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* SCAM : OF M' 100 150 * 00 iM 800 SO 400 I 3Uua , McN llj A Co.nu-i'i Chicago. C4" The above map , although not orabracf ng the Oiispian sea and showing the trend of Russian conquent In Turkestanwitl glvo n. goncraltv accurate Idea of the opposing interests in Central Asia. Russia lias extended her power over the Central Asian khanates ntcadiiy and surely durinir the past twenty years. The acquisition of Merv two years auo gave her command over the roads to Herat and In the valleys of the Murghab , the Kushk and the IIcri-Rud rivera. She is advancing to Hlobat pas , where Gen. Lumsden , the British boundary commissioner , has concentrated his troops , eighty mites from Herat. This pass is 000 feet high. Here , in ca--c of war , the struggle will com mence. From Herat to Cabul , the Afghan capital , is about -150 milw. The tract of country in dis pute lies mainly between the Heri-Rud , or River of Herat , and tbo llurghab , or River of Mcrv. Tins is called the Badghis district. The Russians occupy the Znltiknr pass on the east side of the Hcri- Und , and also Ak-Robat , 120 miles Irom Herat , and also I'cndjeh , 100 miles from that city. The British at Quettah , beyond the Bolan pass In Southern Afghanistan , are 514 miles from Herat. Tie railroad connecting with the Indus Valley railway , by which troops may.be sent to Qucttah.throush the Bolan , is under construction to Candahar. It takes an Eimli.sh force h'fty days to go from England to Candahar. Russia's railway facilities place her iitty-six days from the same point. Russia can place a force beloro Herat In onlv thirty-two days from Odessa , on the Black sea , nnd it would take England fifty-one days to reach Herat Irom Kiirrachee.the seaport where the Indus Valley railway begins. The advantage , of course , in time i with the Russians. The Indian railways , how ever , extend to Rawul-Pindee , east of the Khyber pass , through which troops may be marched to Cabul , and by the caravan road from Cabul to Herat in six or seven weeks. The anxiety of the Indian military authorities to have an advance ordered is easily explicable. The Russians are on the inside track in the race to Herat. i FAX.I. OF J. In Which Five. JIitrtdreQ Men antl Women Were at Warli FrlgMful List of Fatalities. A.fearful catastrophe occurred In Brooklyn on Tuesday. Two houses , 53 and 57 Atlantic street , fell with a crash. The Abbott build ings , on State street , which are let out for manufacturing purposes , together with the building In the rear , were destroyed. The rear building was undergoing repairs and'was on props. The under girders gave way , whea .the entire structure collapsed , burying the workmen beucath the ruins. Fire was then communicated with the front of the buildings and , despite the efforts of the firemen , were destroyed. People , on looking up the street , saw that the roof of the building and portions of the walls had fallen in. They could hear screams of people injured and it seemed but a moment when a volume of smoke rolled up , showing that the building had taken fire. Hundreds of people , men , women and girls , were at work at the various branches of business carried on In the buildintr , which covers considerable ground , having wines which extend through Atlantic avenue to State street. A soon as the accident had happened those cinploj-ed in the buildiug endeavored to make their escape , and some who were last to reach the street ap peared with faces begrimed and streaming with blood from wounus received from falling timbers. It was reported at first that one hundred girls employed on the top floor in Haynes' bolting works had been killed by the falling roof , but it Is now known that most of them made their escape by climbing on thereof roof of tenement houses adjoining. The building was occupied by twenty small manu factories , and there were about 500 men and women employed therein. The building was five stories high and was erected twenty-seven years aeo. The wood-work burned like tin- Ser. "When the firemen arrived they found many young women at the windows screaming for help , their retreat being cut off. The fire men quickly ran up ladders , but the girls were hemmed in and many fell back into the flames before help could reach them. It was ascer tained that the engineer of the factory , D. J. Lowry , was one of the victims , and was killed by the falling of the left wall on the middle wing , on Atlantic avenue. The cause of the fire was the overturning of the boilers of a soap factory on the second floor. The west wall of the middle wing on Atlantic avenue had settled and workmen were securing it up with jacks. The middle jack had been screwed up too tight and was lowered , caus ing the whole weight to come upon two jacks at the ends , and the building feu with a crash , thus upsetting the soap boilers and causing the building to