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Abdul Hamid II, Despotic Ruler.
Single-Handed, He Has Swayed the Ottoman Empire A Man of Invincible Will. :: :m .. Abdul Hamid II., Sultan of Turkey for the Past thirty-two years, has long beea one of the most execrated men In Europe. All the evils of his reign pare been visited upon his head. He baa teen held responsible for the Armenian massacres of 1895 and 1886, for the financial straits of the Turkish Empire, for the dliorders and rlolence prevailing of late years In Macedonia, for the Turkish regime of governmental Irresponsibility and V effectuality, for official corruption and for everything else, down to the nresent revolution. Tet on one thing II who have 'written of him are agreed that he has consistently shown himself one of the moBt able men, and of toe most striking and energetic characters In the contem porary annals of Europe. In character, Abdul Hamid has al ways proved himself a man of Invin cible will. He nas at toe same time maintained a mildness of manner when surrounded by those whom he must hate and tear that gave rpoof of a great self-control. It is said that he has never been known to raise his voice. Maintaining his dan xerous place In the world Indomit ably, often ruthlessly, he Is reported by all who have In any degree come sear a true view of blin, to have tak en little pleasure In the eminence Attn to his imperial lot, and to have looked with melancholy upon hls.un welcome despotic position. Many European Interviewers have reported his attitude as that of a man ren- dered almost morbidly melancholy by the distress of an uncongenial post, Some have thought It an at titude nssumed for foreign effect; others have put It down to Illness 'alid called the Sultan a neurasthemlc His admirers, who, strange to say have not been lacking, have attrib uted the singular melancholy of his conversation and bearing to the ne cesstty of playing a life part alien to hln disposition. This remarkable man has given al most as many proofs of attractive and human traits as there are Indictments of ruthless crflelty against him. One 4s his liberality. The Ottoman finan ces have long been In a disordered condition. "Yet the Sultan has always found means to exercise a princely liberality. His gifts to the Mussul man charities are noteworthy, even coming at the end of a long line of princes, all open-handed In response to the commands of the Koran, ana more magnificent than their ill-fated successor. He has treated his sub ordinates, ministers and agents with a like open hand. Those who have carried out his orders, trembling of ten for their lives In case of his dis pleasure, have never had to complain of their rewards when the work was done. Even those Europeans who have been entertained by the Sultan as guests have brought away In many cases gifts of Jewelry bestowed wun Oriental freedom. Abdul Hamid has proved remark able among the generally stolid Turk lsh race by his gift of humor. Many stories are told of his repartees and nlpasantrles. Delivered with sudden drnllprv hrpnUntr throueh habitual melancholy, they remind one strange ly under the circumstances of the sallies of Abraham Lincoln. There is this difference, however, that Lin coin's wit was generally bent to some serious end, while of the many bits of merriment recalled of Abdul Ham Id, all seem to have been meant mprlv tn amuse a sovereign tired by business all too grim and earnest In one case, which may serve as an Instance, the Sultan was called upon by a European diplomat. The dip lomat sought advancement for the prelate of the Christian Church in Turkey, and the Sultan knew it. The diplomat never had a chance to broach his errand. tl "You have been In England? asked the Sultan, through on Inter preter, , although he spoke English and French tolerably well. The visit or answered yes. . . "And the English women. 'What do you think of them?" The viBltor thought them pleasant and attractive. The Sultan appeared much Interested. "But," be asked, "do they not drink too much whis ky?" The Sultan early In life bad vis ited England. Whn the caller thought that they did not drink too much whisky, the Sultan argued the point with a skill that showed bis knowledge of the country. He was not positive about the whisky drink ing he was willing to be convinced. .After some minutes of argument, the Sultan's guest began to realise that the audience was being some what prolonged. He had to revert somewhat abruptly to gel back to the subject that brought him.. "But the bishop" he began. "Ah, no," interrupted the Sultan, at a point which showed his ready Imnnt.wico nf the lmiciiaKe of his Do not let ii mlr tVio holy man In a conversation about wo men and whisky." And thus tricked, the caller dismissed with an amused smile. He told the story himself. An occasional ImDulsiva aninn nf the Sultan's has been known to go counter to his regular policy of ruth less seir-malntenance and make It Impossible to tell what course he would pursue that of kindness or of cratty prudence in any given case. uuce wnon re was driving back to his palace from the mosque a peasant broke through the guards on the route before they could bayonet him The Sultan was driving an ODen rig with a team of small Arabians. The man, with roueh eesture. ran tor tne horses' heads. The Sultan could have whipped up his fleet team and left the