton. and wil expand ror tbl need. of legitmate business. At present the Treas. ury dopnrtment Is at Irregularly recul ring Intervals - tervals 10bl&ed , In the Intere t or the business - ness world-tbat Is. In the Interests of the American publc-to try to avert fnancial crises by providing a remedy wblch should bo provided by Congressional acton. Federal Electons , On the subject oC federal olectons , tle PresIdent says : "Tbe power or the government to protect tbe Integrl or the electons of HI own of- nclal Is Inberent anl hns been recognIzed and amrmed by repcated declaratons of the Supreme court , There Is 10 enemy or free more dangerous and uone 50 In- Iovemment the corrupton of the electornte , No one llerenlls or excuses corrupton. and It wonld seem to folow that none would op- pos vigorous melsures to erallcate It. l the enactment of a law directed ngalnst bribery and corrupton In federal electons. The detais of sucb a law may bo safely ler to the wise dlscretol or the Congress - gress , but It should go ns far as under the constuton It Is possible to JO , Ind ebould Include anlnat him who 8eHr. penaltes ! gives or receh'es a bribe Intenled to Innu- ence hIs act or opInIon as an elector : and provIsions for the publcnton not onlY of the expellurcs ror nominatons and elec- tons of al clndldates , but nlso or al con- tributons received and expenlture , made by . poltcal commitees I desire to rcpent this recommenllton. In poltcal camlJtgns In a conntry as large and populous as OUt It II luevltablo thlt tber should bo much expense or an entrely Irgltmate Illnl. This , or course , means that many contrlhutons , anll some or tbem or larle size , must be mlde , niHI. as a mater coulest such con. or fact , In an big poltcal trlbutons are ) always made to both sides , I Is entrely proper' botb to give an < receiv them , unless tbere Is an Improper motve connected wltb eiher gi or recepton. I ' 'the are extorted by any kind of pressure or promIse. express or Impled , direct or In- direct. In the wnr or favor or Immurly. then the Klvlnc or receiving hecomel not only Improper - proper but crlmlnll It wi undoubtedly be dllcult a a maier of practcal detai to act whlcb - : shlpe nn shal guad wih reaon- able certainty ngltnat luch mlscooduct , but Ir It Is possible to secure hy law the tul and ; verifed publcaton In detai or al the lums eontrlbuted to and expended by the candl- l I dltes or commitees or anT polIcal partel the resul caunot but be wholesome , Al con- I tributons by corporaton I to anT poltcal , commitee or for anT poltcal purpos should ! be rorbldden bT Ilw ; dIrectors Ihould not be permited to use stockholder' moneT ror such purposes : and , moreover , I prohibIton of this kind would be , a far R H went , an : " of stopping the eis aimed at In m"llod practces act. , Not enl ) sbou"l I both the natonal and the seeral state legll' laturel forbid an ofcer of a corporaton rrom ullns the moneT of tbe corporaton Ie or about any electon , but tbey should aIe rorbld such usa of money In conaectons wlb any by the employment 01 legislaton lae counsel In pUblc manner for dlltnctT 18eal . lerlcel. The posIton oC tbo UnIted Statel wih regard to The Hague conference enco Is cearly shown , the desIre 0 : the Unied Stntes for contnuance 0 the worlt's pence beIng made nppar ent and the necessiy for Itrength t ( maIntaIn n rIghteus posIton Inslste ( upon. Elnboratng on the many reasons ex for Ute malntonanco oC thl Istng Monroe doctrine , the message poInt : out 110W the Interests of our southerl neIghbors ore Identfell wIth our OW ] and the Impossibity oC the Unlel States usIng the doctrIne as n moan for aggrandIzement , The help at forded Santo Domingo In her escap from the ImportunItes of foreIgn cree Ion nnd rlpaclous revolutonIsts 0 home Is shown as a cnse In point , ' Army and Navy. The Presldentlnslsts upon tle nt cessly tor 0 wel trnlned