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It's surprising, to the Washington
Star, how much a sixteen-year-old on can tell hfa father that the old man won't believe. It should not be overlooked, pro claims the Chicago Tribune, that Ger many has a fine merchant marine all ready to use that Panama Canal when It Is completed. The new China, contends the, Bos ton Herald, Is as firmly and proudly national as Is the old. She Is not a' ward and does not recognize the guardianship of other nations. It she It opening her eyes and her mind and .Is accepting progressive Ideas she 'must be permitted to move forward slowly. By legislation several American States have definitely fixed the status of corporations as persons In the full meaning of the term, and now New York by a Judgment of Its highest court holds that corporations an well as persons may be punished for homi cide. This righteous decree, avers the New York World, cannot , fall to have a far-reaching effect upon the welfare of men, women and children who work under unfavorable and even dangerous conditions. One of the most polished and painstaking of English authors re garded correct spelling as a totally unnecessary accomplishment. In his introduction to R. L. Stevenson's let ters, Sidney Colvln writes; "I have not held myself bound to reproduce all the author's minor eccentricities of spelling and the like. As all his friends are aware, to spell In a quite accurate and grown-up manner wan a thing which this master of English letters was never able to learn." If a novel bill Introduced in the New Jersey Senate by Mr. Leavltt be comes & law, any person thinking himself insane, or about to become so, will have the right to go to any of the State asylums and upon appli cation to the medical director, be ad mitted for treatment. Another bill of Mr. Leavltt's provides for the com mitment of confirmed inebriates to Insane asylums. Both bills were In troduced at the request of Dr. Henry A. Cotton, medical director of 'the State Hospital for the Insane at Tren ton. The chief objection to the proposed Federal quarantine of the gypsy moth, pleads the Boston Transcript, is that it would cost an extra hun dred thousand dollars a year. But this Is not a large sum, in view of the five hundred thousand which lsspent annually on the Federal Bureau of , Entomology, largely in fighting im ported pests, and the seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars which Is every year expended in New England in pursuit of the moth pests alone. The present plan of the Federal au thorities, when they learn of any sus pected importation, is to notify the entomologist of the State concerned to go in pursuit of it, and where no such officer has been provided they try in some way to attend to it them selves. The situation is in. conse quence complicated, especially with te varying laws and practices of the States, and it is clear that consider able benefit would accrue from a more effective nationalizing of this scrutiny. While red hair Is exceptional. It is not so rare as to explain the ridicule to w hich it -is subjected, maintains the Philadelphia Record. Children will terrorize any one of their num ber who has red hair, and It is only In well-bred society that adults so endowed can escape annoyance. Yet It has stately associations and artistic merits. Thomas Jefferson had red hair; bo did Marquis de Lafayette. Queen Elitabeth had red hair. Who has not been told that Titian loved to paint that warm hue which is generally accompanied by an unusually fine complexion? And yet the amount of torment that any very red-headed boy or girl will have to go through before reaching the age at which native savagery is usually covered by a veneer of civil ization is simply Incalculable. ; The moral effect of habitual teasing, guy ing and annoyance is very serious, and if red-hended persons are quick tempered it is kss likely that ,tho hair and the disposition ga tcksetjier than that constant hectoring on account of 'the hair has ruined the temper. ' - PLANTING By George IY1. Bowers, United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. The cultivation of the soil marked one of the . earliest steps in man advance -from savagery, and its be ginnings were already lost in the mists of antiquity when the first crude attempts were made toward in creasing the natural productiveness of the waters. Vastly Inferior to agriculture though it be, both age and economic Importance, aqul-culture the cul ture of tbe waters Is nevertheless of respectable antiquity and of no mean value as a producer and con server of wealth Fish culture was first practiced by the Chinese, who at a time so re mote that there is no record of its beginnings, placed in the streams fag ots and fascines of brush, upon which breeding fish probably carp could spawn. The eggs were removed and hatched near by, or else sold for tran sport, to stock more distant pond and streams The ancient Egyptians also knew the art of fish culture, and we later hear of it In Rome during the republic There are Dlctures extant showlne the methods of that day, which were wholly different from those of the Chinese, dealing, too, wlth distinct species of fish. Ditches were dug Inland from the sea, into which the fish ran at cer tain seasons to deposit their spawn their egress and that of their progeny being prevented by flood-gates.' The breeding fish, after depositing their eggs, graced the tables of the luxu rlous Romans, and the young hatched in the ditches were reared to matu rlty in captivity. The species cultl vated were the red mullet and the moray The early