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77ze Passing of Latin j
Surrendered Its Supremacy Only by Shser force of Circumstances.. Ev Zrander IVE hundred years ago, a thousand years ago, fifteen hun- dred years ago, evory man of education could talk freely and easily wltii every other man of education In lttn. It Fwas perhaps his native speech, or he miRtit have had to learn It ; but he was not held to he an educated man ualll he had acquired It. liven niter Latin had ceased to be a 1 uinther-touguc, and when It was spoken only by those ho had achieved it by hard labor, It was still the lang.iago us. a In diplomacy, In the church, by men of letters ar.d by phil osophers and scientific investigators. Out of the fragments of the Hoinaa Empire new nations had compacted themselves slowly, tach with its own tonyue; they asserted their Independence; they warred with one another; and yet ihe Latin language, no louder native to any one of them, was the to.? uitans by which they communicated with one another. 1-atln long suSocd even for their men of letters; as Low. II reminds us. "Till Panic's time tee Italian poets thought no language good enough to put their nothing- into but Latin and Indeed a dead tongue was the best lor dead thoughts hut Dante found the common speech of Florence, in which men bargained ar.l scolded and made love, good enough for him. ar.d out of the world around him made a poem such as no Roman ever sang." A little later. Chancer chose the common speech of London for the tell.r.g of his Tale. And yt af ter Dante had descended Into hell, and after the Canterbury pilgrims had gor.e forth, Bacon put his grer.t beck Into Latin, ar.d Milton ro:e tot a few povm In that dead tongue. K. r a century after -rarad.se Lost." Lat.n was f.i.l held to be the only fit and poper vehicle for the systems cf the philosopher and for the discoveries of the scientists. The language cf Cicero lingered the most convenient means cf communication for the educated rr.en of all countries; and yet at last the forces of nationality ar.d race were loo strong for It; and now for more than two centuries men of letters have express-cd themselves In their mother tongue, and men of science have used each his native language to set forth his coutributiors to the sum of h'.iniin knowledge. For more than fifteen centuries Latin has been truly a world language, or.'y In the end to surrender Its supremacy, through no f.-.u'.t cf its own. but by sheer force of circumstances The Ctr.tu.-y. The Old Order Changeth I, ty Janet McKenzie Hill. HE charges that have taken place since the Civil War of '61 are well-nigh incomprehensible. In social and ethical mat ters. In government, in science, art and religifn, these changes are equally notable. Within a half-century the con ditions cf life hare marvelously changed. All things are IT i - - - n carded now irom a , . . . natural resources of the earth have been developed in won MitfMa? drous ways, and wealth has Increased almost beyond measure. The nations of the earth are no longer strangers. They have come to know one another quite more intlnintely than was once the case with neigh boring states of the same continent Whereas the crossing of the mainland or the passage of the Atlantic once cost months of wearisome travel and hard ship, now the feat can be accomplished in the midst of luxurious elegance In about five days. Is it possible to point to a single mode of life or phase of belief that re mains just as it was fifty years ago, unless it be human nature Itself? We do not read the same books, or Oilnk the same thoughts as of yore, nor do we entertain the same notions and opinions that we once did; for simply the viewpoint of all things has changed. Larger light has come; ignorance anl l.upcrstition have been dispelled. If one were asked to specify or point out the main difference between the spirit of the present ar.d a past age. he might state it thus: Time was when people professed, at least, to look upon this life as a state of probation, a place of preparation for the life hereafter. a mere temporary sojourn to be endured rather than enjoyed; today people are xealous to make the most of life hers and now. People of Intelligence have come to regard right living here not only as a most desirable thing in itself, but as the very best possible preparation for the life to come. Healthful, cheerful, hopeful living charac terizes the spirit of the present age. Truth Is sought no less than in the past: likewise comeliness and beauty are as earnestly cultivated. All na ture's resources are drawn upon to the utmost capacity of man, in order to enhance the comfort and happiness of mankind. Luck or chance no longer figure, as it once did. in the conduct of life. The laws and conditions of healthful, rightful living and consequent widespread prosperity are more clearly known, and full assurance is felt that only in the just observance of these can great reward be found. That scientific knowledge be widespread, lhat justice be done, that peace and prosperity be universal throughout the earth, these are leading ideals of tie present age The Boston Cooking School Magazine. acswyw Our Country's wwa ) Rich the Most Generous Ey The Rep. John eee a ECAl'SE a man has inherited riches is no reason for hound ing him to death or throwing bombs at 11m, either dynamite or oratorical. Of coarse s have spendthrifts who ostenta tiously squander their money, but most of our wealthy peo ple use thrs not only wisely, but generously. No people In the world re so magnificently generous as the wealthy peo ple In America. In U-07 the women of America alone gar JJ.O00.tC to philanthropic and charitable object. No country In the world has the same number of homes, hospi tals, asylums and geueral charities as this country. And It Is a mark of the petty nature not to appreciate and rejoice in It. As to the late financial panic, some wild speculation was Indulged la. It Is true, and honesty did not Invariably prevail; but that does not prove that all were dishonest Give the ninety-nine the credit for honesty, and leave the rest to the reporters. When they have finished fine-tooth combing the ncwa of the day, If there Is anything left unrevealed It doesn't amount to much. In my opinion the newspapers of today are one of the mightiest forces to crush eat dishonesty, business or political. Judging by Appearance. Magistrate If I remember rightly this Is not your first appearance la court. Prisoner No, your Honor, bnt I hope you don't Judge by appearances Harpers Weekly. The revenue from the Swiss alcohol monopoly since 1ST", the date of Its slabUshmsnt. fcas been S24,C5),1S". .JsJ Matthew. strangeiv amereiu penni ui n-. " Von Herrlich. Near at Hand. Instructor Mr. Smith, klndiy name the bones of the akulL' Student Smith Well, air, I've got them all in my head, but I can't think of their names Just now. Bohemian. In four years a pair of rabblta could have a proyeny of nearly l.i(0,000. A doe rabbit produces as many aa eeven families a year. THE UNKlNOEST cut. Men have borne the nrws of troubles Such ns ruin, with sun. They've N-en bmve ami never faltered in halllen roxrmii Vn, But to ..iiip tlioio wn.p nvvnent When they're knc-ked romplot.tv Jt. Thin l hen ik km.l frf. n.l chu.kie. "Sj-, ul.t man, you're grit Inn Ml. Many a te.1v ruM h.fnUerc,t A the mirror showed li li r-8tr.k.-,1 ltli BrMV heu Hie tcmrles. Or hM pol pr.MJ ril8 II ere; Comfort, though. w .ivn.k In coming He evwM hi le It with M list But this km k a man a twIMer: 11:11, by O.-orge, you're sotting fnl. CM re oomes unci we s.vort It. Tho!.yh with .vret. iviln.-.l regret. Then our Inner .-lf keeps fn ins That we're rva.iy nt o.oj yet. But O H.!es of f!eh rod i.tti. Pte doaia her most stinsmgUit When t.ie .v.l .);i.nim e sing.es: "Sv, olj N.v. inn n-ttinB tut Chnrics R. lUrw.. in the New Yoik iun. The I Earthquake That Swallowed Nelse Walker. Through the heart of the Cca-?t Range, fr.iru San Luis Obispo to fan Bernardino County, there lies a pe culiar trench or ciica. a long mark cf broken ground, as if sor.-.e giant had scratched the earth with a sharp stick. It might pass for an old canal or trail, eicep: that it extends over va'.'.ey and mountain alike, north west by southeast. In reality it is the path of an earthquake the earth quake of January. i5i. Although the mountains danced ar.d the hilis bowed together, no one was killed in lhat great shaking: yet ther was one man so tradition says who stood in the rath of the earthquake and felt its power. This man was Nelse Walker, hunt er for the stage-station at old Tor: Tejon. Fort Tejon lay In a green valley of the Coast Range, forty miles south of the prestnl city of Bakerstie'.d. California, and there each day the overL.nd stage from th: Missouri River to San Piego and thence along the coast to San Francis co drew up for food and rest and fresh horses. It was the duty of Walker to keep the station supplied with fresh meat, no very arduous task in those days, for ihe mountains abounded in game. On this day, however, search as he would, he could find neither deer nor bear. Stillness semed to smother the earth, and under its spell all animate nature became apprehensive. Rabbits and birds shifted about uneasily, and the wild cattle footed along their trails on the steep hillsides in abso lute silence. Five miles from the station Walker halted under an oak and gazed out over the little valley, a hush, such as comej during an eclipse of the sun or before some mighty storm, came upon him. The hunter was afraid. Yet of what? There was a sudden bump cniler the soles of his feet, and he heard the oak leaves begin to rustle above him. Again there came a bumping at his feet, accompanied by a subterranean rumbling deep and ominous. A third time, and the rumbling deepened into a roar. Above him the broad oak tree lurched sharply to the right, and then back to the left, stones began to rattle down the hill sides, and clouds of" dust rose from their fall at the foot cf a neighboring cliff. The ground heaved beneath him once more, and with a bound he was in the open. For the firs: time he realized that he was in an earth quake. Yet all this was but preliminary to the shocks to come. As he gazed about him in a nameless terror, the earth seemed to rise in waves and sweep toward him like the breakers of the sea. - B-r-r-upm! The earth heaved be