body oC so dlers as a nucleus for an army I ot trouble , and thnt mnneuver tme a practcal ltnd should be 'undo talen to ndnilt the forces to ncm of warfare. An Incrense I condiIons the force so Umt the coa ! art\ery can be adequately mal forlicalons ned Is also recommended , wih 11 for the , erl approprIatons buldln and bringIng to a state oC porieetc UnIted Stntos ' , ot the nav ) : Laws , Naturalaton k- Of our present naturalzaton law , ! the message says : nd Durlnc the pat yur nldence h. ace 1st mulattd to coulrw the epu.lonl eo b. talnld 11 mr lit two annual w. . . . - , . , . , - - . - - . - - - . _ . , - - " . to the Importnce of rovlslng bT Ipproprllt. leg1811t01 our system of naturalzing alenl. 1 aPllolntc Ilst Inrch 1 cOlmleslol to make a cnrerul eamlunton or our naturalzlnI law8 , and to sUlKe8t approprlhe measure. to Rvold thc nOlorlous abusls resultng rrom the Improvident or unll' 'f,1 rlltl or cl- 11 nshlp , This commision , composed of a ! onlcer or the Dcpartment of Stat ( or the Depnrtment of Ju tce , Ind or tbe lepart- ment of Commerce and I.abor , has dl - chnrgml the Iluty Impos 1 upln It , 1111 bM submited 8 reporl , whlcb wil be translited to the ConHrcss ror ls t > s. . < elltou , lnd , 1 , for fa\'orable action , Is hO\o of the 'Ihe 1lstn nlsbllg : recolltUdatoul cmrlsslon Plrt. rlderal lre burtlu or nturalznton , to be estnblBhel In the VtnrtDAnt of Commerce - merce ald 1.lbol to IUllCrvlse the a < mluls- traton of the nntural7.lon laws Ind to re- celvl returns of uaturllzatols pend In I , aud aecompllsbel , 8ec011. Unlorrly of naturnlzton cer- tfcatl , frel 10 Le chllJrd nnd procedure. , ' 'htrd , Iore euctl' " qualllaton. ror clt- Izensh Ip , Jourth. Thl prclmlnary declaraton of In- to be abulahed anll no to bl lenten alen at Ipust nlnetT daYI naturalzed untl afer tbe or his petton , flng J'ifh , .Iurlelltion to nlturalZ Ilenl to be connnld to Unied Hats rl tllct courtl and to such Rlnte courts aM havp Jurlsdlctua 11 actlon8 lu whlcb the Illunt II controversy - troversy Is unlmll'II ; In ltes or oyer ] 00- 00 Inhnblants thc l'nle,1 Stltes dIstrict courtl to have el'lullv ( JurlPllcton In the , . or the alcn resident. of luch nalmal cltel. .ton Criminal Laws , LegIslaton to male our crImInal laws more efectve nnd to provldo adequate - equate punIshment ( breaches oC trust by pUblc omcalt Is urged , ant the promIse made lhnt 11 the power ot the admlnlstrnton shal be devoted to tbe detectIon nnd punishment ot such wrongroers. 'he Preldent contnues : Once agnlu I cal your ntenton to the eondltlon of the publc.1111 Inws. necent develojmtlts hsve glvel now urgency to the netd for such ch nKes ns wil ft these InIs to actunl present condiions , The bOlest dll- posal nad rlsht upr or the remainIng pUhllc h\ds Is or rUIlamental Impotance. The Iniquious mct ; lod9 by which the monopolz- In , or the publc Innds Is being brought about under the pr ( ent laws are becomln , more gen raly known , but the oxlstng laws do not furish ercetve remedies. The rec- ommendntons of the 1 hlc Lnuds commis- sion upon this lubJect are wise and should be given efect. 'rhe polc ) ' or creatng torest roe serves Is shown to have met populnr appro\'al , as hns the Initaton ot tor. cst reserves. Merchant Marine. On the subject oC the merchant ma' rlne , the message sa's : To the Ipread or our trade In pelce Rnd the defcnse of our na In war a great and prosperous merchlnt marine Is Indispensable We should bae ships or our own and seamen - men or our own to convey our gools to neutral - tral markets , nnd In case of need to reinforce - force our bate lne. 1 cannot but be a source of regret and uneasiness to UI tbat the lnes of communlcnton wltb our sl8ter or South America should be chief- republcs I rorelgn control. 