catch fire from the fuel beneath them. Milo Hinc , who occupied the top floor for the manufacture of buttons , says : "At 9 o'clock I was in my room directing the work of my employes , of whom there were forty , mostly women. The first we heard of the ac cident was when we heard a crash and this was followed by part of the flooring giving way. In one of the corners of my room there was a ladder leading to the roof and all the employes made a rush for It. There was a panic among the women for a time and two or three of them fainted , but the foreman soon succeeded in restoring order and then , in single - -gle file , thev climbed the ladder and gained 'the roof. The ? ladies marched out in good or der and gained the roof of the adjoining buildIng - Ing , which was not injured , and reached the street by descending the fire-escapes. " The insurance on the property destroyed ia -about $300,000 , while the damage will aggre gate at least ? 350COD. At 3:80 p. m. fifty em ployes of the board of city works arrived on the scene and were Immediately set to work by Commissioner Poillon searching for the miss- Ing. Ing.The following is a list of the killed , injured and missing : An unknown man , charred be yond recognition , supposed to be Daniel J. Lowrey , engineer in the button factory. Un known mau , horribly burned and no possibil ity of identification. Trunk of person , not known whether male or female ; the fire had burned away all the outer coatings , leaving the vital organs exposed , while the limbs were gone and only the trunk and fleshless skeleton remained. .Missing Conrad Brealing , Jr. , .agedK ) , of Dutchkill , L. I. ; Edward Butler , aged 23 , of No. 51 Atlantic avenue ; William Clark , agid 40 , residence unknown ; Henry Durse , aged 56 , of 31 Marion street , N. Y. ; Fritz Esrg'T , aged 21 , residence unknown ; Henry Haffner , aged 40 , of 195 Graham ave nue ; Jolmson , residence unknown ; Dave Lowrey , aged 50 , of 55 Atlantic avenue ; Adulph Mattis. aged 20 , of No. 3T3 Hicks street ; John McGeath , aged 18 , of No. 214 Bond street ; Benjamin Moore , aged 30 , of 753 Madison street ; Gus , boy in tin shop , resl- - dence unknown ; Pfaff , Jr. , residence un known ; J. Peters , residence unknown ; Ma mie Feeley , of No" 139 Bergen street ; Kos-e Ffinton , of Warren street , near Hoyt ; Annie Higgins , residence unknown : Mary McGrath , -residence unknown ; A-jgie Downs , residence unknown : Mamie Riley , residence unknown ; Katie McKeon , residence unknown ; Thomas Dorner , aged 14 , No. 281 Navv street : Gus- tave Lung , aged 20 , No. 285 Pacific street ; Win Lepge , aged 43 , residence unknown ; Jas. Carpenter , agid No. 214 , Graham street. In jured Patrick Doughertv , of hook and ladder . struck No. 1 , was burned about the face and bead and received a bad cut on the head ; . James Fay , fireman of engine company No. 5 , . is probably fatally hart ; Elma Haas , slightly Injured about the head : Mrs. Henrietta , aged ( JS , received severe contusions and one of her arms was fractured ; Patrick Hynes , fireman , received two scalp wounds ; James Lynch , dri ver of a'fumiture wagon , leg bVoken ; Henry Maurer , several slight scalp injuries ; James Murrav , foreman No. 4 engine , foot crushed ; Michael Ragan , fireman , contusion of the scalp ; Charles D. lluddy , fireman , burned , bruised face , arms and bodv ; Bernard Storp , fireman , scalpwound ; Jno. Burns , hioinjured. There were several others who sustained slight injuries , flesh rounds , bruised faces and limbs , but not sufficiently disabled to require medical attendance. LATER. The work of digamcr for the bodies in the ruius has gone brisidy forward. Fire men who wcrked amontr the debris in the in terior of the building said they could smell the sickening odor ? of burning human flesh. The ruins were surrounded by thousands of people , some merely curious , oth rs taking a sad in terest in watching the laborers , the firemen. Ten tenement Louses , which had burned out , are still unoccupied , and are in charge of policemen , the occupants being obliged to shelter themselves as best they can for the pros -ut. The lamentations of friends of the victims , as the dead bodies were removed from the ruins were pitiful. A bed-quilt was.t brown over the bodies and many persons called to see if they could re cognize the indistinguishable mass. All failed and all statements were simply guess s. A leg ou one of the bodies was burned to the knees and the arms to the elbows. Other bo 'ies were merely a mass of black cinders. The bodies were all those of men. When the father of the missing boy , John McGrath , went to the police station he fainted twice , and w'sen he was able gave vent to the most piteous moans. "Oh , sergeant , " he cried , "do tell me my poor bov , mv only support , is not dead ! Oh , bring him back tome ! " The old man was getting delirious and had to ba removed. His son