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. . , . " , , " . . . . - - , . POULTRY ; . . ' . . . . . Attention to Breeding. R' fir When man first domesticated the fowls of the jungle he had no thought .of the wonderful things that were to develop from them through the scl .once of breeding. It is altogether likely that the first distinct breeds ' came Into existence gradually and as a result of the differing conditions of the countries In which they were raised. It is believed the first fowls do- I. .mastlcated were those of India From that point they were taken east , north and west. In the beginning they had F all one general set of characteristics. But In the course of time the fowls if China developed in one way , the fowls of India In another and the " , - . owls of the various countries of Europe . rope in other ways. At first no attempt . + , tempt was made by man to direct , " , . . . his development , that Leing a result " " , " ' n ' : . . - Jf place and conditions So at the beginning . ; ' . ' . ' ginning of poultry history we find a i L' : . ; . : ew distinct breeds that have since been ; named after the locality from which each came Thus , from the ! north of Asia we have obtained the Langshan , tram the south of Asia E r" . he Brahma , and from Europe the Leg- . P r horn and the Dorldng. These were , pretty good breeds , when we rem em. Del' they were the result 01 breeding without an object. During the last - 70 years a great many new breeds have been created by fanciers , who l appreciated the possibilities locked . up in the fowls and which might be , - . brought out by selection and breed- ing. Doubtless the coming hundred , r . " ' years wlll see an enormous increase : In the number of distinct breeds of : . poultry and a general improvement I . ( ' - in the special points for which each I. , . . " ts' bred. Every farmer should be a breeder to a considerable extent. He may not I' i . . , . originate : new varieties , In fact should not waste his time in trying to develop . t \'elop these , but he can do the same - , f thing , in fact , that is , develop a strain . ' Df birds of more than the common value. Many of the breeds 'we now : : . have are no better than the ones out I _ of which they have been developed , ' their distinctive markings in color . , and ' form being about the only quail- ; ties their parents did not possess : , But the farmer may well develop' strains that wlll prove earlier mature . " lug , better laying , healthier birds than were their immediate ancestors , The - laws of breeding are to be studied to 4 advantage and when understood will " ' : ' _ , ' . open the way to both pleasure and , , ; : ' , profit. The neglect of the laws of . . . : . . , : : Improved breeding is responsible ! for . . much of the poor stuff now to be , : " . found on our farms. We have to say , ; . - ' , - . however , that there has been a great ; ' : improvement In the last ten years , at ; : ; ' : least in the matter of meat producing \ . : birds II . The farmer that has a flock of 10 1 hens can well afford to adopt some regular system for his breeding opel" atlons. If he has eggs in view he can adopt a system of culling out all of the poorest egg producers from year to 'ear. By so doing he would in a - course of years have at hand a flock , that would be a paying investment. I Yet there are : farms on which the hens r have not Improved for half a century , , \ principally because there bas been - ? v. ' no care taken at all in the breeding. \ The eggs for sitting have never been selected , and the result has been a reproduction of the average quality of the fiock. Attention to the matter of breeding wlll pay every person that I . expects to raise fowls _ , Grading Up the Flock. There are several ways by which a farm flock can be kept up to n. very good standard of excellence for prat- Itlcal purposes , by just a little effort " 'i" ' .A : of the keeper , said J. H. Robinson In d 'an ' address before the Massachusetts r , _ , - - " - ' " : -8. ' Ebto Lri , ar Aactinurn : ! ; . 'lath ! , LIO'1'O 1t t ; tt l"mtOO : : ) tt6tp : itlh11' eggs used for b1.tctJlfu : trUG'IUtl'G \ \ gw. . - oral flock tip 'hmti.Cl'Vi'n' ; g 11. bI best pullets , the lneeper > w e'trSout , the decidedly ' inferior ( } \ HS'ysn' : t14 only wen developed males , a > n7 A ( ro of whIch would ba cmshle.lid g. iGM r blo breeder , the stock cannot go beats . . very rapidly , even though , as vro tmvo seen there might not be enough o ; the product In any year tram , the bhJt birds to strongly : impress their quality on the fiock. It Is such selection as this , accompanied - panted by selection of the large eggs for hatching , that Is practical on most farms where some specIal attention - tion Is given the matter of malting poultry profitable. It is doubtful whether any marked ! progress was ever made by such methods , but they are a long way In advance at leaving it all to nature. At best : , these meth- - ods aTe crude ; theIr use under the condition described Is Jiloglca1. The logic of such n. situation requires - quires that a poultry keeper who realizes . izes the importance of reserving his best fowls to breed from , should make sure that It Is only the eggs of his best hens , fertilized by his best males , that are used for incubation. The logic of the situatIon requires that a poultry - try keeper who thinks ; : It worth while to select the best eggs for Incubation should , sooner or later , come to consider - sider It necessary to know that these eggs wore from hens possessing the other qualities prized , and fertilIzed by males most suitable for mating with t'heso ' particular hons. Selection Is not complete if 1 It stops short of the separation of the fowl selected- unless the whole flock Is solect- a thing which does not often bappen. Profit In Young Animals. Tune profit in beef and mutton production . duction lies in the young animals There was a time , but that was many years ago , when the big boned steer that weighed 1,800 to 2,000 pounds was locked for lay 1 : the buyers of beeves , but now the animal that Is sought by the butchers is one that weif'hs from 1,200 to 1,500 pounds We have long since found out that the cheapest meat is made on young animals , and the money thus invested is soonest ready to be turned over. Not only is the money tied up longest . est in' old animals but the cost of producing meat on them Is so great that our best beef feeders are no longer attempting to do that. The method advocated now Is to keep the animals growing right along from birth to the period when they weigh what the market demands. Steers are now ready for the market : at two years old or under If all the animals shipped to the stockyards were of this kind there would not be much complaint about poor returns In stock breeding and beef malting. A good many farmers are still trying to make profitable beef on old steers. Brat the young steer is the only animal , that gives us any promIse of a : profit. i Roots Versus Silage. Tn Europe the use of roots in stock : : ; feeding Is quite universal especially In those countrIes that are too far north to permit of the extensive growing of Indian corn But In the United States root raising Jar cattle has never been very popular , for the obvious reason that it Is very much easier to grow corn than roots. We have talked thIs matter over with stockmen In the West and their vcr diet Is uniformly that roots cost too much , except when grown and fed lu a small way , inwhich their U'O ; Is justified as a laxative ratlJ"r than a food. Care.Cul experimenters have shown that roots cost about three times as much as corn to grow , basing ing the comparison on the dry matter. Corn in the form of silage Is one at the best and cheapest foods for stock. It has been regarded as a dairy toad par excellence and as a milk maker . But It Is equally good for beef make lug , and some of our leading cattle raisers are now building silos to enable - able them to make the be"t use ot the cor : , crop. r The iog's Digestive Apparatus r , .p--- ' OQ , A subscriber wrItes us that in kill- big hogs ho finds it a disadvantage not 10 know the names of the different intestines . lestines and that such information would he especially useful to him when malting a post mortem oxamin- ation , with a view to determining the cause of death. He states a fact that should be' apparent to all and we are much pleased to have : the matter brought to our attention , as the information . formation asked for should prove Instructive . structive to the readers of this depart- ment. Starting at the back : of the mouth wo come to the pharynx or "swallow" which is the entrance to " " the tube the "gullet" or oesophagus , icading the food to the stomach. The plg's stomach is simple like that of the horse and has out one compart- ment although there Is , ns In the htH'm , a trace of two compartments denoted by difference in the color of the lining membrane of the organ , which In the pig has a capacity of one and one-half to two gallons The all- montar canal Is continued from the stomach , In the abdominal cavity , by a long tube doubled on Itself a great number of times and which terminates - ates at the posterior opening of the digestive apparatus. This tube is the Intestine. Its first portion is called the small Intestine and Its last part the large InteRline. The small intes- line Is some GG feet in length and the large intestine 16 feet. On leaving the stomach the first portion of the small intestine is known as the uduodenum" which is short and curved. It is fol- lowed by the Ujejunt1m , " then by the uillium , " and then by the "caecum" commonly : known as the "blind gut" or Uwater bag " The large intestine I now commences with the "colon , " which is a large sac describing three turns from right to left and three , turns from left to rIght , then Insinuat- ing itself between the duodenum and I the pancreas The latter part of t.he' colon is called the "Hoating" colon and ends In the rectum or "end gut " The large intestines are 18 feet long The liver which is an accessory organ of the digestive apparatus , has in the pig three well - marked lobes , the mid- die one of which carries the gall blad- del' In the pig a portion of the pan- I creas is situated under the loins , between - twecn the large tuberosity of the stomach and the last curve of the colon ; the other portion wlll be found In , a fold of the duodenum. The spleen Is familiar In appearance to' any