Germans, too, had fish ponds, some of which to this day furnish an Important part of the food Bupply of Central Europe; but In this case landlocked bodies of water, elth er natural or artificial, were stocked with breeding fish, the only atten tlon required being a Biipply of food It is interesting to note that the Hawallans and other natives of the South Seas, savages, perhaps, but of a high order of intelligence, followed much the same methods, and had fish ponds long before the advent of the white ranee. In the fourteenth century a moTik Dom Plnchon, discoveed the utility of bbxes and running water in raising fish from naturaly fertilized eggs, but the first successful attempt at ar tificial fertilization was not made until 174 S, when Jacob!, a German discovered the process. This Impor tant discovery, from which, modern fish culture may be said to date, made little progress outside Germany for more than three-quarters of a cen tury; then Kb principles were inde. pendently rediscovered l,y Shaw, in England, in 1S37, and five years later by Gehln and Remy.two French fish ermen, whose process attracted the attention of the, distinguished Pro fessor Coste, and secured a govern ment grant In most spawning fish the eggs and milt become so loosened in the body that a slight pressure tends to dfs charge them in a stream, and the proper handling of the fish and the application of the pressure const! tute the art of "stripping" and fer tlltzatlon, the details varying with the species. The process follows closely that of nature, but it excels it In the completeness with which the eggs are Impregnated. Under natural conditions, when the fish merely discbarge the eggs and milt Into the water, many of the former fall of fertilization and die; but a skilled stripper, -working with fully ripe and healthy fish, will suc ceed In fertilizing practically all. Formerly It was the custom to fer tilize the eggs in considerable quan tities of water, under the assumption that this was nature's method, and therefore 'to be copied; but experi ence has shown that superior results are attained by the use of the dry method, In which the quantity cf water employed Is merely sufficient to molBten the container. How the Egns Are Treated. This method of stripping Is fol lowed with practlcaly all fish except those belonging to the family which contains the black bass, crapples and SNflsh, alt"of whlrji build and gnard nests in gravelly places, and for some reason not well understood do not give up their eggs under pressure. Here ngain man bows to nature,' and merely facilitates the natural course of breeding by supplying ready made nests, by providing shelter for the male fish, which stands on guard dur Irig incubation, and by protecting and feeding the fry when they leave the paternal care. After the eggs are artificially fer tilized, their subsequent treatment varies with their nature. Those 'of the trout and falmon are heavy, non- adhesive, and of large size, and are ' THE WATERS I hatched In shallow trays, placed in troughs of cold, running water. Shad and whtteflsh eggs are hut little heavier than water, and are hatched in jars of special design, to prevent massing and consequent suf focation of the eggs. A current of water Is conducted into the bottom of the Jars and out of the top, the whole volume of eggs being kept In constant circulation, while the fry, as they are hatched, are automatical ly carried over Into suitable tanks or containers. The eggs of the cod family, the mackerel family, and some of the flatfish, on the contrary, are buoy ant, and float at the surface of the sea. These pelagic eggs, as they are called, when In a state of nature, are particularly well supplied with oxy gen, owing to the tossing of the waves, so they require special aera tion, and to supply this and to simu late natural conditions a "tidal box" Is employed. The "Tidal Box." By an Ingenious application of the siphon principle, the water in the hatching jars or boxes is caused to rise and fait like the tide every five or ten minutes, while strong 'cur rents whirl the water Into a sem blance of wave action and keep tbe eggs In constant agitation. Still another 'class of eggs, like those of the herring, pike perches and the sturgeons, form adhesive masses, which make them difficult to fertilize and aerate, and they are usually mixed with a little powdered starch or muck to destroy their stickiness, after which they, are in cubated by oae of the methods al ready described. During the process of incubation, which occupies, according to the spe cies and the temperature of the wat er', from three days to eight months, the fish culturlst has ample scope for the application of experience, skill and good judgment. Slight changes in the rate of flow-of water, especially in the later stages, may alter materially the course of devel opment, apparently insignificant var iations in the quantity and quality of dissolved gases may make or mar iho record of a hatchery, and there are always lurking spores of bacteria and fungi to plunge the whole product of season's work suddenly into the throes of an epidemic. The Jars and troughs must he kept clean, and the dead eggs fre quently removed, although with many species there is a critical period In development wten the eggs can hard ly be bandied at all without disaster. All sorts of monstrosities, fry with two heads, two talis, or Siamese twins, may develop from Injurious handling, or from no apparent cause, and toward the end of incubation batching may be often expedited or retarded by irregularity In the flow of water, so that the Judgment of the fish