1 Is not a good thing tbal American mercbantl and manufacturers - facturers should have to end their goods and leter to South America via J urope t they wish security nnd dispatch. Even on the Pacifc. where our ships hnve held their own beter thnn on the Atlntc , OUI merchant - chant nag Is now threatenes through the lb. eral sid bestowed by other ! overments on their own steam Inel 1 ask your e rnest or the report with which the Merchant Marine commIssion hal folowed It I long and carefl Inquiry. PraIse oC the good work oC the pen. slon bureau wIth an acknowledge. ment oC. the debt the country owes to the velerans oC the' Cvi war tol. lows. ImmIgraton , . ContnuIng , the message shows cearly the necessity for checldng the stenm/hlp companIes 11 their actviy In promotng the Impor"tlon oC unde. slrble ImmIgrants , whie poIntng welcome Is the out how wnrmly man oC good healh and moral charcter , who bIds fair to ndd value to the communlt ) ' . An Increase In the strln , gency of the ImmIgrton law Is advo. ca tet. On the subject at ChInese Immlgr ton the message urges the necessity for courteous treatment of the Chi , nese students , busIness and professIonal - sIonal men who vIsIt thIs country , whie assertng unalernble opposltol to the admIssion of cooles or skied or unsldled labor from China. ServIce , Civi Some pargrphs oC the messagE are devoted to an elucidaton oC tH worl < ngs oC the cIvi servlco law , ThE asserton Is made thnt the efects 01 the law hnve been excelent A revIsIon ot the copyrIght law ! II declared to be urgenty needed , nu the promise malc that a bi for thl : purpose wl be Intrduced at tH comIng sessIon. The passoge ot tht measure Is earnesty recommended. A law to regulnte Inter.tnte com merce In mIsbranded and nduleratel Cods , drlnls and drugs Is urged ; nIsI ono provIdIng for the buidIng anI malntenlnce of nntonal parks anI I the preservaton oC Nllgara Fals. Pelons for members oC UIO Li , , I SayIng Service lre shown to be dE : slrable , and a hIgh complment Is pall the members of the service tor thel l seU-sacrlfclng devoton to duty , A recommendaton Is mnde ior Ir crensed approprIatons end paymen oC more nttenton to the needs of th Indians. The PhippInes , DespIte the serIes oC dIsaster wblch hayo amlcted the Phlppln Islands sInce the American OCCUP ! ton-the rInderpest , the locusts , an the drought-conditons nre shown t have steodly Improved and tranqul I ) ' Is now almost universal The FI to th Iplnos are begInning realze beneft ot educaton , and a school n tendnnce oC 70 per cent Is tbe l'esul ReCerrlng to trade between the Islnnd nnd the UnIted States , the messag says : alatute In torce , enaet.d Apri II , 100 aUlpenla tha operton of the cUllwl.e lu or th" Unled Slate the trude b.tw.I the l'hllllo. Island. ulon the tHaI' ' unt JulT I , 1006 , I earpst rpclm.nd Unled th , tbl IUII'ollon L. IIotp01d untl , July I , to . t tblnk I or donMCul 10 uPII the CO.IO I , wise lawl to th. trllt utlt b.lwe.n , Uni , States alI Ih ' undcr on drcul n stancel , L'csu. . l'bllllllneo al " tbat I w ! . do no god wbat.nr to American bOloms , 01 S wi only Inh'rh're onll Ie an obotlel. to tl r. trult. bet1'l'en tbe l'bllllloI' . alli the Uol. . ; Iha . ' be Ih1 Ilales tJt I eou.twl. Ilw Ilst \1 . " , , ' to 1'8" . ' " RI11.11"t I'rlulnl oUlbt 111 ) I er. n unll Cree trlll. I ' "J"Yl' " h.t\ e.n tbe pl ' , . , of tbe ' lb. ' . of ; t Ile . 111311t. l'ule,1 8tat'8 BIII ' " " , , ' l'coll. ] . I l'hlllln. 1'1"1.rodlN I do not fr'e lud. , ' tUlt ' Bnllllle " 1\1 I' the , Ihe : ' . " . 1IIIHls alll 1:111'11 > .I"1 . II Irodl' ' b. , . , I rHolutOI II 'le Illur sl,1 luls. ' 0 l'r"lt" lon of tb. . hlandl , . ' , . tb. ' Ihlll.lne ' . I'rlill ' lre . It'tbols , .Iow alrh'llur. II Ihll' In \111. Islutl I < ulI.1 II " 10 \ 101"1 . . , . I , .IOlh .1 lal ; IllculI"1 .u'roUII ' 0 lar' In tb. , Clllrllrlse IgrleulurBI blalils Ihal \1 1" Ilany , 111) ' , .rs I.fure I , . " . . proli" o tbooe 1.lull. "I hlTt " " , 'a1 .hat. " B , ulnn I tb. lark.t. of ILl l'ul.d , : IRln , T