perished beyond a doubt. THE IXDIAXS J.V HOSTILE ARRAY. Col. Fcltcr Gives Tlicin lialtlc and lliinlts Ho Killed at Least Fifty. A courier from Saskatchewan Landing via Swift Current arrived from Battlcford with the following dispatch , dated May o : "Ally ing column of 300 men from Uattfeford had an engagement with Poundmaker's forces of COO Indians at his reserve , lasting from 5 a. m until noon. The troops lost eight killed and twelve wounded. The Indian loss is estima ted at fitly. Colonel Feller covered seventy miles , fought the battle and returned inside ot thirty-lour hours. The men behaved mag- nincently. The list of killed is : Corporals Laurie and Slight and Bugler Burke , of the northwest pol ce ; Privates Osgood and Rog ers , of the guards , and Dobbs , of company C , and B > jrler Faulk rs. of company C. The wounded are sergeant Ward , of the po lice ; Lieutenant Pettier , Sergeant Gairncy , ( "orporal Morton and Gunner Reynold , of B battery : torueant-Mujor Jackson , ot" C com pany ; Color-Sergeant Witter and PrltiiteMc- Quilkcn , of the guards ; Sergeant Coopt-r and Privates Gary and WVttF , of the Queen's Own , and Private Gilbert , of Battleford. A Winnipeg special says : ( ommunlcation with points north of Humbnldti- inter rupted. Dispatches from Middleton have to bo brought by carrier to Humooldt. There is for several clav- . Lute nothing rew _ - dispatch es from this source state the steamer North- cote has been extricated and has reached Clark's Crossing. The message says further thQt Middjetou UQW havinjj i > len.ty ot .ainmu- nitioic ana supp io. . an advuncu Is likely < o Oo mndu at onco. It is expected the rebels will olfer battle at Batouche. Midd et'in has two Gntling guns , with which he o cpeets to do some deadly work. A CALM BEFORE TILE STORHL Hie Anglo-Russian Situation One of Uncer tainty An Abnormal Condition of Affairs. London dispatch says : At this writing the Anglo-Russian situation Is one of uncertain y. There ! s absolutely no war news , no peace news and no news of truce. No one that is , no one outside of the ministry circles is war ranted in drawlno- any conclusion from this abnormal condition of affairs. It should bf borne in mind that up to this moment Russia has given the Sex On reader not an item of news. Russia has acted , has advanced , has waged ba'tle , has taken territory , but has said nothing. England has done all th i t has v.ir.de all the explanutions. Hence tlie czar has had no retractions to make , but Mr. Glaosiiino's necessity lor making excuses has been FO supreme that in his efforts to talk against the blows last Monday he succeeded , without saying anv thing , in making the greatest speech of his life , and for making it gor a completely silenced opposition , unlim ited credit , and $5i.000UGO cash. For forty- eight hours alter the pr m- minis er's ninr- vf lous oration evry jingo in Knglan i was a Gladstone man , and everv quaker prayed lor him as a man of peace. The war paity were pure he meant to wipe Russia > ut ot A-ia. Thf peace foiks paid : "There 1s n ( statesman who realizes the value of human 1 fe. " Af or fivp days it Is fout-d that th < prom er's ad- drc s is still an o ncle. If it is to bo a pence speech he urged every rionor b e effort > o se cure an honoiable peace If it is to bo n wur speech he dwelt upon the "ocesi y of main taining the Ur-tl-h honor So it hnnpons at this time- that here , n e very center of the old world nfws , no more can with a iy decree of certainty be > ald than that the \ngl' -Ku-sl m Eit' < atiun is uncerta n. It is probable the Mt- uation will remain RS 1' is unUi after the second end council at Gatachino. A $700,000 CONFLAGRATION. 2he Garden City Stilt Ahead on lily Fires Nearly a Million Oiillam Worth of Lumber Destroyed. In Chicago shortly after noon on the 8th a spark from a passing locomotive engine act a ire In the heart of the great pine lumber dis trict , which lies along both sides of the south branch of the Chicago river and near the southwestern city limlbi. Bordering upon this district are a wooden built portion of the city known as Bridgeport and the Union stock yards , with Its acres of wooden sheds and pens filled with cattle , hogs and sheep. A fierce wind was blowing from the west and the flames spread wltb great rapidity. Th'e entire fire department was called out and began flghtlne the llames , but the twenty or thirty streams of water which were thrown upon them bad little or no effect as far as staying their progress was concerned. The dry pine boards and shinties were piled to a great height , onlv narrow lanes between being left for wagons'to pass through. The narrow In ters tk-esbetween the boards furnislied unusual facilities for the progress of the flames while they broke the force of the streams ol water and prevented it from penetrating tilt- blazing pine in the centre of the pile. Tfi" news of the fire spread rapidly