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Although it was not until tho last quarter of tho pest century that fclacklcg, or symptomatic anthrax, mas definitely recognized as a dis tinct disease caused by a specific micro-organism, still there can be little loul)t that It bad existed for many centuries end that a largo number of tho epizootics anions ccttlo which are referred to by early historians and clinical observers as anthrax were really blackleg and not anthrax. This supposition is based on tho fact that their description of tho symptoms and post-moriem appearancts in many cases corresponds more exactly with our present knovlrdso of blackleg than It does with anthra::. In ISjO Raver and Davaine dis covered the anthrax bacillus In tiie Mood of sheep which had died from anthrax; but, although a number of scicn;ir.ts verified this discovery, they did not recognize the bacillus r.s the cause of tho diseaii?, but considered its presence in the tissues and blood of affected animals as tho result of tho dhcasc. Not until 1S77 did Pas teur tucceed in demonstrating that the bacillus was the one essential for the appearance cf the disease; and in 1870 it was proved by Alroing, Cor novin and Thomas that symptomatic anthrax, or blackleg, is caused by au entirely different organism, and con sequently is a distinct disease. The following year the samo authors pub lished a description of tho blackleg bacillus and demonstrated that the disease could be produced In suscepti ble animals by Inoculation, and that Immunity might be produced by In troducing tho bacillus Into the circu lation of such animals under certain favorable circumstances. This dis covery was tho beginning of a series of experiments which finally led to tho introduction of preventive vac cination by hypodermic Injections of Hackleg virus which had bosa atten uated by means of heat. There are but few countries In tho world where blackleg docs not prevail to romo extent. The ravages of this fl Beaso are not confined to certain sones or altitudes, but occur as fre quently In tho extreme north as in the tropical regions, and as often on 11. e highest mountain pastures as in the lowlands. It 13 therefore evident that the contagion of blackleg pos sesses an unrivalled power of resist ::c:o to the destructive influences of -varying climatic conditions. In T.uropo it occurs as far north In Nor way as cattle are kept, and it is (doubtful whether a disease which often causes great los3 among the reindeer herds in Lapland, Northern Jtussln and Siberia is not Identical with blackleg. Furthermore, In Den marl:, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Netherlands and England the disease Is known and dreaded by cattle owners. On the .summer pastures on tho Alps in Switzerland, where for five months of : the year the ground Is covered w ith snow and ice, the disease appears regularly every summer when the - cattle are brought from tho lowlands, . and sometimes carries off as high as Remarkable Jolm Bums I!y SVDXIiV BROOKS. To look down from cne of the gal ' leries on John Burns sitting on the Treasury bench Is to see apparently an old man. The hair is almost snow .white; the forehead pale, spreading, and deep lined; his movements . lie adjusts his eyeglasses and reads over his official papers are leisurely and might even seem fatigued. But wait a moment. Wait till ho lifts his : face and you catch a glimpse of his great, brown, clear, burning eyes. Or ;valt till he rises to address the House, 1ectrical alertness speaking from every gesture, from the very poise of ;the body, power and passion In his -voice, his whole bearing eager, de fiant, welcoming the combat. Or see Aim again on the Terrace outside n. thick, square man, in a blue reefer suit, his head thrown massively back, tramping up and down with freo and swinging stride. You would not then think him old. Still less would you fltMnk so if you walked with him -through the streets or parks, among lils own people, giving and exchang ing salutations, patting a youngster .on the head, helping to fish out a ball that has fallen Into the Serpentine, showing a boy how to handle a cricket Jmt, skipping over the ropes with ye Klrls, congratulating the mothers, Jesting with the policemen, the very picture of sest, health and Jollity. The workmen know hlin and love liim. They recognize In him the blg- eest man that their class in England has yet produced. And John Burns lenows them and loves them In re tarn, and uses both his knowledge nd his affection to rebuke, chastWo them and make them elevate then fcrlves. Himself a non-smoker nnd a total abstainer, he never shirks fvc xubbws la M conviction that taei. of Animal Industry. twenty-five per cent, of the young stock, In France blackleg is regarded as the most destructive disease among the cattle, and It Is especially the dairy districts and the mountain pas tures which suffer the greatest losses. In the latter places the disease is called "mal do montagne," or moun tain disease, but statistics show en equally great mortality among tho ca;.tlo on the rich meadows and pas tures along