culturlst Is called into play- that he may bring his charges into the world at the time best suited to his purposes. The little fish normally breaks from the egg tall first, and even some time before hatching, the hind end of the body can be seen lashing from side to side within the shell. ' The infant fish just hatched Is an awkward, sprawling creature, but lit tle, resembling Its parents. Its head s prominent and knobby, with eyes disproportionately large, its body Is ong, slender-and transparent, while beneath the belly is a strange, pro turdlng yellow or whitish bag, cov ered with branching blood vessels, he yolk sac a most Important a! though transitory organ. The mouth Is not yet open, and the fry Is there fore incapable of feeding, although day by day it grows in . sice and changes In shape, gradually becoming more and more like its parent. As the little fish grows, the yolk sac becomes progressively less con plcuous, and the conviction If soon forced npora the observer that' there is some relation between the jtwo phenomena. The yolk sec is. In re ality, a food reservoir fabricated In the body of the parent and stored In tho egg; and the blood vessels rami fying over its surface are the agents by which it la absorbed and convert ed into the tissues of the growing nfant. About the time that It final ly disappears, in some species a little jefore and In others a little later. the mouth becomes a usoful organ, and the baby fish begins to feed, at first on minute animals or finely di vided artificial food furnished by its foster parent, the-fish culturlst, and later on larger bodies in keeping with Its size. Most eprclos are planted soon after hatching, or about the time they be gin to feed, although the' trout and Atlantic salmon are held in captivity and reared In ponds until they reach full maturity and become brood fish for fresh thousands. There are fish j fcn nrestry has been domesticated and artificially hatched and reared for generations. Prnliablv better results would be obtained with most species were It possible to protect the fry until xney nr atronser. more active and better able to care for themselves; but the difficulties attending such an unuer takinir on a Isrge scale are many some of them being created by the ungrateful conduct of the fish tuem oiv. thrnneh their nronencsa to cannibalism. The problems of feed Ing and of providing sufficient vol umes of water are also serious. The number of fish spawned artl. flclally must always be exceedingly mall comnared with the number snawned naturally, with local excep. Hons in the case of the trout and the salmon. The Justification and the efficiency of fish culture lie In Improving upon nature, and securing a more coraplet and efficient lertlllzation of the eggs, in hatching a larger proportion of the eggs of the young In all stages of development from their many ene. mlei", from one another,"!'; 1 from tho results of untoward physlal en vironment. ' The Fish Cars. For this reason the same care must be exercised In transportlngand planf- ing the fish as Is required In carry Ing them through their early devel opment. Some are planted close to the hatcheries, and here the principal precaution required Is to deposit them Where they are least likely to be destroyed, either by their enemies or by exposure to adverse physical con dltions. A lot of little lobsters, for Instance, planted where young pol lock abound would be eaten to al most the last one, and the 'labor and expense of a season would go for naught. Much care has been expended In perfecting the methods and means of transportation, and It Is now possible to transport many species across the continent, or even to such distant places as Argentina and New Zea land. For this purpose the Bureau of Fisheries now maintains six specially equipped cars, and in addition, mil lions of eges and fry are carried In baggage cars by messengers, who of. ten have to work unremittingly day and night to care for the tiny lives committed to their charge. Our government carries on this work on a vastly greater scale than any other country, and the Bureau .of Fisheries maintains fifty-three sta. tions and a steamer 'the Fish Hawk which is employed as a floating hatchery at the various places along the coast, The work is constantly growing Ten years ago the number of fish fry planted was four hundred and nine ty-eight million four hundred and eighty-eight thousand two hundred and sixty-eight, while in 1908 tne product reached the enormous fig ure of two billion eight hundred and seventy-two million planted In every State and Territory of the United States, in river, lake and sea. In the early days fish culture was ridiculed, but It Is now strongly ad vocated by both sportsmen ajid com merclal fishermen, who often make claims for its success which the bur eau would hesitate to urge. It in. creases the fish supplies of waters al. ready stocked, and It Introduces oth ers in waters where they were un known before. It has refilled ex hausted trout and bass streams, and has maintained to a large extent tbe shad and the whiteflsh, which under poor laws, Inefficiently enforced would have been sadly depleted. It is difficult in many cases to show absolute proofs of the results of the numerous plants of eggs and fry, for It is usually impossible to dlstln gulsh when they have grown to ad olescence the hatchery's product from that of nature; but there are numerous cases where circumstances leave no room for doubt It Is only necessary to refer to the worn out trout and bass streams which have been restocked. Streams originally prbductive, but depleted by