Modern Farm Methods
As Applied in the South.
?otes of Into cot to Planter,
Fruit Grower and Stockman
rinnt Waste fand In Trees,
Lands Suitable For Planting On
many farms, especially in the mlddl
and western portions of North Caro
Una, there is some field, the cultlva-
tlon of which has not been profitable,
This may be due to various causes
The slope of the land may ba either
too steep or the surface too rough or
rocky or the soil too shallow for a
good farming soil, or perhaps the
field has been so deeply gullied by
washing that It cannot be profitably
reclaimed. Along some of the rlv
era, and to les extent along the
creeks and small streams, there are
bottom lands which have been
cleared, but which cannot be cultl
vated. Some of these bottom lands
are frequently flooded during high
water In the stream, causing the soil
to wash, or sand and gravel bars are
deposited over them, not only pre
venting their use for growing culti
vated crops, but for growing grass as
well. Where lands of this character
do not naturally restock in trees, they
can profitably be planted In some de
sirable species. This will not only
insure some earning from such land,
but will protect it from further wash
ing or deterioration. Occasionally a
field is only partially stocked with
trees or (and this Is especially the
case on wet land) Is being restocked
with undesirable kinds of trees, like
gums, alder, maple or willow. In
conditions like this, planting with a
desirable species to thicken the stand
will frequently add greatly to Its ulti
mate value. Such waste lands can be
planted during the winter, when there
might not be enough farm work to
keep labor employed.
Kinds of Trees to P:ant N'atlve
trees and those which arc naturally
adaptable to the soil conditions
should be selected for planting. On
the uplands of the Piedmont the na
tive pine la a desirable tree, especially
for raw and shallow soils. On slopes
or where, the soils are not so dry ..or
raw the pine might be mixed with the
native red oak. On bottom, lands
which are not too wet,' and on. lower
elopes, poplar and oak make a de
sirable mixture, or atfh can be substi
tuted for a part 'of the oak. For
planting on wetter lands, ash, wal
nut and cottonwood are desirable
species. These trees make rapid
growth; they root quickly , when
planted, and they make timber suit
' able for many farm' uses.' Second
growth poplar and cottonwood are
not held in high esteem In this State.
While they are not' equal to pine for
many uses, they nevertheless produce
a timber which, when dried, Is ser
viceable for weatherboardlng, If kept
painted, and for all Interior wood
work, except for flooring. The growth
of white oak and hickory Is too slow
for them to be recommended for
planting, although young trees of
these species should be protected
when growing In the forest. Ash and
poplar, both of them specie3 of rapid
growth, cannot be expected to make
large trees on ordinary upland soils,
and should not be planted except on
the best soils, like lower slopes and
bottoms. Both black oak and span,
or Spanish oak, are Inferior to red
oak, and for this reason should not
How to Collect Seedlings Young
plants raised from seeds in a seed bed
and having compact roots are su
perior to those which are gotten from
the forest. It requires, however, at
least two years to grow specimens for
planting from the seed, while it is
possible at any time to get enough
young trees from an old forest er
from second-growth woods with
which to plant a small area. Red
oak and pine will be found abundant
near old trees of these species on the
uplands. Small poplars will be
abundant In second-growth or culled
woods on steep north slopes and in
hollows, while young ash will be
found on wet bottom land. Cotton
wood is not a very common tree, and
young trees of that species are not
common. Slips or cuttings can be
taken from large trees of this species,
rooted In a garden bed and planted
In place of seedling plants, since Its
cuttings root- extremely easy. Young
trees which are dug up for planting
should be from one to two feet high.
Tbey should bo dug up with a sharp
mattock or grub hoe, the roots being
broken as little as possible, and tbey
should be heeled in a cool place and
protected from the sun until ready to
plant. When lifted for planting from
the trench in which heeled, -the roots
should be kept covered with a wet
sack. The hard woods should be cut
back two-thirds, but the pines should
not be cut back. Poplars have a long,
deep tap root, so that only small spec
imens of this species can be taken.
Broken and long roots should be cut
off with a sharp hatchet, as well as
the tap root.
Preparation of Land
be plowed, chock it with a broad
polnte Ehowel plow, with furrows
five feet by five feet. Two men can
plant to advantage. One man with a
mattock makes a hole every five feet
at the crossing of the furrows; the
other carries the plants in a basket
hung over his shoulder, places the
plant in the hole, covers the roots and
presses the earth tight around the
roots with his feet. Roots should be
spread out In the hole as much as
possible when planted. When the
land cannot be checked with a plow,
poles placed at each end of the field
can be used for marking, and the
holes dug with a mattock in a line
between the poles, and the rows can
be kept straight in one direction by
means of them, while the distance
can be stepped In the other. In fitlds
which are partly stocked with cedar,
sassafras, pine or other trees, only
the blanks or thin places need be
planted, the planted trees being
spaced about five feet apart in holes
dug with a mattock. Red oaks can
be planted among sassafras sprouts.
and If the sprouts are not too thick
the oaks will soon outgrow them.
