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Frantic Endeavor Retards
Achievement Germany Fast Outstripping Both England J and United States in By Dr. C H. MERICAN bustle Is putting Its blight upon everything that really deserves to be culled substantial American progress. We have recently teen' informed by one who has had excep- 1 1 tloual opportunity to ' J I with all the crowding V S I American schoolroom, secured by the more German Instruction. A German Is never In a hurry, but ho does as mucn as on American, and does It better and more thoroughly and with less wrench to himself and to other people. We cull him phlegmatic, which means, II properly understood, that he Is to such a degree master of himself that he can cover a great deul of ground without going all to pieces in the process. And whatever flings we have made at German Inertness, we are all prepared to say that Germany Is still to a considerable extent the world s schoolmaster In all matters of profound thought, that Germany is rapidly overtaking Eng land and America In the field of Industrial competition, and when it comes to a question of military genius and preparation Germany would qulta likely bo able to w hip all the rest of Europe. Hut the most serious feature of frenzied American activity is not that we are not doing as peod and solid work as would be accomplished were our ac tivity of n less wearing and distracting kind, but that It leaves the minds of the people in that tumultuous condition that tends to render them Insensible to any influence except such as emanate from the tleld of material Interest and ambition. ' This Is not a season when men are deeply meditating, it Is not a season when men nre praying. And that Is not simply because they ore in too much of a hurry to think or pray, but because their strain and distraction destroy their capacity for reflection and devotion; and material results, all our country through, are being fiurchasod at the expense of physical exhaustion, intellec tual confusion, moral debility and spiritual sterility. Kverybody deprecates this condition of things, but everybody, or almost everybody, gives way to It. We have Required the habit of being ia a hurry. It has become a kind of second nature with us to do aa much as we can do naturallv and then to ndd auother stint to it and to hold our watch In our bauds whllo wo arc doing it. The shortening of the time by oBe hour for running a steunior from New York to Queenstown sends a thrill through the entire body of what we call modern civilization. Civilization U one of the severest diseases from which the race U suffer ing. And the irrationality of the sltuaUon is evdenced by the fact that the feeling of the people geneally is that the present pace, is a pace that kills and the severer the tension the less there Is to show for It In the way of comfort and soUbfactlon. In point of hustle and nervous perturbation, Heaven were to be like New York or almost any American city except, perhaps. Phil adelphla we should pray to be sent Bomewhere else. It Is cot work, oven hard work, that puts people out of sympathy with the things tbut oro Quest and best. Work rationally indulged In is a means of grace, but frenzy is a kind of interior cataclysm that knocks everything out of place and involves men in unintelligible aud unproductive confusion. Chris tians, In particular, ought to set the example of reserving to themselves suf ficient leisure and maintaining In their souls and atmosphere of quiet to ena ble them to come ofteu Into fellowship with God. The spirit of the time Is In these respects bad. You know it. The en forced and nervous pressure Is dl?astrous so far as relates to what Is best in life and finest in the Individual soul. Christianity rose In successful revolt against Paganism. Now the temper of today s srirtt in all'lhls matter of nervous hustle and conscienceless ruth Is r&gan, as truly so as though It were being practised In old Borneo or Madagascar. And It Is for the church, and for Christians and for you to lead off in an old-fashioned apostolic revolt against this despotism of pagan frenzy nnd to settle down Into that rational mode of life whoso very quietness shall carry In it something of the spirit of Jesus. Young at Jlldrich's Life Touched a Surprisingly Wide Segment of American Literature. By Ferris HE annals of American poetry are a remarkable record of lougevlty. The poets of our first rank, barring tragic Poe, have lived to an honored and benignant old age. Thomas Bailey Aldrlch was no exception In tne calendar of years, yet even at three score aud ten it was bard to think of age and him together. Blond, erect, ruddy, alert, he seemed at serenty uutouchud by mortality. More than Lowell even, he was the perennial boy. And to his biographer, curiously innuirlnn into th vanished das of that long singularly for tunate life, the Imago that overlays all others Is ibat of -Tom Bailey." the bad boy who wa yet not such a very bad boy." The exquisite lyric poet, the In im'ltable story-writer, the accomplished editor, the witty, urbane man of let ters nil take in the mind a coloring of sincerity and soundness, or mischief and mirth, from that Portsmouth boyhood which makes his whole life seem not only Its fulfilment, but In strange sense Its prolongation. It Is then, with a certain surprise that one becomes aware of the wide segment 'ot American literature that his life touched. And it la precisely in this that one prime interest of his letters lies. Through them, as through the candid eyes of Tom Bailey, we watch the flow and ebb of the literary Udes of more than half a century. From the Cmtury. ORIGIN OF "AMERICA." Dr. Hale Tells of the First Tims That the Hymn Was Sung. "I suppose I am the only person here who heard 'Ameilca' sung the fit it time in this) country," said the Rev. Edward Everett Hale, D. D., in an address at the Old West Roxbury Meeting House. "It was on a Fourth of July when I was a boy. I had spe-.!'