the great rivers. In the Bavarian Alps, lu Tyrol and Vorarl berg tho disease is very severe on the young stock. In Denmark the disease is well known, and has for more than a cen tury been distinguished by laymen from other antracold diseases under the name of "raslesyge," which means cattle disease. In 1S21 Viborg de scribed the disease as occurring regu larly In certain districts where it still appears up to the present time. In Africa blackleg occurs both la the northern and southern colonies, especially lu the French possessions in Algeria, where It frequently deci mates the herds of young stock. Also in the southern Urltish provinces, es pecially Natal, it ha3 been reported to be very prevalent. The same seems to be the case with the English colo nies In Asia, although no definite sta tistics to that eiTect can be obtained. In South America tho disease prevails quite extensively throughout Argen tina. Cattle iu Cuba and Australia aUo suffer. Up to tho time when the Bureau of Animal Industry undertook to In vestigate the prevalence of blackleg in the United States it was merely Known that it occurred in certain districts In this country. From the reports received during the Investi gation it became apparent that tho loss from blackleg in certain portions of several States exceeds that from all other causes combined. The States and Territories which principally suf fer are Texas, Indian Territory, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, North Dakota , and South Dakota; but quite a number of other Western States are badly infected. In the East a cumber of outbreaks have been reported from Virginia, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, and scattering outbreaks have occurred in Vermont, New York, Ohio, Ken tucky, Tennessee and North Caro lina. In the Central States outbreaks have been reported from Michigan, inaiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne sota. Iowa and Missouri; but It is principally the cattle raising and cat tle feeding regions, which are bound ed on the north and east by the Mis souri and Mississippi Rivers and on, the west by the Rocky Mountains, which suffer the most. In the ex treme West the disease seems to pre vail to a considerable extent in the States of Washington, Montana, Ore gon, Idaho, Utah, California and Ari zona. With the exception of the Southern Atlantic and the Eastern Gulf States there are but few districts In the United States where the disease has not been observed. is little the Government can do for the worklngman compared with wh.4 the worklngman can do for himself. No man has spoken out more strongly against drink and beuing. No man has insisted more trenchantly that so cial and industrial reform must be gin with the individual. Harper's Weekly. The Farmer of the Future. The future farmer will sub-irrigate his land, and defy drought as well as fiood3. He will become a scientific forester, and every farm will produce wood and lumber as well ts wheat and apples. A single acre will pro duce what ten acres yield now. Wo men will work outdoors as heartily as men; in fact, they will be horti culturists and truck gardeners. There will be closer relation between the producer and the consumer. Ignor ing a horde of middlemen who fre quently waste more than is destroyed by Ignorant help and Insect foes com bined. Under the alliance with the school the farm wilf be valued not only for its gross weight of products, but for Us poems and its education. As our schools become places for ap plying as well as acquiring knowl edge, our farm homes will become In tegral parts of the garden school and the school farm. The alliance be tween the home and the school will become very close. A valley full of farms Is already the nearest to para dise that we have, but the future will I tenfold Its wealth and hundredfold ; Its delights. New York Evening I Post. See Value of Publicity. Various means of seeurlnrr nr!. ; Ity are being employed to a greater nr.d greater extent in New York by "i9 preachers who wish to secure Jargdr audiences. jl Farm Topics Ij YIELD OF POTATOES. Tho Journal of Agriculture of Ire land notes somo experiments cover ing a period of four years on the sprouting of late potatoes, where the yearly average gain in yield due to sproutlns before planting ranged lrom fifty to eighty bushels per acre. Such a large increase would not, how ever, apply to average potato grow ing in tho United State3, since the av erage yield of potatoes here is much smaller than It Is in Ireland. FEEDING! GRAIN IN THE SHEAF. One of the very best vmya of fur nishing the hens with exercise In win ter Is to supply them with grain In tho sheaves oats, wheat, rye, buckwheat, or as many of them as possible, al ternated to give variety. The fowls scratch and hunt in the straw for tho grains all day long; this helps maintain their bodily warmth, keeps their bodies in good rugsed condition, and the fowls happy and contsnted because busy. Epitomist. COOKING GRAIN. Cooking grain and meal for slcrk ts only profitable when It is done in cold weather and the feed Is given while still warm. A temperature