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h - - , i t . " rr Sugar Beet Experiments. The results of experiments with sugar beets by J. J. Vanha and by H. Claassen have been summarized In the Experiment Station Record. In r Vanha's experiments beets were grown 20 , 25 and 30 cm apart in rows Y 35 , 40 and 45 cm distant. The distance - tance allowed each plant ranged from 700 to 1,350 sq cm. The smallest yields were obtained from the 35 em. rows with the plants at intervals of 30 om. Planting the beets 30 cm. apart in rows 45 cm. distant gave , much the best yields. Mr. Claassen' undertook to deter- mine the effect on the development of the plant ot removing or injuring the leaves of sugar beets , while the plants t were still growing. In one row the small inner leaves of the plant were entirely cut away ; in another row the larger outer leaves were removed ; while from all except the smaller in- , . ner leaves of the plants in a third row , one-half of the leaf surface was cut away ; and in a fourth row the - . . . . . l leaves were mutilated In a manner \ approximating injuries due to hail The smaller inner leaves were soon replaced after their removal by a new growth. The larger leaves were nol replaced , but the remaining ones made a good vigorous growth so that - - . by the end of the season the ground , was again well covered. The injured leaves remained green and fresh and I . the smaller inner leaves of these particular - titular plants were induced to make a better growth by this treatment. The results showed that the removal of the leaves and injury to the same had . . . . practlcalIy no effect on the sugar con- -,4 : I tent , but that it reduced the weight t' of the beets. Cutting away the inner u leaves "had the least effect. It Is esti- mated from the data obtained that the & removal of the entire leaves or parts . . of the same whether by han or other- - wise , may cause a reduction of 30 . - per cent in the weight of the 'crop. - - . Potato Scab. A Kansas reader asks for the for- mula of the Bordeaux mixture for potato tate scab. Bordeaux mixture is used on potato vines for the blight or downy mildew , but not for potato . . scab. Potato scab appears on the sur- face of the potato. The best preven- > , tive is to soak the seed for about tylO hours in formaldehyde and refrain from planting on infected lands. ltAd From Weed's "Fungi and Fungi- cides" we Quote : "Experiments at the North Dakota Station by Professor - ser BaIley , show that the disease may be prevented by soaking the seed in a weak colution of corrosive subli- mate. Procure an ordinary barrel and fit into the base a common wooden faucet. Purchase of a druggist two ounces of . fincl ' -pulverized corrosIve sublimate ( MercurIc Bichloride ) . I I Empty this all into two gallons of hot water and allow it to stand over night or until apparently all dissolved. Place In the barrel thirteen gallons of water and then pour in the two-gallon solu- tion. Allow this solution to stand in . . the barrel four or five hours , during which time it should be several times thoroughly agitated ; to Insure equality of solution before using. Select as . _ fair seed potatoes as possible , wash ,1uM. off all the old dIrt , and Immerse as many as possible , leaving them in the solution for one hour and thirty mitt utes. At the end of this time turn off the solution into another vessel. The same solution may thus be used a number of times if .wished. After drYIng - lug the potatoes may be cut and I planted as usual. Plant upon ground that has not previously borne the dis- ease. The potatoes may bo cut before - tore treatment if wished. We believe the formalin treatment ' ' 4 IIi1 i the best , because formalin is less dangerous than port 'vp ' p HD1ate. ! . . . . < . 1 4 J Locating an Orchard. The orchard and fruit plantation should be located on sloping land. The soil will bo drained of surplus water and will not balm and become as dry and hard in time of drouth , says O. M. Morris of Oklahoma. The north and east slopes are the best. They are much cooler in summer and are not subject to as great variations of temperature in winter. The effect of the afternoon sun is somewhat weakened by the slope and the early blooming trees are not forced Into blossom so early and more frequently escape the late frosts. The protec- tion from the wind is perhaps the greatest benefit derived from such slopes. The warm dry winds of July and August do not strUm the orchard with their full force and thus a great amount of moisture is saved for the use of the trees and fruit. This pro tection from the wind is also of great I value to young trees while they arc formIng their root system and bei i coming well established. The south ern slopes are warmer and earlier in i the sprIng and for some