When two species are mixed In a
plantation they should be alternated
In the rows.
Time to Plant Planting can' be
done In any mild weather after No
vember 1, but It Is preferable to do
It during February and March, espe
cially in the case of pine. It costs
too much to cultivate trees after they
are planted, and for this reason the
larger specimens should be planted
In the grassiest and weediest spots,
since small specimens might be
smothered by such growth. Planta
tions of trees must not be burned.
and cattle must be kept out until the
trees are so tall and strong that cat
tle cannot break tbem. Ncrth Caro
lina Geological rnd Economic Survey.
The Increased Need of Spraying.
Observant farmers have generally
concluded that all sorts of Injurious
nsects ..and .fungus diseases appear
much more common, that formerly,
and In some sections fruit growing
arid the production of many other
crops have ' been almost abandoned
because of the impossibility of pro
ducing a 'Batfsfaclory" crop on account
of these diseases and the ravages of
Insects. In some Instances new dis
eases and insects have, actually been
Introduced, while in others conditions
have been such as to favor the in
crease and spread of old enemies
which formerly did very little harm.
Our lack of proper crop rotation,
more extensive traffic in farm pro
ducts, the destruction of other plants
upon which insects formerly fed, and
the ruthless slaughter of song and
game birds, which is still going on,
have all combined to Increase the
ravages of these enemies to farm
crops. If a crop which furnishes
suitable food for an insect Is grown
year after year on the same land this
insect has furnished for It the great
est aid for rapid Increase in numbers.
Without discussing fully the causes
of present conditions it may be stated
that to grow good fruit and many oth
er crops, profitably, spraying Is now
a necessity. Prof. Soule,
One of the Greatest Faults.
One of the greatest faults in the
South is the patching of the land, a
plot of cultivated land here and a
bunch of bushes there, with broom
sedge Intermingled. Here in Mary
land there are broad clean fields and
not a bush to be seen, but every foot
of the open ground cultivated, and
worked with no terraces and no gul
lies, for the plow goes deep, and the
farmers have a clover sod to turn
when breaking for corn, and either
wheat or clover on the laud in win
ter. Prof. Soule.
A Practice to Quit.
It makes us sick to see' so many
farmers burning oft grass, broom
sedge, corn stalks, and all sorts of
matter that would rot quickly and
build up our waste landB. Turn out ,
an old field and Nature tries to build
It up by putting humus (vegetable
matter) into .It. again, and yet after
she does a hard year's work, some
unthinking farm hand comes along,
burns It all up, and the land is in
worse shape than before: When shall
we quit,, such things? Progressive
" Value of reavine Hay,
A ton'' of peavlne hay has a fertil
ising vkluo'of $10." It also has a
feeding1 value of at least' 110 per ton
compared "with wheat' bran at its
ordinary price in the South It is worth
nearer , $30 and three-fourths of the
manurlal . value can be -returned to
the soil after It . is . fed. This means
that, at a low estimate, a ton of well
If the land J cured peavlne hay Is worth flT.EO
which is to be planted In trees can I to the farmer who has Btock to fed.
Shoes In Four Minutes.
How long would it take yon to
make a pair of bootj, lo you think?
You probably had better rot begin It,
especially If you need them soon.
Even a cobbler In the old oats, work
ing with his assistant, would spenl
day and a half making a pair of
boots, and the cost would be about
4. But now, of course, shoes aro
made by machinery, and it is aston
ishing to hear how qtickly they are
made. It takes Just four minutes to
make a pair of boot3. And the labor
cost Is about S5 cents. Of course, no
one makes the whole boot nowadays.
There are a hundred different men
tasking different parts of It, anil each
one does the same thing over nnl
over again, and each man learns tn
do his particular work especially well
and quickly. And you should see the
buttons sewed on! A boy takes the
part of the shoes whore the buttons
are to 90 and fits It into a machine,
throws la a handful of buttons quite
carelessly, turns the machine, and In
no time out comes the piece of leath
er with all the buttons exactly In the
right place. No wonder some facto
lea turn out 10,000 pairs of shoes In
a day. Chicago Dally News.