at or near animal heat is an advantage, as the stomach has to warm to that extent. But the (heat required in cooking food -expands it so that tho stomach can contain less of it. If the digestion be good the uncooked food will In the same bulk have the most nutriment and do the greatest good. EpItoml3t. FALL PLOWING KILLS GRUBS. Tho white grub, which Is the young of the June beetle, Is especially trou blesome In fields newly plowed from sod. Strawberries set on such land suffer severely, and for that re3on growers often set them on land the eeoond year from sod rather than the first. Other standard crops like corn are apt to be affected to some extent. Pasturing of hogs is one method ot greatly reducing the number of grubs. Fall plowing Is another plan which is quite effective in severe seasons. American Cultivator. MATURE SIRES. Breeds of swine have been injured to a certain degree by using t.nimals for breeding purposes that were not fully mature. Experiments made with mature bows and young sows show that the cost of raising pigs from mature sows is much less than from younger dams, while the losses of pigs were also greater when the dams were young. It has been claimed that liability of swine to cholera and other' diseases Is likely caused by the use of immature ani mals for breeding purposes. Epi tomist. POULTRY A SIDE LINE. Poultry for the farmer should only be considered in the llsht of a Eldo line, but should bo made one ot the distinct and substantial branches, and given the tame relative attention ns the cattle, horses or hogs. Of course we cannot all be horse fanciers, hog fanciers or cattle fanciers, nor can we all be chicken fancier, but there are very few farmers to constituted mentally and physically that they are entirely nnflt to give poultry the nec. essary attention demanded of a suc cessful farm flock. Intrica.e knowl edge of tho science of breeding is not necessary; all the fowls need Is good, sensible care and proper housing. Farmers' Home Journal. ROTATION OF CROPS. The doctrine of the rotation of crops has been preached for three quarters of a century, yet the knowl edge and practice of It have not in creased much, We take up our poor est mowings, plant with potatoes and corn, and seed down again with oats or wheat, and in this way have, it Is true, a sort of rotation. But it is sometimes done in a haphazard way, without much intelligence and with less system. Experience, where ex perience hat been gained by careful experiment, has shown that certain courses ot certain crops, treated in a certain manner, are. best adapted to certain klndB of land. Th rotation for heavy land must be different from that for lighter soils. Yet the effect of tile drains upon heavy land is such, that these alone make a great differ ence in the rotation and their results. Tile will make the meadows better, and keep them, in fine sweet grasses longer; yet at the same time they make it so much easier to get them Into grass after tillage, that they en courage a rotation of grain and hoed crops such as Is not thought of with out them. Let us aim to sell nothing Off the farm that will Impoverish the soil, unlets we are sure of a price that will tnak all good. Let us re member the good rule: "No manure, no crops; no cattle, no manure." .Weekly Witness. r When shown positive and reliable proof that a certain remedy had cured numerous cases of female ills, wouldn't any sensible woman conclude that the same remedy would also benefit her if suffering with the same trouble ? Mere are two letters which prove the efficiency of Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound. Red Hanks, Miss. ""Words arc inadequate to express what Lvdia 12. Ii:iklinm's Vegetable Compound lias done for me, Buffered from t female disease nnd weakness which the doc tors said was caused ly a libroid tumor, and I commenced to think there was 110 help for me. Lydia 1-2. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound made mo a well woman after all other menus had failed. My friends are nil nsklnir what lias helped me so much, and I frladlyretmnnieiid Lydia 13. Pinkham's Vegetable Com pound." Mrs. Willie Edward. nntnnstead, Maryland. " Before taking Lydia E. Plnklinm's Vegetable Compound I was weak and nervous, and could not be on mr feet half a day without suffering. The doctors told me I never would be well without mi operation, but Lydia 1 1. Plnklinm's Vegetable Compound has done more for me than nil the doetors, and I hope this valuable medicine may come into the hands of mauy more suffering women." Mrs. Joseph U. liandy. We will pay a handsome reward to any person who will prove to us that these letters are not genuine and truthful or that either of these women were paid in any way for their testimonials, or that the letters are published without their permission, or that the original letter from each did not come to us entirely unsolicited. What more proof can any one ask ? For 30 years Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound has been the standard remedy for female ills. No niek woman does justice to herself who will not try this