excessive fishing, have been made better than, before. The most instructive and convincing exhibits, however, are those In which fishes have been Introduced In wat era to which they were not iudlgen. ous. The excellent bass fishing of the Potomac basin is due to the in traduction of fish from across the Alleghenles, and the same applies to the striped bass, crapples, wall eyed pike and catflshes wlilch the Bureau of Fisheries has Introduced, In the same river In the last two decades, and which now furnish sport and food to many persons. Two of the niOBt noteworthy cases of acclimatization of fishes In waters far distant from those In which na ture placed them are the introduc tion of shad and striped bass from the Atlantic into the Pacific, These are now numbered among the Impor tant food fishes of the Pacific coast, and the plants made twenty-five or thirty years ago, at a total cost of about five thousand dollars, now yield an annual product of more than two million pounds, valued at more than one hundred thousand dollars. The supply of both species is Increas ing, and it Is but a question of time asd the growth cf population when the annual yield will be a huadr. fold the entire original cost of thW experiment. The fishermen hav ti 1 ready received twenty-five thousand one hundred per cent, of the origin,) Investment of the government, J this, in hardly more than twenty.- years, Is a margin of profit not eunj paralleled. The shad also has been the subject of government solicitude on the At. lantle coast, and starting with almost depleted streams, the Bureau of Fi,,. erles and several of the States wer able to build up and for years main, tain a great fishery for the peop,' The absence of proper regulation br the States, however, has resulted U ; destructive and excessive fishing; acj most of the adult fish are now taken ' before they reach the spawninj j grounds and become fully matured I so that it has grown year by yeir' ' more difficult to secure sufficient egg , ' for the hatcheries. As a result of I recent wiser regulation in North Car. ; ollna, there has been Immediate im. provement in the hatchery operatlom In that State. Fish culture has shown Itself torn, j petent to handle the problems pre. ! sented, and as soon as the Statei show some adequate appreciation C their duties, the now waning shai supply can be re-established as i i great producer of wealth. j Some rroofs of Success, ' i i That the whiteflsh and other lata species have been able to sustain such heavy . fisheries is undoubted!- j due to fish culture, although In many j waters it is difficult to adduce proof. ! The capture of large numbers of ' certain well recognized races of j whiteflsh t.n some of the Great Lakes, j when the only known and, In soma ! cases, only, possible source of supply i Is through the hatcheries, is a stronj ! argument In favor of the value of ' other hatcheries working with in- j dlgenous races. j That hundreds of millions of Pa. j cific salmon planted in -their natlre' streams as fry return as adult fishS I clearly shown by the capture of adulti " , which were marked when liberated j a few years before. That the propor. tlon of these hatchery fry reachlm maturity Is considerable Is shown by j the results of the same experimena ! In an article of this scope It la Im- j possible to mention more than a few 1 of the thirty-five or forty species rei- ularly hatched by the Bureau of Fish- j erles, and nothing at all can be said i of the interesting experimental and practical worlc done with oysters, clams and mussels, lobsters and era , turtles, terrapin and sponges, or of ; the study and treatment of the dlt- j eases of fish, or of the many other j problems confronting those interest- ; ed in the improvement of the fish- j eries. Enough has been said, how- , ever, to show that fish culture is ol j no mean value In the making of the j nation's wealth. ' ! There have been failures, many of i them, but on the whole they hat been fewer than the successes. TM j field still open Is broad and attractive. Many problems are yet to be soirea and. many successes yet to k achieved, not the least of which mW well be the demonstration to the far mer that his waste pond and ldl creek, his acre or two of worthier swamp, may at slight expense ba made to yield a value In food prod ucts greater than from the same num ber of acres of his best tilled aaJ richest soil. The Youth's Condit ion, WISE WORDS. A man is generally on his mettle i when he has a steely glitter in U , eye. ( When Fame and Fortune travel w- : gether Fame generally takes a back i seat. Nothing venture, nothing ha-e'l i generally true, but it doesn't apply w trouble. I One way to distract your attentlM ! from your vices is to parade jots , virtues. ; The ideal man only exists in tb I mind of the woman who has nevtf ! married. , , Force of habit would nrS 1 prompt a dentist to look a glA In tbe mouth. ' I The thinsrs that came to those W , wait are generally the things that J one else wants. 1 Men alwavs admire clever wofflf0- but somehow or other tbey alJ , marry the silly ones. V.nv - mom lsv,l,a AfWtl OD ! neighbor who Is really bead J ; shoulders above htm. There Isn't anvthing much o superfluous than birthdays to oa' an who has passed forty-five The man who perforce flic a fifty-cent table d'hote g''11 customed to taking things as come. A financier Is simply a man demonstrates the truth of e " aylng that a fool and hi" uiUl'5 soon parted. , When ron wpar out a suit u' clothes you ein generally get 110" . but it's different when you wcai " our welcome. From the "D- Philosopher." la tha M" York i""