to the business centre of the city , and created much alarm lest the firs should assume proportions approach inir those of the great conflagration in 1871 , which came from the same direction. Great brands were carried forward by the wind , set ting fire to new piles , and ssveral fire steam- erf , and the men manning them , had narrow escapes from destruction. Starting upon the west side of the river the flames ate up all Die lumber between Thirty-fifth and Thirty-eighth streets , an area of about 400 by 2,000 feet. It set fire to a canal-boat moored at the dock and it floated across the river , which Is 180 feet wide at this point , and set fire to lumber on the cast bank , which covered an equal area , and this with two or three planimr mills was consumed. Brands were carried eastward and set fire to several small frame houses oc cupied bv employes in the lumber district. The fire department , however , made a stand : it this point and succeeded in preventive the spread of the flames in the residence district. The fislit coutinut'l all the afternoon , and it was nearly 7 o'clock before the fire was brought under control , having practically burned itself out to the limits pt the distrlel in which it began. A heavy rain during nifh.1 of the afternoon was of material assistance. The entire area burned over is 870 by 2.8UJ feet. The ngaregate of the lumber destroyed was 45,000,000 feet , valued at § 700 000. The individual losses and insurance are as follows : Chicago lumber company , 8OCO OOC feet of lumber , valued at S-IOO.OOO , insurance § 300,000 : Bigclow Bros. . 10,000,000 feet ol lumber , valued at $175,000. insurance $125- 000 ; Hastings & Co. . 500,000 feet of lumber , valued at 83,000 , insurance SCO.OOO ; J. W. llinklcy , planing mill , loss S26OCO , insurance 512,000 ; five cottages , aggregate loss § 10,030 , insurance about § 5,000. Five Giants' Skeletons Unearthed. One of the most important discoveries of the many made in the prolific field of Indian moucds near Homer , Ohio , was made near there a few days ago. Beneath a small mound and five foot below the normal sur face five gigantic skeletons , with their foot to the east , were found In a grave with a stone floor. Remnants of burned bones and wood chare oal are plentiful , together with numer ous stone vessels and weapons. The skele tons arc of enormous size , the hcid of one being ing- the size of a wooden bucket. The most striking ; irtides besides the skeletons were a finely-finished stone pipe , the bowl being largo and polished and engraved with consid erable care in a simple way the figures are birds and beasts ; a knife shaped like a sickle reversed and having \\ooden handle held by leather thongs , and a keltlo holding perhaps six quarts. Those who know say this find is one of the oldest in America and perhaps the most valuable. JTcporte Regarding Crops. The May report of the department of agri culture relates to the progress of spring plowing and of cotton planting , and to the condition of winter grain , meadows and pas- ures. It also reports the prevailing wages of farm labor. Spring plowing is everywnere ate. Lnst year nt this date it wis estimated o be two-thirds done ; this year it is scarcely six-tenths completed. The injury to the win- er wheat ci op is greater than appearances ndietued on the 1st of April. The roots were olfed in the central belt worse than at first up posed. The average condition in the principal wheat growing states is as follows : New York 95 , Michigan 100 , Ohio 59 , Kentucky , Indiana 10. Illinois 42 , Missouri ( X ) , Kansas ( iJ general average P8. instead of 77 in April , a reduction of U per cent , reducing the indicat ed production of winter wheat to about iMO- 000,1)00. ) The condition of rye is also lower than ro- jorted in April , yet much better than wheat , .he averaee being 86. 'ihe average condition of winter barley is < o * Mowing lands promise neatly the average crop of hav , the average condition being 92. The pastures look nearly as well , condition 90. The Eiilly Lager Ucer. At Washington , Iowa , J. H. McLnughlln , justice of the pence , hold , in the case of the seizure of 800 kegs of beer at Jugenhelmer's brewery , that the beer was made , used and id contrary to 1 w , and condemned it , and instructed the sheriff to destroy it and the vessels iu which It was stored. He and six as sociates began the work at 7 o'clock at nk'ht , and by midnight had empt ed fully SCO kegs and sma bed the kegs , po ies , tierces , va g , ic. , valued at00. . The beer was worth as much mort- . The brewer made no resistance. : -'ome of the spectators dipped up the spilled beer in hats and drank it , and the ofh'cers had hard work to prevent a g neral carousal A good deal of whisky has also been gobbled up tit the same town and consigned to the hun gry and thirsty crowd. THE "MARKETS. OMAHA. WHEAT No. 2 70U © 70H BAIILEY No.3 52 @ 53 ttvu No. 2 57 GsJ C8 Cons No. 2 inixea 33 @ 3 * OATS No. 2 27 © 24 ! QOT EII Fancy creamery 2-5 @ 25 BUTTER Choice dairy 35 ( s > 17 BUTTEII Best couniry 11 & 10 CHEESE Young America 14 © H'A EGGS Fresh ID ® lo ONIONS Perbbl 350 ( jo 375 JHICKE-S Perdoz. . alive. . . . 