famous medicine. Mp.de exclusively from roots and herbs, and has thousands ot cures to its credit. " Mrs. Pinkhani invites all sick women &, to write her for advice. She .lias guided thousands to henlth free of charge. Address Mrs. Pinkham, Lynn, Mass. NANCY. When I was about five years old we had a dog we called Nancy. I would sometimes wander away itto the wood which bordered on cur home, and JCnncy would mlways walk in front of me to protect me and "keep off the enemy," as mamma always sold. One day my sisters and I were playing house under the large pine trees in front of my home, and Nancy lay in front of me, as usual. The milkman, intending to frighten ns, came up the path and hid behind the trees. But Nancy spied him and made a Jump (or him. He dropped the mlik cans, spilled nil the milk and ran down the Tath as fast as ho could. Nancy would wander away for flays at a time, and then come hack re pentant to stay for a few weeks. Flut one of these tramps cost our dear dig her life. It was a stormy night, and everything was wet and cold. Nancy wanted to come In the house to spend he night. MiiT.ma made her go out in her kennel In our old-fashioned back kitchen. Nancy hung her head and went out in the storm. The next morning we could not find her. She was gone for weeks and weeks, and one day a worklngman told us he found her on the railroad track cut to plces. She had been 3truck by a train. We were very much shock ed and grieved, as we thought a great deal of her. Ellen Hanger, in the New York Tribune. Pedantry Is an kle eompurei to the warm comfort of wisdom. ROSY AND I'LCMP dood Health From Right Food. "It's not a new food to me," re marked a Va. man. in speaking ot Grape-Nuts. "About twelve months ago my wlfo was in very bad health, could not keep anything on her stomach Tho Doctor recommended milk half water, but it was not sufficiently nourishing "A friend of mine told me one dar to try Grape-Nats and cream. The result was really marvelous. My wife soon regained her usual strength and to-day 1b as rosy and plump as when a girl of sixteen. "These are plain facts, and nothing I could say in praise of Grape-Nuts would exaggerate in the least the value of this great food." Name given by Postum Co., Battle ".'eh. Read, "The Road to Wei vllle," In pkgs. "There's a Rea on. Ever read the above letter? A new one appears from time to time. They re genuine, true, and full of human XVLUSP f K HA M Good resolutions are timely at any season of the year. Itch cured in X) minute hr Woolfnrd'i Sanitary Lotion. Never fails. Atdniggiats, Human Ingratitude Is the thunder storm which sours the milk of human kindness. The Pent Laxntive Garfield Tea! Com posed nf Herbs, it exerts a beneficial effect upon the entire system, regulating liver, kidneys, stomach and bowels. Seeing the humor of a situation helps to tide one over many rough places. Tiles Cured In J to 14 Days. Pmo Ointment it guaranteed to cure any iiohmr, Klmd Itlpedineori'rotrudinf , 1'iles in 6 to 11 days or money refunded. 60 J Kesiilts-obtained in tests-or tn I Maxim silent firearm before the l'nlt j ed States Army board are reported to have been encouraging, the ex I ploslcn being onVy faintly audibla. ; Tho muffling is obtained at some ex ( pense of velocity. i '"" $100 Ilenard. f 100. I The reader of this paper will bepleaiedt learn that there u at leat one dreailed dj 1 fnse that arienre ha betn able to cure in all it's ta(!eii, and thatw Catarrh. Hnll'iOitarni Cure in the onlv pomtive cure nnw known to i the medical fraternity. Catarrh being a con stitutional diaeana, requires a conatitulir"" j treatment. Hall'it'atarrhCnreintakeniniet" I cally, acting directly upon the blood andmU cou suriacea of the avatem, thereby dentroy I ing tie foundation 0 the diaeaae, and giving i the patient strength by building up tbe con I strtution and aanuting nature in doing its work. Th proprietors have so much taita 111 its curative powers that they offer 0ns I Hundred Dollars for any ease that it tail to cura. Send for hat nf tMt.itnnnials. Address F. J. Chesey & Co., Toledo, 0. . v Sold hr Druesnats, 75c. Take Hall's Family fills for constipation. Race Sulcldo in France. The depopulation of France is P coedlng at an amazing rate. Th vital statistics for last year show reduction in the birth rate even be low the figures of 1906, with an in crease in deaths. There were 32,878 lew births in the entire country In 1907 than in the preceding Jr' and 13,693 more deaths. There wa en ex:esa of 19,920 deaths ovef births. In 190 the ratio of births was 215 to 10,000 of popula tlon; in 1907 It fell to 207. The falW i ing off took place in 82 departments, while five showed a slight lncreas The decline of hirtis in the out lying rustic regions Is most alarm ing. The excess of doaths occurred In 55 departments, that in the Seine, which hi practically Paris, being tha largest. From 1901 to 1905, inclusive) tie population of France showed average Increase of 18 a year for each 10.000 Inhabitants. In 1906 ' thi dropped to 7, and last yaar it chang ed to a decrease ot 6 In 10,000. Thl is race suicide with a vengeance.