. all my cokbrntlon money and on my way home had to pass Park Street church. I cc-t'.ded to go into the church, where, there was a celebration of the ration' holiday. "There was a chorus of boys nr.J phis who sr.as Anirica' on that diy lor the flr:,t nine. I (lou t remember whether I tried to sir.g It. Lar in li:o Dr. Smiili told me how be c-r.rr.o to write the verses to the tunc of Viod Stive U.e Kir.?.' -TL.e minister of Park S;rert Industrial Field. Parkhurst rJj" w jj acquaint himself with the facts that and prodding that distinguibh the there Is lesu to show for It than la steady ana composed uiscipuuo ui Seventy Creenslet church told him that there was to be a celebration of the Fourth of July at the church and that he wanted Dr. Smith to write some verses of a song for it, and handed to Dr. Smith a number of English and German music books and told him to find some tune in them and fit his verses to the music. "Dr. Smith looked through the books and selected the tune, which he had never heard, and which baa been sung as 'America' in this coun try ever since." Boston Transcript Another Slap at Woman Suffrage. "Ii we had women for judges," said the lady with the square jaw, "few divorces would bo granted." "Yes," r plied the horrid man. "They'd be so c.-.ger to heurtlio fcan dulou details that it ould never be possible to tet a.1 the evidence lu." JuJe. Castro's Curious Career. Delights to Involve HirfWign Governments-Thc Ruler ol Venezuela is Now About 45 Years OM-H:ded Cattle on the Hills Until He Was About 30-Led a Revolution With a Score ol Men-Hw Inordinate Conceit-Combines in Himself "Al Courage, All Honor, All Patriotism, All Glory Squeezes His People With Taxes and Gives Them Festivals. The life of the nervous little Vene Buelan, Don Clprlano Castro, has been a combination of melodrama and farce, with a sparse sprinkling of tragedy and comedy. It is almost lm possible to accept bis sprightly exist ence as history without debasing his tory from Its lofty seriousness. It Is eaBier'to consider him as the "enfaut terrible par excellence" of South America and remejnber him as one who contributed more to the gayety of nations than to international his tory. The fate that shaped his des tiny did so In a capViclous mood. The early days of this Belf-styled man of mystery are obscure. He was born about 186S (the exact date is not known) In a small village in Los Andes, and tfas the son of a herdsman. Until he was thirty he herded cattle on the hills, or, as oth ers assert, worked In a pulperla, or combined gTooery and grog shop, but his duties were not so arduous that he might not take a lively Interest In politics. He bad the true blood of a bullfighter in fclm, Bnd whon in 1892 General Joaquin Cresno fomented a revolution aralnst President Palacio, Castro formed a pafrty which he called the Castrlstaa and supported the Gov ernment. But lh Government lost, and Cas tro Is said to have fled to Curacoa, (he small Dutch island Just off the Venesualan coast,, and thence to Col ombia. After seven years we find him, .In 18S9, taking part in the over throw of President Andrade. Joae Manuel Hernandez (El Mo- cho), who had begun tea revolution In the preceding year, had been cap tured and Imprisoned In the dungeons of Puerlo Cabello. Castro, gathering some twenty or thirty men, under took his extraordinary march of 600 miles from Los Andes to Caracas. Only an Andlno could have contem plate such march. But with the assistance of that capricious fate who was weaving his destiny he entered Caracas at the head of a formidable band that had thronged to him from all sides, overthrew the Government in a decisive battle, all the enemy having Joined him at the crucial mo ment, and put himself at the head of Venezuela. Andrade fled to Trinidad It Is no small step from a cattle man's son to dictator of Venezuela, and Castro never seems to have caught up with himself, so to speak While snapping his fingers in the faces of the greatest Powers of the earth and displaying a craftiness that made ludicrous their shrewdest schemes of diplomacy, he was a'.most Ignorant of the existence of Australia, and thought Caracas the greatest city In the world. In October, 1899, he assumed the office of President. El Mocho (Her mandez), for whose release from prl son Castro had taken up arms, was liberated, but, resenting the usurpa tlon by Castro of the office he was himself to have occupied, gathered a small force to turn the Andlno out. Tbe result was that be found himself back again In his Puerto Cabello pri son with a promptness that surprised him. But he has since been liberated and