Tha Atlanta, Birmingham Atlantl
Will sell excursion ticket at reduced rates
forth following O0'slon:
American Aanoolatl'jo of Opticians, At
lanta, Oa., Jun 91t-24th, l'.Oi.
Georgia Educational AoelHtlon, Cum
berland Island. Oa., June 23M-25th, 190J.
Annual ttmsion Ancient Arabia Order No
bles of the Myitlo SUrlne, Louisville, Ky.,
June 6tta-9lh, 1W9.
Convention Oil Mill Runerlntendents' As
sentation, New Orlrans, La , June Uod-ith,
National Association T. P. A., Asherllle,
N. C., Hay 31t-June 5th, 1109.
National Baptist Convention, Portland,
Ore., June 25ib-July lnd. 1SHJ9.
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Seat
tle, Wash., September 20tb-ar.tb, 190.
There are other occasions for which re
duced ra es will be announced. For further
Information aptly to ticket agent or com
municate with, VV. H. LEAHY,
General Pawenger A St., Atlnnts, Oa.
A COLONIAL CITY.
T wish you could all come to Kings
ton and see the fine oM things here.
It Is called the Colonial CRy because
It was settled In the old Colonial
days, 'way back tn 1C61, but It was
called Wiltwyclc then; so you can see
It Is very old. There are many olt
houses here. The oldest one Is call
ed the Senate House.
When the flrltlsh burned our city
In the Revolutionary War al! the
houses were burned except the Sen
ate House. Let me-tell you something
about this house. It wm built in
1676. and George Washington bad his
headquarters here once. Tt was also
the first capital of New York state.
It is two stories Sigh and is made of
old stone: It Is in good condition, and
many people visit It to view the o'.d
relics kept- there. The last time I
went there I saw a spinning wheel,
some of George Washington's clothes,
old-fashioned kitchen utensils and
many other things. There was a
cracker over two hundred years old.
Samuel H. Gross, In the New York
You marked up the price on th
Christmas present you bought her.'1
"Why did yoa do that?"
"Because I knew the price woul.l
Interest her more than anything else.
Why should I deprive her of one lota
of Joy?" Louisville Courier-Journal.
It Pays to Think About Food.
The unthinking life some people
lead often causes trouble and sick
ness, Illustrated in the experience of
a lady In Fond Du Lac, Wis.
"About four years ago I suffered
dreadfully from Indigestion, always
having eaten whatever I liked, not
thinking of the digestible' qualities.
This Indigestion caused palpitation of
the heart so badly I cotv'd not walk
up a flight of stairs without sitting
down once or twice to regain breath
"I became alarmed and tried diet
ing, wore my clothes very loose, and
many otner remedies, but found no
relief. . .
-Hearing of the virtues of Grape
Nuts and Postum, I Commenced using
them In place of my. usual breakfast
of coffee, cakes, or hot biscuit, and in
one week.'s timo J was relieved of
sour stomach and other Ills attending
Indigestion. In a' month's time my
heart was performing Its fnnctlons
naturally, and I could climb stairs
and hills and walk long distances.
' "I gained ten pounda in this short
time, and my skin became clear and I
completely regained my be. Ilh and
strength. I fontlnued to use Grape
Js'uts and Postum, for 1' feel' that I
owe my good -health entirely to their
use, "There's a Reason."
"I like, the delicious flavor of
Grape-Nuts, and by making Postum
according to directions It tastes simi
lar to mild high grade coffee."
Read "The Road to Wellvllle," In
' Ever read the above letter? A
new one appears from time to time.
They are grnniue, true, and full of
Grubs, or warbles, as they are
more commonly called, are found
Just below the skin In the backs of
cattle and are the larval form of the
heel fly. As they develop, theycause
swelling. Over each of these swell
ings there Is an opening In the skin
through which the grnbs or warbles
may be easily squeezed and killed.
Applications of kerosene oil will also
kill them. Farmers' Home Journal.
WHEN NOT TO PRUNE.
Do not choose the dormant season
to cut back trees that are growing
too fast to be fruitful; it will only
make them grow tho faster in the
spring. Walt till they are In full
flush of growth In May or June If you
want to drive their surplus energies
Into fruit buds. Be sure to carry a
paint pot along with the prunors and
whenever a limb as much as en Inch j
In diameter Is cut orr, cover me
wound with oil and white lead to
keep out dampness and the entrance
of fungi spores that will produce
rot. In the spring this cover Is not
so necessary, for as soon as growth
begins the tree will begin to cover
Its wounds with new wood that will
creep over It from all sides. Farm
ers' Home Journal.