neath his feet, and he fell to the ground, dizzy and sick. A deathly nausea seized him. To his strained eyes the whole valley seemed swaying in huge waves. At each dip the great oaks bent over and brushed the ground, while above the roar and ramble of the earth quake came the crash of falling trees and the crunch of rolling boulders. Strangest of all, down the steep hill side above him, scuffling and tumb ling, came firing numbers of wild cat tle, shaken from their narrow trails, and shot bawling down the mountain side by the mighty subterranean blows of the earthquake. All the world seemed wrecked, ruin ed, topsy-turvy, and Nelse Walker cprawled on the ground and closed fcls eyes. When the solid ground sways beneath a man, he Is helpl.s beyond compare. It has often been observed of earth quakes that they come in waves and In series of waves. Delicate instru ments have been contrived which reg ister these oscillations and mark their direction and intensity. Before each great shock there are a series of smaller shocks; before each great ser ies there are often a number of pre liminary 'shocks. Sharp as had been the oscillations which throw walker 10 i and tumbled the frightened catt le don the mountainside, the earth quake of 1S57 had not yet attained lt maximum Intensity. Its victims were riot to escape so soon. The grinding ard rocking rassed Into a mere trem bling, and Walker rose to his feet with a great seuse- of relief. But hardly had he picked up his gun when the earth began once more to swav and bump. There was a ronr In the air like thunder, and down the v.V.lcv he saw coming huge waves, before which the trees dipped sudden ly and the stampeding cattle dropped as If shot. The next moment there was a bump which threw him Into the air, and a rending crash which made his heart stand still. Then with a wrench the. solid earth parted, and a mighty draft I of air sucked him like a leaf Into the Mack abyss. In a moment of great terror one acts In a purely instinctive way. As a drowning man clutches nt a straw, to Nelse Walker, swept Into the bos em of the earth by an almost Incon- : celal'le catastrophe, dropped his gun and clutched out wildly. ! His hands encountered a tangle of 1 roots perhaps the roots of that same ; Iroad cak beneath which, but a few j moments before, he had sat at hH ease. At the touch he grappled with them desperately, while the sand-laden ii'.J swept past him Into the bowels i of the earth. In spite of the falling dirt nnd the ; tornado of wind which beat down up ; on him, Walker clung to his hold with j the Insane strength of a man who fac ; es sudden death. I It was but a moment, but in that moment a great range of mountains as split In twain, split to a great . depth. Of all the human beings In ; thr.t land, one man was caught In the three cf nature, sucked into the gulf v.hich yawned at that moment across , three hundred miles of mountains. To that one man the moment seemed an ! age. j Peep into that crack swept the j winds of heaven. It yawned its wld I t and closed! ! The inrush of air past Xelse Walk- er suddenly ceased; then, as the part j ed earth c.me together again, the ! air which had rushed in was as quick ! ly expelled. If a mighty bellows, miles in length, had been suddenly closed from its uttermost, the effect could not have been more Irresistible. Like a leaf once more Nelse Walker was blown upward by the blast. His I hands were torn from their clutch ' on the oak roots, and the next mo ment he was hurled past the mouth of i the bottomless hole and shot out Into I the light of day. How he came there he did not know, but when Nelse Walker recovered his I his sense of locality, he was still clinging to a tangle of roots yet on ; second thought he realized that they ' were not roots, but branches. He i was In the top of a tree. About him , the limbs were still rocking and wav : ing. and smothered bumps still shook I the tree, as if a mighty ax waa being ; laid to Its roots. j A faintness seized upon the man ! who had been the toy and sport of I the kments. Realization of his pre dicament and of his escape rushed in ; upon him. and he nearly fell. He clambered ftebly down the tree and I dropped to ihe trembling earth in a faint. The breath of the cool afternoon breeze awskc-r.od him, and he felt i.il out instinctively for his gun. Tla it came to him that his gtm was far i c'r,wn in the bottom of the earth. He rtsr-. Before him lay the long fur iow of the earthquake, still smoking with 'he dut which rose from its new clcli depths. Intc this he had drop ped, and from it he had been hurled : like a feather. I Small wonder, then, that Nelse Walker was dazed, and wandered far j before he reached the station at Fort iejon. jsor was there much which was familiar there to bring him from his dream. The adobe buildings "of the stage hrmses lay crumbled In ruins, branch es strewed the ground, and frantic horses stampeded about in the corrals Wben the station-keeper heard VAalker's story, he thought that fear had turned his head. Bpt a search for the lost gun on the following day brought him to the brink of that aw ful chasm which had swallowed it. The erosion and ftoodo of forty-sev-en years have done much to fill the STeat rift through the hills, so that now in places it servea for a road bed or a trail through the heavy brush but to the oid settlers about Fort Ts Jin it Is still the finger-mark of the earthquake that swallowed Nelse Walker.