purposes are to be preferred , but usually the fruit matures early enough and with apples - plea in particular the latest varieties mature almost too early for wInter use. A sandy loam soil with clay subsoil is best adapted to the use 0 Yf all kinds of fruits. The trees set on heavy clay soil will produce a heavy growth of foliage and wood but will 1 be slow to come into bearIng , and the fruit will not be as brIght in color as that grown on sandy soil. The trees grown on a poor sandy soil will usually make a poor growth and be- gin bearing young. These trees will be short-lived and wealr. The poor , thin , gray and black soils are poorly adapted to trees. The trees set on such land are almost sure to maIm a very poor growth and be shy bear- ers. Good upland is the best for orchard - chard land. The bottom land will grow better and stronger trees , but they will seldom be as productive. This is especially true of the peach , plum and aprIcot. The late frosts are more liable to destroy the crop ' while the trees are in blossom on low land. The lowland also maintains better conditions for the plant diseases that are sure to Infest the orchards sooner or later. If the land was formerly in timber , it should be carefully ' exam- ined for evidences of root-rot before setting out fruit trees. Cantaloupe Seed. The Rocky Ford is now the best . known muskmelon In the country. It was originally "Burpee's Netted Gem. " Under the warm sIdes of Colorado and the stimulating influences of water - ter it developed Into a melon that Is probably without superIor in the mar- Itets or the country. There may be better ones grown for home use , but if so , they have some characterIstics _ that keep them from coming generally - ly Into the marItal. The Rocky Ford melon of the past was probably better than is the same melon today , for the reason that at first the eastern seeds- men were able to produce all the seed of this variety that could be sold. But as the demand increased , the seedsmen began to gather seed from almost all sources where canta- loupes were grown. The result was that much of It was not pure , some crossing having taken place with other er and inferior varieties of melons. This has caused some deterioration In the case of Rocky Fords , and a good many melons have to bo thrown out as culls when being paclted. The pure-bred animal is more likely to transmit its qualities than is the animal of mixed breeding. The value of manure depends o nT the feed from which It was made. 1 , . .rd. ry Green Food for Poultry. To be kept in n. healthy condition poultry must have a constant supply of green food III the winter this Is not always lone nor is It frequently Mono , and when the spring comes there is aU the more reason why green food should be supplied. On the farms where the fowls are given the run of the folds in the spring and early summer , there is no particular need to provIde for a supply of green food , but on thousands of farms the hens are kept shut up , especially durIng - lug the season of garden planting and the early perIods of growth of the vegetables. As farmers are coming more and more to growing fruits and vegetables and raising flowers this i Is necessary ; for hens and gardens do not work well together. Too often the hens are shut into a yard and are given no systematic attention - tention in this regard. The yard may . . have had green graGS in it at the time the fowls were put In , but In n. few weeks not a green thing is to be found there. This in itself shows the great craving the fowls have for green food. A little system in this matter will supply the fowls with the things they desire in the way of green food In the first place the yard should be divided into two parts by n. . cross ( onco. There will have to be two places through which the fowls can enter the house , so that the two yards may be readily used. Then coop the fowls in one of the yards while green stuff is being grown in the other. Rape is one of the best things to put into such a yard and it has the advantage over some other things that the ground will not have to be prepared for it-provided the graBs has been eaten down to the roots . by the fowls. The rape seed is quite large in size and the sprouts readily take hold of the ground. In a couple of months a good crop should be grow- mg. It is best not to turn the fowls in before the rape has become twelve or more inches high. Then they may I be turned in and will quickly convince anyone that they have a fondness for rape. They will strIp off all the thin parts of the leaves leaving only the midvelns. This may take thorn a month to do. But in the meanwhile the rape goes rIght on growing , and when the hens are taken out of the yard , the plants grow again from the midveins. This produces a second growth more