350 © 375 CHICKENS Drcsee'd , perlb. . . . 10 & 11 APPLES Barrels < 550 © 3 75 LEMONS Choice 4 00 @ 45J iiANANAS i hoice 275 @ 3 .X ) OnNons Mcsma 3 .i3 © 350 POTATOES Per bushel KO © 75 JEEDSimothy 21(1 ( © 2 20 SEED ? Blue G i ass 135 © 140 HAV Haled , per ton C50 © 700 HAY In bulk COO © 700 NEW YORK. WHEAT No. 2 red 10 S © 102 ' , $ WHEAT Ungraded red 6 © 87 CORN No.2 57 © 57' . ) OATS Mixed western 41 © -53 Ponic 1200 © 125. LARD 7 05 © 7 1,4 CHICAGO. FLOUK Choice Winter * 75 © E-rO FLOUK Spring extra 75 © 4&J WHEAT Per bushel .WCcS w COHN Per bushel 47S © 4'J OATS Per bushel 344 ! © 85 POIIK 11 Ifiu © 11 17 LARD C f0 © C 85 HOGS Packing and shipping. 4 3J © 445 CATTLE Stackers 3 90 © 4 tin bUEEp Medium to gooil 300 © 400 ST. LOUIS. WHEAT No. 2 red 1 02 t © 1 03 CORN rcr bushel 4i © 4 b OATS Per bushel 37 0 S7 CATTin Exports 6(30 ( © 5 SHEEP Medinm to extra 285 © 4 0 HOQS Packers 4CO © * R > KANSAS crrr. WHEAT Per bushel 78iJ © 79 CORN Per buanel 40 @ ' 41 OATS Per bushel 31 © 3)1 ) CATTLE feedi ra 4 OT © 4 tO lious ilediumstochoice 3 to & 4 OJ tUEEP lairtoicood 225 (9 4 00 -a. - > HOUSEHOLD HINTS. Dissolve four ounces of Paris white in one pint of water ; boil it , and when cool add one ounce of ammonia. Tins will make a good silver polish. Sulphur maethes placed in ilowor pots , the sulphur ends down , have been found to destroy the worms which are so fatal to house plants. A solution oi six grains of chloride of tin and six grains of sulphate of copper dissolved in one quart of water will be useful in plating small articles with brass. For a square hall or a dining room in a country house a dado of colored matting is very effective. It should be surmounted by a shelf , on which may be arrayed any ceramic treasures in the way of plates , CUDS , vases and the like. like.To To cause griddle cakes to brown nicely , add a little molasses or coO'eo to the batter ; and to bake them with out that blinding smoke use a soapstone - stone griddle , nnd sirnpiy rub it over witli a damp cloth each time before putting on cakes. Polish salad is very easily made. Cut in very small pieces any sort of baked or roast meat ( veal , mutton or beef , ) add soft-boiled eggs and linely- uiinccd onion , lettuce or endive. Mix all thoroughly with a dressing of oil , vinegar , mustard and pepper , and serve. A charming panel for a square screen is made ot' plush of "old red" color , with conventionalized poppies in silk embroidery. The deep red and the brilliant Hume color of the llow- ers , and the cool green of the foliage , are very effective upon the soft back ground. A very good sugar cake may be made by this recipe : One cupful of sugar and a tablespoonful of butter , mixed together ; two cupfuls of Hour , two table spoonfuls of baking powder , one cupful of milk , a little salt and one well-beaten egg. Flavor with nutmeg or lemon , and bake in a loaf. Try this iccipe for cooking cabbage : Boil the cabbage gently until cooked , and drain it. Put two ounces of but ter into a saucepan ; set it on a good fire and , when melted , put in the "cab bage with some salt and pepper. Add half a pint ot cream or milk and one teaspoonful of Hour , stirring constant ly with a wooden spoon. Simmer un til the sauce is reduced , and serve hot. Don't put elaborate brass grates in your rooms unless you intend to use them. A showy brass grate unstained by smoke or ashes suggests in all its glittering newness a showroom and not a home. A lire place not consecrated crated to a lire , that has neither warmth ior suggestion of warmth , is a dreadful sham ; it is not artistic ; it is not decorative ; it kills rather than gives pleasure. Cold meat may be used to advantage in the following way : Rub half a pound f into one-half of > beef-drippi jg - pound Hour , with a little salt. Moisten the paste with the water and roll it out half an inch thick. Mince any kind of cold meal , season it and add a few spoonsful of gravy. Spread the minced meat on the paste and roll it tip. Tie it up in a cloth buttered and lloured and boil for an hour and a half. To clean and freshen old mattingrub it with a cloth wet in salt water , being careful not to allow any drops of wa ter todr3' in the matting , as they will leave spots difficult to remove. Heavy varnished furniture should never rest directly upon the matting , for even good varnish , becoming soft in warm weather , will stain the straw. Mat ting may be turned if the loose ends of the cords are threaded in a large needle and drawn through to the other side. side.Don't Don't hang upon your walls huge black engravings set in vast spaces of white margin. Pictures of this sort are very