peasant behind to be despatched by the soldiers running up. Instead he halted. He asked the man what he wanted. The man had a written petition, which the Sul tan took with his own hand, then let the peasant go in peace. A few days later, the story Is told. the Sultan killed a girl In his sleep ing apartment, shooting her three times with the revolver that was al ways by Mm, waking or sleeping. The girl was a favorite of his harem. Waking suddenly, so It Is said, the Sultan saw her standing close to his bed and toying with a revolver. Scores of stories of Abdul Hamld's cold-blooded cruelty are told. Many of them are evidently, from their way of telling things, Imaginative. There can be little doubt, however, that Abdul Hamid maintained his throne and bis plaee among the living with a firm, and oftentimes an Iron hand. The tales of his way of proceeding against plotters, rebels and reform ers all classed by him as one show a peculiarly gentle and feline method in his punishments of murders. One Young Turk of prominent family made much trouble for the Sultan some years ago, It Is related, In the days before the Young Turk party gained the upper hand. He went about Constantinople talking re form with an unusual recklessness that stirred up a good deal of senti ment. The Sultan's spies brought him news of it. The Sultan summoned the young man's father and told him to stop the boy. This the elder failed to do. A few weeks later the young re former, still active, received a sum mons to call upon the Sultan. He did so, feeling at last some tardy misgivings. The Sultan received him with marked favor, so the story goes, assuring him of his secret sympathy with reform, and making him a rich gift. Two nights later, the young man's body was found In a distant part of the city in the water under a bridge. Whether or not a particular case Is authentic, there can be no doubt that the Sultan Abdul Hamid has maintained himself by ruthless force nnd ceaseless craft and care. His very existence on the throne for thlr tv-two years, unsupported by any ac tlve party, and unseconded by a single soul, proves It. While no Sultan has perhaps seen the Ottoman dominion pass through a time of greater misfortune, it Is a monument to Abdul Hamld's ability that he has kept Turkey Intact for some thirty years. When he came to the throne In 1876 war with Russia was intending, utter defeat certain, the disappearance of the Turkish Em nir as a ronseauence Imminent. Abdul Humid fought a creditable though a losing fight. He obtained unexpectedly good terms of peace, which two years later were amended vet more In his favor. With great obstinacy In the last stages of the war and the first negotiations lor peace. the Sultan refused to leave rvrnqtuntlnonle or to surrender tne Turkish fleet. The Ottoman Empire had then at the start of Its reign to thank him for Its very existence. Abdul Hamid abolished the con stitution pained by the Young Turk ish party In 1S76. Just before his ac cession. In this he acted as half the sovereigns of Europe had acted on similar occasions. He took his stand definitely at the start of his reign as a conservative autocrat and an or thodox Mussulman. To maintain his position he built up a system of spies said to number tens of thou sands" of members: a bodyguard In tended to guard him against revolt and against ItBelf, for it was com posed In equal parts of Albanian. Kurdish and Arabian divisions, of three hostile Mussulman ' sects; an army Intended . to-, maintain him against foreign Invasion, but which ultimately proved his Nemesis. Abdul Hamid devoted all his ener gies to maintaining tbe Turkish do minions' Integrity. . Presenting a -.t.o- frontier to his neighbors, he maintained roce within save for th other time. la which he easily conquered. To maintain a strong central power, something like that of the traditions nf the Ottoman line, was Ms object, the advancement of Turkey In good government, enlightenment and pros perity, as nothing to his mind In com parison. Pressed more by intrigue, religious dissension and progressionist agita tion on the Interior than by the for eigner without, Abdul Hamid was forced Into exerting ths powers of despotism with their full rigor and severity. He took the powers away from ministers whom be could not trust, and reduced bis viziers and pashas to figurehead courtiers. He Intrusted his tasks piecemeal to agents, temporary emissaries who bad no hand in the general scheme. He played race against race, sect against sect, among his subjecta and bis fol lowers. He made no attempt to reform the Turkish courts and bureaus. One man against the whole organism of corruption. It would have teemed for him hopeless, with hungry Europe, watting the moment of weakness, al ways lying at his gates. He Is accused of fomenting the Ar menian massacres of 1395 and 1896. It la not known what secret part he may have had In the atrocities, but at least the rumors connecting him with them were unsubstantial. What ad vantage he might have expected of the roiimn which lout him foreisrn sympathy more than any Incident of his reign is hard to see. If not a liberal. Abdul Hamid did not reign thirty-two years without performing some valuable services In Improving the conditions of the em pire.' The Turkish army, tip to the time of the Young Turk outbreak, was highly respected 'by the military authorities of the