man who has slaughtered a pig , but even scientists have not yet decided the nature of its functions in the animal economy When malting a postmortem - tem examination of a pig note the appearance - pearance of the lining of the gullet and stomach. After death the lining of the stomach has always a pink por- tion and a lighter portion and the linIng . Ing Is easily stripped off ' the pink por- tion Ie this portion has taken 011 U livid hue inflammation has been present ent ; if it is covered , with dark red or purple spots , poison 01' cholera may be suspected , and the latter disease Is also characterized by ulcers on the lining of the large intestines If the small intestine is blacjt } , examine for a ! twist or knot 01' for one portion \-rpped I : into another or for some ' l'l1l'cign body which has lodged and caused mortification following acute enteritis ( inflammation ) . The liver should have a healthy color and should not be very flabby or brittle It it is greatly enlarged there was . either congestion of the liver ( acute ) , I Indicated by presence of much blood , or chronic , congestion ( hepatitis ) , Indicating . dlcatlng a long-standing disease of the llver. In all liver disease we find as a rule staining from bile which gives the membranes a yellow color. This is chiefly noticeable In the membranes of the eyelids , but may affect all of the membranes of the body as In jaundice. In hog cholera , In addition to red spots and ulcers upon the 11n. ing membrane of the intestines similar - Ilnr spots may appear upon the liver , kidneys and lungs. If lung disease was present the light pink : color of the healthy organ will have given place lo darl\ : or bright red , and lr pneu- monia has been present the lungs will appear I1n feel like liver and sink in wnter. It pleurisy was present the lung will be found stuck to the chest wall and fluid Is usually present In the chest c4'ity. In bronchitis the air . passages of the lungs will bo found to contain more or Jess mucus and even pus. A' Icosses In lungs or elsewhere usually denote tuberculosis or acU- nomy lsis . -A . S. Alexander In Farm- oi s' : trJview. Killing Peach Borers . Last winter I sent you an article on the care of peach trees. One statement - ment I made was that we were not' so much troubled with borers as before - fore the cold winter of 1898 and 1899 , which froze so many trees The "so much" was left out , malting It read "wo were not now troubled with horers" whIch might be misleading to beginners , causing them to neglect hunting thorn out. The fact Is , they , arc very bad this spring , especially In trees on low fiat land or on grassy , ground and need to be hunted out with care. Where the trees were not gone over last fall , there is quite a brood of very small onos. They have not done much harm ns yet , but wlll greatly injure the trees If left in. Not many have yet burrowed deep Into the barIc , but most of them are still clinging to the bark outside and bit- . lug the bark , causing a mass of gum lo hang around the tree. -If this Is , scraped off it will carry most of the worms with It. Keeping the borers out of the peach trees is very esse ) n- lIal to the health of the trees. A wax for the protection of injuries to these cnn bo made thus : Heat In an old kettle two quarts of rosin , ono of propolis 01' refuse beeswax and a lea cup of old lard. Melt thoroughJy and stir just as hard as can be with- out running over Then with n swab daub this onto the injured tree while very hot. It wlll protect the wound for months or until the bark : grows again. If you do not have the old pro- polls 01' dirty beeswax the rosin will do alone if softened with grease If made too soft the bees will stick to It and this wlll kill map- , After the soft wax is put on earth can bo rubbed on It and this will keep the bees off ; nut it Is better not to have it too soft. We hunt out a number of trees and tie strips of cloth to them to mark them for treatment , and when wo have a number of trees ready we treat all with the same batch. Cau- tion must be used In melting the wax , as it is very Inflammable , and , If allowed - lowed to run over , will quickly take fire-l\rs L. C. Axtell , Warren County - tr , Illinois , in Farmers' Review - . _ , . J , 1 ! _ A Bird Nursery. r' 1 Andrew , head walter at the Tuttle House , SavIn Hill , Is a southern man , and extremely fold of birds , says the Boston Evening Globe Robins this year have been unusually prolific , and the young birds In attempting to fly from the nest in many instances : : ; fall to the ground and are caught by cats , . which destroy not a few of them. An drew conceived the Idea of putting a box with slats on one side on the top of a pole , where he placed many of the rescued birds. Their parents come regularly to the temporary 'prJs on and feed their progeny , who In 0 week or two are able to fly and are released. Quite a colony of young robins has been cared for this sum' mer , and there are still some in the box waiting for their wings to grow and liberty to e.-Exchange , 1903. \Yo have great faith in the loyalty of i people to the Intereats of agrIculture when Its needs are Intelllgently presented - seated and those representing It are sincere In their efforts for It.