depressing. Instead of white margins substitute a gray paper , and if you must have black prints select those that have a good deal of gray in them pictures with tone and mellow effects Etchings commonly have more softness antl artistic effect than en gravings. Don't hans : chromes on your wall , or colored prints ; don't display long lines of family photographs ; don't hang mosses or colored leaves or dried grasses about. You can iron a table cloth so as to have a good center piece to put your Hewer pot or glass of cut llowers on. Fold the cloth , whether square or ob long , in four , so that the center shall be in the doubled corner at your left hand. Begin at this corner and turn over about an inch , creasing it sharply and pressing the iron firmly down on it. Then move this fold forward on the cloth and crease another half inch , not doubling under the part al ready ironed , but making a fresh crease. So proceed until you have as largo a center-square as you wish. You can vary the distance given to accommodate the thickness of your cloth. An excellent rice pudding is made by this recipe : Wash four ounces of rice in cold water and set it on the lire with a pint of milk and the rind of half a lemon. When nearly done , if the milk be absorbed by the rice , add a little more , so that the rice may be nearly covered with it. When done , remove it from the lire and mix with it two tablespo 'nfuls of sugar , two ounces of butter , two tablespconfuls of milk , three yolks of ejrgs , a pinch of salt , and. if liked a very little nutmeg. Put back on the lire for a min ute , stirring constantly. Butter a mold well and dust it with sugar , and turn the rice in it. Bane in a moderate oven for half an hour. Serve with a sauce. A .Dakota lown. "We've got a beautiful tu\vn , " said a Dakota mau at the Palmer house. "Eighteen months ago it was a bare prairie. Now we have 2.000 popula tion , forty stores , seventeen saioons elegant , some of them an opera- house , four variety shows , eight beer gardens , thirteen hotels , two brewe ries and a slock for another one all sold , a dime museum , three gambling houses , a distillery , a paid police force , and two steam firu engines. " "How many churches and schools ? " "Oh , yes ; and they're talking about building a church and a school. C/u- cage Herald. > TIIE3IAIL SERVICE. Interrst-lns : History of the Unltril States Postal System Benjamin Fnuikllif 3 Stnrtlins ; Invention While Deputy Postmaster ( icncrnl. In the English colonies , which sub sequently became the United States.a postal system was projected as curly as 1G92 , but owing to thosparsencss of" the population it was not organized , until 1710. By act of parliament of that " year the "post-chief Jotter ofiico in Now York , and other chief oillccs at some convenient plane or places in other of her majesty s provinces or colonies in America. " The revenue was for some years very small. In 1753 Benjamin Franklin was appointed deputy post master general for the colonies , and was guaranteed the sum of GOO per annum for the salary of himself and his assistant. He remodeled and ex tended the operations of the ollico , and in a few years materially increas ed the revenues. lie startled the people ple of the colonies in 17u'0 by propos ing to run a stage wagon to carry the mail from Philadelphia to Boston , once a week , starting from each city on Monday morning and reaching its destination by Saturday night. In 1774 , while in England , he was removed from ollicc. In 1789 the constitution of the United States conferred upon congress the ex clusive control of postal matters for all the states ; ami congress proceeded , immediately on the adoption of the constitution , to organize the podtoffiee department , and to pass the necessary laws for the protection of the mails. The rates of postage from the organization of the'postofliee depart ment until 181J ( were : For a single let ter ( that is , one composed of a single piece of paper ) , under 40 miles , 8 cents ; under 90 miles , 10 cents ; under 150 miles , 12A cents ; under . " 00 miles , 17 cents ; under 500 miles , 20 cents ; over 500 miles , 25 cents. In 1810 these rates worn modified as follows : A single letter carried not over thirty miles , ( i\ cents ; over 30 miles and under 80 miles , 10 cents ; over 80 miles and under 150 miles , 12A cents ; over 150 and under 400 milea , 18 cents ; 400 miles 25 and additional over , cenL-i , an tional rate for every additional piece of paper , and if the latter weighed an ounce four time.s these rates. News papers under 100 miles , or within the state where published , 1 cent ; over 100 miles and out of the state , l.