given office in the Government. Since 1901 Castro has been the most involved man, with the possible exception of tbe Sultan, of his day It was In that year that General Rol lando raised his revolutionary move ment In the East. Castro was rt generally popular, and was much de splsed by a large faction because of his low Andean birth. He nas popu larly known as the "Andean Mon key." Rollando's revolution was to put the conservative leader. General Matos, in the Presidential chair. General Matos, who had married the sister of the great dictator, Guzman Blanco, joined Rollando in the fol lowing year with widespread support Castro's position was precarious. He bad, moreover. Involved himself in Colombian revo'utlon, his ports were being blockaded by France, Germany and Great Britain, and General Matos, now master of tbe greater part of Venezuela, was heading straight for Caracas. In September it looked as If the Government were doomed, but at tbe last moment Castro himself took the lead of his army and de stroyed tbe strength of bis enemies in a sharp Napoleonic battle near Vic toria. After three days' fighting (the battle has been stretched out to ten by some writers) Matos fled. The trouble Just referred to with the great torricn Powers. France, Germany, England and Italy, which resulted in the b'.o.kaie of the Vene tuclp.a ports, was Quite farcical. There are vast undeveloped f.e'.ds i:i Venc ur!a which had lur:J go'.J from reckkss individual foreign ic:uia- tors with promises of high interest. No interest was forthcoming, sacred pecuniary promists were violated and the claims of nations that payment be Biade set aside with the inainerence one might show a tailor's bill. The Insulted Powers decided upon a great naval demonstration, and ac cordingly the ships of France, Ger many, Great Britain and later Italy appeared before the ports of La Guay ra and Puerto Cabello with great war ships stripped for action. They cap tured and sank four gunboats, made mizes of a number of little native sailboats nnd did as much blockading as there was to do. As such a condi tion could hardly be termed war, this was known as a "peaceful llockado until the United States objected to the anomaly, whereupon a state of actual hostility was recogniied, mak ing tbe situation thoroughly ludi crous. Castro took advantage of the for eign trouble to unite the lntirnal fac tions in an ezploslon of patriotism against the common enemy. At the same time he settled his ftud with Colombia by a little personal diplo macy with President Reyes, thereby opening up trade with that country. Then he boycotted European goods by a dictatorial edict. Tbe great Powers very soou discov ered that they were killing their own trade. The Germans, In particular, could not help seeing that thatr block ade would cost tbem more in a few months la trade to their merchants, as well as in coal to the Government, than the entire amount t their claims. It was evidently a cose of irresisti ble force against Immovable object. Finally, however, through Herbert W. Bowen, United States Minister protocols were signed agreeing to a settlement at The Hague. Castro came through the c.-lsls with a vast sense of his own Importance, and with an estimation abroad that ranged from respect to contvmpt. So firmly was he now convlLced that Venezuela was Ca6tro and Castro Venezuela that he took hij nation's foreign troubles to be a personal dis pute between himself and the Euro pean Powers. Therefore he felt it his duty toward the peace and pros perky of his country to resign, which he did on March 22, 1903. Very soon, however, he returned to office for more troubles awaited him. As absolute dictator of a large country Castro had been following the precedent sot by a long s-.iccesslon of dictators, of enriching himself at the expense of his country. He found it an easy matter to Impose heavy taxes, confiscate valuable property for tho alleged support of the Government, and. as U generally supposed, pile up for himself riches In Paris. It was this Independent method that brought him into conflict with the United States and his muddle with France The trouble with th United States was about the treatment of the New York and Bermudez Company, which Castro asserted had given support to me revolutionists under Matoa. As the courts of Venezuela are absolute ly subject to the President, the United States felt that intervention would be necessary. This put Washington in an embarrassing position, for while foreign Powers were controlling Ven ezuelan customs it would be difficult to use force under a new casus belli But this trouble, like France's the previous winter, after a good deal of excitement, was allowed to hang. Cas tro's courts proved to his satisfaction that the company had given extensive bribes to the insurgents. The matter m, iccnnicany speaKing, still unset tled. It is questionable whether It Will ever tie settled. Castro's muddle with France was over the French Cable Company Ca- tro began In his courts action to de prive me company of its franchises iniB company had openly favored .