-Dane Coolldge in Youth's Companllon. Two Burning Topics. "There's two things I never worry sbout." "And they are?" "What might hare happened If the baseball season .had lasted a little longer; an' how things would go it the election wn to be held to-day -"Pittsburg Post. The United States produces moro corn than all the rest of the world. 8HEATH TROU8ER8. They Are Described and Wearing Denounced, Their You men who wear pant3, there's a Biirprlse In store for you. The folks who make the fashions kept the wo men busyi last spring with th.e sheath skirt. Now It's your turn anl you must face the crisis like men. Put your hand over your heart anO. prepare for the- blow. The sheath trousers have arrived The sheath trousers have been del creed by the tailors who decide what the ultra-ultra fashionable man niust wear, and the people who dress three times a day and order a dozen assorted suits made at one time may as well prepare to stick out their legs and wear 'em. Call the valet. "James, tell the tailor to send up half a dozen pair of sheath trousers. Yaas, that's all for the present." Then when you get them you win find they are real startlers. For the tailors thus describe the Bhcath pants: "The leg seams are on the outside: instead of running down to the bot tom they will stop at the knee and be laced from that point on. For thosi who are of more retiring natures the seam Is not open to expose the calf of the leg, but is formed into a plait "Then there are the new pajamas with mother-of-pearl buttons and beading with any delicate shade of baby ribbon pink being preferred by the ultra-exclusive ones." But the new pajamas can wait until night; we are now discussing the sheath trousers. Judging from the description tbey must be fine for th9 fellow who is anxious to display his sturdy underpinning and who wants people to know that it Is genuine. But will they not work a hardship upon many a man of brain power and iichlevement, but who does not run to legs. Is it not putting the premium on the wrong end, so to speak. Any one who frequents the seaside resorts and watches the bathers dis porting themselves in the disgusted ocean realizes that all men are not formed like the heroes in popular novels. Many a man who Is a good citizen and taxpayer Is not designed on the model of n Greek god. There fore, this innovation of the tailors is not likely to prove popular. Those who have watched the Scotch kilties costume the one example of which In the civilized world is worn by the honorable shepherd of Druid Hiil Park will at once see the embar rassments of the new-fangled clothes. The sheath trousers may be all right; there are doubtless men who can wear 'em without blushing. But as for us, we are resolved to stick to the grand old Andrew Jackson-Abraham Lincoln pants the pants thai ftood up with Webster and marched with Lee and Grant. Let no hostile hand tear them down. Here's to the old-time pants of America; long may they wave! Baltimore Sun. Library Advertising. Once upon a time a certain painter (not latter-day Raphael or Rem brandt, but Just a humble artist Id clapboard and wainscot decoration) entered a public library not a thou sand miles from Springfield, Mass.. and, being "out of a Job," spent some time browsing among the books. Tc Ills Joy and surprise, he discovered works bearing on his trade. Although lie had been a cardholder for years, he had never before had a suspicion that such books were there on the shelves, waiting to be drawn. The painter's glad astonishment gave a hint to the librarian; mimeographed lists o favallable works on different trades and Industries were circulat ed, the local newspapers were pre vailed upon to give publicity to these and other resources of the library, j and as a result the circulation of that library Increased 23 percent in one j year. All of which goeth to show mat a library that Is set on a hill may, unfortunately, be hid until it condescends to reveal itself. Chica go Dial. Moral Reflections Please Englishmen. One great mistake which most news paper editors make is to believe that the English have become so Ameri canized that what succeeds in the Vnited States will be successful here. The English In many circumstances are altogether unchanged, and still like much which their predecessors W'ere fond of. A newspaper now has to be read In a hurry and In motion, and, therefore, clear descriptive head lines, large print and short paragraphs are popular. But for quiet reading the English public still like the samo kind of matter which pleased their predecessors; useful information, moral reflections, and short stories. Lonnod Graphic. Loafing Vicariously. "Y'ou don't mean to say," said Pep pery, "that you absolutely do nothing "Aw." renlied Phnllv warllv "I don't even do that. My man attends to everything, you knowV-Judge A patent has been granted a Chica go man on an electric piano that pro duces music from bells, instead el vires.