\ cents ; magazines and pamphlets li cents a sheet under 100 miles , if periodicals ; over 100 miles , 2A cents a sheet , if not periodicals , 4 and 6 cents. In 1845 the following rates were adopted : For a letter not exceeding i ounce in weight , under 300 miles , 5 cents , over 300 miles , 10 cents ; and an additional rate for every additional } ounce or fraction of A ounce. Advertis ed letters , o cents additional ; drop-let ters , 2 cents ; circulars , unsealed , 2 cents , pamphlets , magazines , etc. , per ounce , 2i cents , and each ad ditional ounce 1 cent. Newspapers , under 30 miles , free ; over 30 and un der 100 , or any distance within the state where published , 1 cent ; over 100 miles and out of the state , 1.1 cents. The next congress made the postage on transient newspapers 3 cents , and required payment ; the postage on circulars was raised to 3 cents ; newspaper postage to Oregon and California was fixed at 4. ] cents ; and letters to the Pacific territories via Chagres and Panama , 10 cents. In 1849 the postage on transient news papers was reduced to ordinary news paper rates , but prepayment was still required. In 1851 a law was passed estab lishing the following rates : For a single letter ( i. e. , of i-ounce weight ) , under 3,000 miles , if prepaid , 3 cents , or if not prenaid , 5 cents ; over 3,000 miles , G or 12 cents ; to foreign coun tries , not ever 2,500 miles , except where postal arrangements have been made , 10 cents ; over 2,500 miles , 20 cents ; drop letters , 1 cent ; ship let ters , 2 cents , or if delivered where de- positet. , 6 cents : if sent through the mails the ordinary postage to be added. Weekly newspapers to actual sub scribers in the country where pub lished , free ; under 50 miles and out of the county , 5 cents a quarter ; over 50 and under 300 miles , 10 cents : over300 and under 1,000 miles , 15 cents ; over 1,000 and under 2,000 miles , 20 cents ; over 2OUO and under 4,000 miles , 25 cents ; over 4.000 miles , 30 cents. Mouthlv papers one-quarter and semi monthly papers one-half these rates : semi-weekly double , tri-weekly treble , and oftcner than Iri-\\eeklv , five times these rates ; newspapers under 300 square inches , one-quarter these rates ; if paid quarterly in advance a de duction of one-half to be made from these rates. Transient newspapers , circulars , and other printed matter , I cent an ounce under 500 miles ; over 500 and under 1,500 , 2 cents ; over 1,500 and under 2,500 , 3 cents ; under 3,500 , 4 cents ; over 3,500 , o cents. Books under 32 ounces , 1 cent an ounce if prepaid ; if not 2 cents an ounce. In 1852 the following modifi cations were made : Letters sent over 3,000 miles , and not prepaid , 10 cents ; newspapers , circulars , etc. , under 3 ounces , 1 cent ; every additional ounce or fraction , 1 cunt ; small periodicals , published monthly or oftener , and iKimphlcte of not more than 1C octave r > ages , sent in single packages of not less than Souncus , prepaid. A cent an ounce , or if not prepaid , Iccnt. Books , jound or unbound , less than 4 pounds , under 3,000 miles , 1 cent an ounce ; j over 3,000 , 2 cents an ounce ; 50 per cent , added when not prepaid. By the act of the same year postage- stamps and envelopes were ordered. By a law passed March 3 , 1855. and taking effect July of the same year , the rates on single inland letters were ! reduced to 3 cents for all distances under - I der 3,000 miles , and 10 cents for all 1 over that distance ; and ail inland letter - \ ter postage was to be prepaid. The charge foiradvertising letters was re duced to 1 cent. * In 1863 the rate of postage was made uniform at 3 cents on all domestic let ters not exceeding half an ounce , and 3 cents additional for every half ounce or fraction thereof ; on drop letters not exceeding half an ounce , 2 cents. The quarterly postage and periodicals sent to subscribers , and not exceeding four ounces , was fixed as follows : Weekly , 5 cents ; semi-weekly , 10 cents ; tri weekly , 15 cents ; six times a week , 30 cents ; seven times ti week , 35 cents. Periodicals issued less than weekly and not exceeding four ounces wcro charged at 1 cent each. The rate for transient newspapers and period icals was 2 cents for each four ounces or fraction thereof. In 18G8 the law was so amended as to allow weekly newspapers to bo sent free to regular subscribers living in the country. In 1872 the postage on newspapers and periodicals not exceeding4 ounces , sent to regular subsoribors , was lixed at the following quarterly rates : On those issued less frequently than once a week , 1 cent for each issue ; weekly , o cents , and 5 cents additional for each issue more frequent than once a week. The postage was required to be paid in advance , either at the mail ing or delivery ollico. Those rates wore repealed by an act of June , 1874 , which wont into force Jan. 1.1875 , The rate of postage on mail mailer of the third class , merchandise , etc. , was fixed by the law of 1872 at 1 per cent for eveVy two ounces or fraction there of. The law of Mrch 3 , 1875 , made the rale 1 cent for every ounce or frac tion thereof. Under these last-named laws the letter postage was 3 cents for each half-ounce or fraction thereof ; on local and drop letters in free delivery offices. 