-aaios, giving mm large sujns of money ana assisting him with 1U ra bles. When the courts annulled the concessions M. Taigny, the French cnarge a Affaires, took up the matter, Castro refused to recognize Talenv and for i while diplomatic relations were sundered. Castro finally made a personal matter out of the quarrel and M. Talgay was withdrawn. The Powers saw only too clearly that nothing could be done with a man iiko ie?tro. Naval demonstration were ino ar.a an attempt to take theVrater-'town of Caracas would cernn-nave oe?n Clsrstro-jf. vwn.Wni,i, (7at ninn, not ever nvejru it ta irfvnajT' .; no lrs a jc?u Jock in h:s rye nr.d i limp which is sinis-.rr. lie is not ini moral; inordinately fond of DWu.r. for which he would often neglect nutl ters of the highest Importance; child. lhly addicted to pomp and glory, kuandlng adulation after the styis of Louis XIV. As an example of th kind of flattery which appeals to his conceit: The writer once, while on a Caribbean steamer, picked up piece of a Venezuelan newspaper which had been used as wrapping paper. A column biblically divided Into prose verses, every one of which began "Y alia esta Castro" caught his eye. "What 1b that?" he asked a Venezuelan near him. The other started to translate. It was evident, ly the account of a festival. It read, "And mere is asiro, in wnom all courage, all honor, all patriotism, all glory Is combined. And there Is Cas tro, In whom all virtue, all generos ity aud liberality is united. And there is Castro" The Venezuelan glanced down the column, and with a smile said, It s all the same, yon can fill in for yourself the rest of the column." In contrast to this peacock conceit was tne extraordinarily democratic side of Castro'a nature. He was al ways easily accessible, and was ac customed when on the street to in dulge in conversation with whomso ever he should meet, and would otten distribute pennies to the street ur chins. Castro owed his strength to his ab solute fearlessness. Wen one con slders the series of revolutions ai well as the foreign troubles, how Hermandez, Matos, Rollando, Perra- za and Vldal went down before him, and with what ill success the four great Powers attempted to discipline him for being a mischievous boy, one cannot but feel a shade of admira tion for the enfant terrible. But at times he has commanded only the world's laughter, as he did when once he resigned, "as an offer to his fath erland." It was quite apparent that he merely wished his fatherland to see how indispensable he ws. From his three pleasure palaces Just out side of Caracas he made it as difficult possible for his successor, Vice- President Gomes, and, as was expect ed, tbe fatherland had very soon to acknowledge its dependence upon the little man of mystery. Then he re turned to office amid a popular dem onstration that must have surpassed Bolivar's second triumphal entry into Caracas. Where he received his education, such as it Is, has been the subject of varied conjecture. His Jrnowledge of the refinements of thot, Spanish lan guage needs little comment. Even the peon is proud of his language and makes an effort to speak It properly, with fair resulU, considering his scant civilization. Castro, moreover, has served a silent term in Congress at Caracas. It is said of him. that at that time he could not tolerate shoes, probably never having worn an; tiling before but the sandal. A visitor at one of Castro's villas describes the great man as skipping about like a child. He had Just had a row of different colored electrio lights put around the piazza and was immensely proud of them. Another visitor says that everything belong ing to him Is marked "El glorloso Cipriano Castro." A perional friend of his said of him once: "Ho may he like a child, but he is a brave man. He is absolutely fearless." Whllo burdening the people with excessive taxation, he has kept him self popular by Roman methods, with festivals, dances and bull fights, and on more than one occasion gave ban quets free to all, from the highest to the lowest, the remembrance of which among the highways and hedges may In future ages promote the dlable clto to sainthood. But he did noth ing to improve Venezuela, as Blanco had done, beyond adorning Caracas. Still he was pleased to dub himself "The Restorer" and to substitute his own likeness on the postage stampi for that of the great liberator, Bo livar. When in 1899 he assumed the dic tatorship It was common supposition that he would go the way of many other Venezuelan dictators. In 1902. thtf time of the 'Matos revolt, tho ac customed end was expected as the commonplace InevWble. That the Venezuelan Blondin never lost 1 precarious foothold was due to hi' treatment of his army, which he was so radical as to pay. Moreover, hs surrounded himself with able advis ers, such aa Gomes and the rest o his 'get-rlch-dulck" crowd. WthV any candidate to oppose him and wltn the army strqng for him, Castro baa no trouble whatsoever with the Presi dential elections. He first electee himself Constitutional President . two years. At the conclusion Of thi term, being prohibited by the en stitution fromVoldlng office again, rather than eil a Bucceasor' froi among his depndents as Preslden In name onlv, he set himself up Provisional Constitutional; Preslden. Every now a"hd a?alh bVrms blnwi re-elected to this title. attemntlnS the point of the b.-.yontft to show tr beojiie that.thT- approved., Uii 8 wrts choosing him of- their .' l'r Tlitrty-rinc -Japanese pendei in 1507. - . .