METHOD OF PRESERVING EGGS
Taking as a theory that an egg de-
composes owing to the entrance or
bacteria through the shells, an Eng
lish firm has adopted a method of
preserving eggs by first disinfecting
them and then immersing tbem in a
vessel of hot paraffin In a vacuum.
The air in the shell Is extracted by a
vacuum and atmospheric pressure Is
then allowed to enter the vessel, and
the hot wax !s pressed Into the pores
of the shell, which hermetically seals
It. Evaporation of the contents of
the egg,, which has a harmful effect,
is thereby prevented and the egg is
practically sterile. The yolk of
pickled eggs and others artificially
preserved will frequently break on
being poached,' but the gg preserved
by this novel process; it is stated, is
quite free from such fault, Inland
BICYCLE PUMP FOR MILK FEVER
I discovered some ten hours after
calving a cow was unable to etand,
her eyes stared and she showed evi
dence of pain, placing her nose to
one side of the body. There was no
fever and the ?ulse was about nor
mal. Concluding It was "milk fev
er," I went in search of a bicycle
pump which appeared In one and a
half hours after the cow had be
come practically unconscious. After
milking the row dry I put the end
of the ordinary bicycle pump to the
opening of the teats and pumped the
udder full of air, rubbed well and
pumped In soie more. Before the
cow could be gotten to the barn,
where there was shade, she showed
signs of improvement. We braced
her up on her brisket with sacks of
corn and then threw several palls
of cold water over her and two men
rubbed her dry, which warmed all
concerned. 1 pumped some more air
1: . but the cow was steadily improv
ing and ate a little bran mash two
hours after first air treatment, and
in another hour the report came "the
cow is running away." I doubt if
she is any worse for the sickness.
A. B. Clark, In the Indiana Farmer.
Cured by Lydia E. Pjnt
Milwaukee, Wis. ' Lydia i t
ham's Vegetable Compound
my back, iffi
they all decli.1
in a.l;lu.oa to
advised an ,
Piukham s Vegetable C'ompni'ud nui
me a well woman and I ha, tr
backache. I hope I can lielpothenZ
telllnfj them what Lydia E. innkraii"i
Vegetable Compound has dor 1
me." Mrs. EmmaImse, 833 Firsts
Milwaukee, Wis. ""msi,
The above is only one of the tta
ands of grateful letters which in
constantly being received bj tu
Pinkham Medicine Company of Ltsj,
Mass., which prove beyond a doubttu!
Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Cos.
pound, mado from roots and herU.
actually does cure these obstinate div
eases of women after all other toutu
have failed, and that every such inf.
erinfr woman owes it to herself to si
least give Lydia E. Pinkhani's Vtpu.
ble- Compound a trial before submit,
ting to an operation, or giving m
hojie of recovery.
Mrs. IMnkham, of Lynn Mr!,
invites all (tick women to utto
her for advice. She lms fjultH
thousands to health and her
advice i free, .
TOWER'S FISH BRAND
will give you full value
for every dollar spent
and keep you dry In
trie wettest weather.
AJ.TOWER CO. BOSTON. U.S. A -
Tower Canadian Co. imo tomtoCmI
RAPE FOR FORAGE.
The first Tear I sowed rape I made
only one seeding, and owing to the
drouth immediately following, I se
cured a poor catch.
But what of it survived the drouth
made a growth sufficient to convince
me that it is a splendid crop to grow
in connection with our regular pas-'
ture. . ...
The next season following I con-
p eluded to make a series of seedlngs
about two weeks apart, so that when
one lot would be pretty well eaten
down the next would be fresh, and in
this way provide an abundance-V
succulent teed during the entire sea
son for hiy stock.
For forage I prefer' to' have my
rape heavily broadcasted." 'it doesn't
pay to grow, rape only on rather rich
soli. After my land 1 (a thoroughly
prepared I sow at .tjie rate- of four'
pounds of first class' seed per acre
and cover It lighly with a smoothing
In about six weeks or 'when the
rape is about six inches high I turn
my stock onto It. . I am careful not
to allow my stock to eat too much
until they get used to it, and I have
never seen any ill effects from their
eating rape. Indiana Farmer.
You will never be dip
pointed if you use Llbbft
Piokio and Oon4l
mm ntm on your table.
Libby's have the right taste,
which is always uniform,
and you can depend upon
Libby's as being absolute)
pure. Try these:
Mlxod Pi old am "'
. Ftutoy OirVett
Libby's foods are the be
because they are msdeircai
the best fruits and vS"1
blcs, by the best method in
Inist on Libby's, and yem
can depend upon it that
you will get food prod
ucts which are the
-: ' . point of taste
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