neighboring Pow ers. The Ottoman, Government unoer Abdul Hamid first took the Initial steps toward forming an educational system. The city of Constantinople first became to have a dally press. The Sultan, born In 1842. Is slxty- slt years old. He came to the throne on August 81, 1876, at the age of thirty-three. He was elevated to suc ceed his elder brother, Araurath V., removed from the throne at the out set of the Turco-Rus8lan War as an Incompetent. Before reaching the throne, Abdul Hamid traveled through Europe as a young man with his uncle, the Sul tan Abdul Aziz, and learned much of European ways. He was highly thought of tn consequence of this and of his gallant fight against Rus sia during the early years of his reign. Indeed, Lord Beaconsfleld used of him the words later most bitterly contradicted by Gladstone: "He Is not a tyrant, he Is -not dissolute, he is not a bigot or corrupt." In his personal life, at least, as separate from his conduct as ruler, the reputation of Abdul Hamid bears out the estimate of Beaconsneiu. Regular of habits, abstemious and Industrious the Sultan has been nearer an ascetic than' the traditional voluntuarv. He has never drunk wine, he- has risen early bours and eaten sparingly, through many years. He has bad numerous favorites among his harem and there have been born to him fourteen children, per haps considerably less than the aver see of the families of the Grand Turks. He has taken his recreation In driving and riding, chiefly In attend, ing the opera occasionally on the visits of opera companies to the cap ital. He has passed almost his en tire time secluded In the Ylldlz Kiosk, a nalare beautifully located three miles outside of Pera. The Sultan, whatever his course with others, has spared the lives of relatives, even those most prejudicial to his security. Not all the Sultans have acted as mercifully. His elder brother, Murad V., lived out his life, relegated after his desposltlon to a Ana nnlarn on the BOBDhorUS. HIS brother. Rechard. Is stfll llv. Ing after a life spent, In seclusion and under survei ance lest ne snouia enter Into seditious plots. On the whole, Abdul Hamid has ruled well according to the despotic traditions of his race. He has Deen popular with the common soldier, the neasant and the ignorant ana onuu dor Mohammedan. He has been hated by the forelgn-mlnded reform er, in Turkey, by the court lntrlg npr. In Constantinople- and by the foreign Powers, Impatient at the bar- rtpr o Occldentalization upon in Bosnhorus, and rightly Judging him to be the main support of that bar rier. Readily all theso have lam on his head the shortcomings of an out wnrn DOlitlcal system, the sins of l widespread fanaticism and the blame fnr the. summary shifts emorcea upon a man maintaining his power single h.nrtert aeainst power and steaun within and without. One of Abdul Hamld's observers wrote as follows, over two years ago In the Fortnightly Review: "If Eu rope understood rightly the true situ. atlon. It would request adqui jismiu to put himself at the head of the Pan- Islamic movement, ana ny nig on statesmanlike abilities and his con ciliatory character try to make It a force not necessarily hostile lo inns tian interests." QUEEN'S TASTE. The Queen of Holland Is fond of green, blue and white materials for frocks. She never allows any one else' to select the tones for her. 8he passes hours pudging the different shades under electric lights In a small room. These colors make up the gowns for court wear, and she chooses them In Paris, although she buys everything else In Holland. New Haven Register. ENGLISH GLOOM. Lady Gordon writes: "If you ask any Intelligent foreigner what his chief impression of England Is, he will Invariably reply, the cheerless ness of the English. If any proof were needed of the prevalent gloom, It would surely be found In the as tonishment which the few remaining cheerful people cause and the amaz ing popularity they enjoy. Our sun ny friends and acquaintances can be counted on our fingers; our dismal ones are all around us. A really cheerful Englishman Is such a phe nomenon that everybody aBks his wife It 'he Is always like that,' and refuses to believe her when she an swers In the affirmative." THE "OBLONO WOMAN." Tbe decision has been arrived at among certain makers of high class ready-to-wear suits snd dresses that the oblong woman" is to continue, and hipless dress forms will be the future wearing apparel of this class. Among individual makers, however. I practically nothing but the princess A T.an.r... flo M n ll know how to make the perfect lemon pie. The shell should always be baked first In order that It may not soak the Juice. The filling is made In this way: Stir Into a cupful of boiling water one tablespoonful cornstarch dissolved In cold water. Cook until clear. Add one cupful sugar, one tablespoonful butter, thii yolks of two eggs well beaten, and the grated yellow rind and Juice of one large lemon. Cook two minutes longer, and pour Into the shell. Beat the whites of two eggs stiff, using a wire whip to entangle as much air as possible, add two tablespoonfuls powdered sugar and spread lightly over the pie. The next step Is when so many otherwise successful cooks fall. Instead of i the meringues proving to be of delicate, foam-like con sistency, a tough, leathery compound Is the result. The trouble is In the heat of the oven. The albumen of the i egg requires slow cooking so slow as to resemble a drying rather than a baking. Twenty minutes In an oven with the . heat turned off Is the usual time. Allow the filling of the , pie to cool a little before spreading the meringue on. If too hot It would toughen the meringue. Under these favor ing conditions the result will be a tender, delicate meringue that will retain Its original thickness. Marlon Harris Neil, In Inter-Ocean. -- i -.