quickly than the first. In the same yard should also be sown lettuce , of which the fowls are very fond If they can pick it themselves. Fowls never seem to care much about Teen stuff if Jt is cut for them. Doubt- less this is because they find a blade of grass 01' the like too difficult to eat. When it is growing on its own roots they pick off just the amount they can swallow at a time , while if it is cut for them they cannot easily di- vide it. Oats are sometimes sown for pour try , but the writer has not generally found that the fowls cared for the oat plant. However , at the North Caro- Tina experiment station we saw oats growing in the poultry yards , and the superintendent of the poultry declared that the fowls ate them readily. Of any single green feed we are more pleased with rape than anything else , which is both easily grown and read- By eaten by the fowls. Soaking garden seeds Is a commendable - able practice when the soil is not moist enough to readily supply the water to swell the seeds. The seeds may be soaked in water at a temper- ature of 100 to 120 degrees , and should be continued only till the seeds have fully swollen. This is often practiced in the starting of sweet corD and gar- den peas. . 1f 1 f 1 a . . An Outrageous Practice. The men that buy and sell cows at the Union Stockyards , Chicago , are frequently charged with practices that are far from humane. A story we recently contly heard illustrates the point. A lady living in the outskirts of Chicago visited the stockyards to purchase a milk cow. She happened upon a cow with very fine development of udder and milk voins. As it happened the cow had not been mlllwd that morn- ing , and the dealer at once had a man attend to that ; Important function , itl the presence of the lady. The milk yield of the cow was very great and the dealer assured her that he got the same amount of milk each time he milked the cow. The lady paid the prIce asked for the cow and took her away. In a few days she returned , saying that the cow gave only a mod- erate-very moderate-amount of milk , and wanted her money back for , the cow , , as she claImed deception had been used in selling the animal. The dealer told her he could not give her back the money , but that no deception had been practiced. "Madam , " said he , "how often do you milk that cow ? " " "Why replied the lady , "I milk her twice a day , as everyone else does that milks a cow " "Ah , madam , " said the dealer , "that accounts for It ; I only milked her twice a week " R The Jersey-Holstein Rivalry. Many , no doubt , have heard of the Holstein and Jersey breeders' tests for their respective breeds. A Holstein breeder was boasting about the rich , mille that his COWA WArn " , Ivln , . , . IJ1hn - - . . - . . - - - - ' - Cb' . . . .u Jersey man said " : "Friend , are you i sure that your cows are full-blooded HolsteIns ? I have a sure test for determining Holstein cows" The Hol- stein man wanted to know what his test was. He said : "When you begin - gin to milk , put a silver dollar in the pail. It the mUlt Is thin enough so that you can see the dollar when the pall Is full of milk - , you may be 8Ul'0 that yOU have a Holstein cow. " The Holstein breeder replied that he had a test that never failed to detect a Jersey. When asked for an explana- tion he said : IIput a slIver dollar in the mUle pail when you begin to milk , und if the milk does not cover the dollar lar when you are through you can be sure that , you have a Jersey cow.- Prof. G. L. McKay. Sawdust as Mulch. Sawdust makes a good mulch for various kinds of fruits , especially for strawberries. Many of our readers doubtless JIve near saw mills whore sawdust can be obtaIned at a very low cost. This will save the strawberries from becoming dirty and will prevent the loss of moisture between the rows. It also makes a good mulch for gooseberrIes - berrIes and currants. In the case ot tree fruits It is also useful , but should not be permitted to pack too closely around the trees. Perhaps It Is most useful where it is not turned under. Some men are of the opInion that pine sawdust Is rather harmful to the soil , but It would be difficult to demop. . strate this. Failure of Orchards. Orchards fall for various reasons but chiefly for lack of r.aro. In some of these cases the owners declare that they have given their orchards the best possible care ; but the fact is that the people in charge have not known what was good caro. Sometimes . times manure has been put on when the ground was rich enough anyway. In that way a growth has been stimu- hated that has resulted to the detri ment or the trees. If a man wants 0 good orchard ho will have to study along several lines before ho wilt nn derstand the various factors entering Into the care of an orchard of afy I : kind.