2 cents for every half-ounce or fraction thereof , and 1 cent for every half-ounce at offices not having free delivery. On March 3 , 1883 , a law was enacted by congress reducing the rate of letlor poslago from 3 to 2 cents per hnlf-ouneo , to take effect October of the same year. On the 3d of March , 1885 , the following changes were matte : The weight of all single-rate letters is increased from one-half an ounce o..ch to one ounce. All news papers setit from publication ollices or news agencies , including sample cop ies , are entitled to transmission at the rale of 1 cent per pound. Any article in a newspaper or other publication may bo marked for observation , ex cept by written or printed wordswith out increase of postage. A special 10- ccnt stamp is also lo be issued , which , when attached lo a letter in addition lo liie lawful postage lliereon , will in sure ils immediate delivery by special messenger at anytime between 7 a. in. and midnight. Milwaukee Eveuiny Wisconsin. Cost ot" College athletics. College athletics co t more than is generally supposed. Harvard and Yale have the heaviest boating ex penses , Columbia coming next. The paper shells in which the races are rowed cost from 8400 to $600. Train ers and "coaches" must be hired and eating-tables provided at which the diet of Ihe crews may be closely watched. The crews eat at training ta bles from Easier up lo the race in June , at a cost of about.SlUO per man. Alter they have been coached and trained for three montiis they are sent to Now London , Conn. , where the races are rowed on the Thames , Here they are kept at the respective boat houses under the slrictest train ing. They are coached daily from the slcamlaunchcs which accompany them. Yale owns a steam launch , and the cost is reduced to 512 daily for coal and service. The olher col leges hire launches , and Ihe cost is increased. All the crows are uniform ed at a cost of $15 to $20 pur man. Yale presents its crow witli white tlan- nol suits besides the regular uniform at an expense of 8200. Harvard's ex penses in this line is larger. The total cost of the New London race for Har vard , Yale , or Columbia is about 87- 000. The Havard ireshmon pay 82,500 yearly for the luxury of defeating the Columbia freshmen. A class regatta at Harvard or Yale costs about 8350 for each crew , not counting cost of shell. Class shells cost$300 , oars 875. Eacli class uses two shells in its course. Barges for practice and return rowing cost 8200. Base-ball costs less than rowingand. can count somewhat on gate receipts. Williams and Amherst will pay 81,200 each for llioir respective nines this vear ; Harvard , Yale , and Princeton from 81,500 to 81,800. Yale employs Jones , fomorly of the Athletics , lo coach its nine ; Princeton and Brown also have professional coaches. In track athletics the principal cost is for trainers and grounds. All the col leges which compete in the intercolle giate games at Mott Haven employ professional athletes as trainers. These men are paid from 8200 to 8400 for Ihe season. Jn Ihe larger colleges athletic grounds are provided by gifts of the alumni , as in the case of Holmes' field , at Harvard , and Yale's new park , which , with its track and grand-stand , cost about 875,000. Foot-ball has lately become self- supporting at most of the larger col leges. Tennis at Harvard this year will cost 84.GOC , at Yale 81,000. Kent- ing courts and keeping them in order is wlr.it makes the expense. A fresh man class at Harvard pays 85,000 for its crew of eleven , nine , lacrosse team and tujr-of-war ; at Yale and Columbia the corresponding expense is some what less. Traveling expenses , hotel bills ( only the best hotels ) , trophies for the victors , , etc. , make a further demand on the students' pocket-book. Ail these expenses are defrayed by voluntary subscriptions of students and alumni. Cincinnati Times-Star. A Faithful Secretary. Sir Henry Taylor's "Autobiography" is a very entertaining work , and con tains many good sotries of well-known characters. He tells an amusing anec dote of how he once called at the foreign ollice to see the present Lord Hammond I mend , then the permatent under secre tary , of whom it used to be said that he never was absent from his post. On this occation he was away , and when the doorkeeper was questioned , he said : Mr Hammond has gone to funeral and it's the only day's pleasur ing ho has had for two years. " Sir Henry thus distinguishes between the wit of three bright spirits : "While the wit of Rugers was the wit of satire , and that of Sydney Smith the wit of comedy the wit of archbishop Whateley might be described as the wit of logic. " London Truth. "Arizona now exports tannin , " says an ex change. The schoolmaster is not abroad after all , as was reported. at. piul Herald.