-i-ik dress obtains, but it Is so varied that each one seems to be in. a class by Itself. Some are so severely simple that they really take the place of the tail ored suit. Many are "oblong," but many, too, are fitted to the figure quite to the hip line. I have seen one or two which were fitted to and cut oft at this line, the skirt below being added there under flat stitching. Sometimes the body portion is made with pleats, stitched flat to the hips, after which they fall free. Harper's Bazar. , .;itr;.v:r 'C' ' !.iv"'- - -! A STAR TEACHER. Miss Letltia Summers was In charge of the last annual exhibit of the School of Housekeeping which was held recently In New Y'ork City. The star exhibit was that of a class of little girls whose teacher, Sarah Dtigan, Is only twelve. She has been a pupil of the school for some time and for the last few months has been teaching a class of her friends what she has learned. She teaches her class once a week In her mother's kitchen. Each of her pupils pays two cents a lesson, with which Sarah goes to market and buys materials for the dishes to be prepared. Mrs. Julian Heath Is the president of the League of Home Economics, under the aus pices of which the School of House keeping Is conducted. New Y'ork Tribune. WHITE GOWNS POPULAR. A growing inclination to wear white is apparent. White was once regarded as the special' privilege of youth. Now, with a broader knowl edge of the values of colors and a better realization -of the Importance of surroundings, one indulges ones' natural tastes. Perhaps the influence of the period under which fashion is passing has something to do with this, for the women who amused them selves at Trlannon used white freely and without stint. Be that as it may, white gowns and white generally, will be more worn this coming season that. ever. White cloth in a variety of makes, satin, charmeuse, the cashmere and whiia prhp in an infinite variety of quality and thickness, will come In for much attention from artists In dress. As to the lingerie gown, Its import ance in the wardrobe cannot be ques tioned. It Is one of the moBt useful mm things to have, and whether worn outside or Indoors permits so much. Individual taste and charm In con trast that Is la quite indispensable. New Haven Register. HAS TIME TO DANCE. Chrlstobel Pankhurst. a young woman who scrubbed floors In an EngllBh prison for the Suffragist cause. Is a lawyer and a favorite In London society. She is the only woman who ever submitted a BrltlBh Cabinet member to a legal cross-examination, this Interesting occurrence attending the trial from which she was sent to Jail for a short term. Two Cabinet members were ques tioned with much skill by the fal Suffragist, who la only twenty-four years old. Miss Pankhurst goes dally about London in a placarded cart making speeches on street corners for equal suffrage. She finds time apart from that to attend to i grow ing law practice and also to meet so cial demands. The first Suffragist ball on record was held In London several weeks ago and Miss Pank hurst was the most popular of the 500 women present. She did not miss a dance and the following morn ing was In court bright and early to defend half a dozen Suffragist charged with an attempt to break Into the House of Commons. Miss Pankhurst has become probably the most prominent young woman tn England, and It Is likely she will ac cept the Invitation of Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt to visit this country. New Haven Register. Vntir Moillll WlltT. FeW COOkS Violet shades are seen everywhere. There Is a rage for hair ornaments. The touch of black Is made much1 of. The coronet braid is again in vogue. The pointed waistline is a novelty after the straight across effect of the empire cut. -- Half of the new straws have a pleated effect, and some are of tho coarsest description. Moss roses with their attendant buds and foliage are being very much used in hat trimming. Hat styles demand that the hair be flat at the front, wide at the sides and full at the back. Not only Oriental colors but Orien tal patterns are used in decorating the collars, belts, etc., of the tub frocks. With the long sleeve has appeared the new loose chain bracelet with pendant of artistic design, which falls loosely over the sleeve. Pongees come In many new weaves and are In great favor, especially In the twills and suiting effects In which they are now produced. Paris dress-builders have refused to Indorse the cult of the small waist, the new models being made more with a view to natural grace. Feathers, wings, flowers and velvet loops are the trimmings most In favor, but very little of themuch-talked-of silk ribbon is used. Although the main lines of this year's models are much the same as last year, the general effect is infinite ly more gracious and attractive. Quite the newest hat bow being shown in New Y'ork City is that of bins piece-velvet placed either direct ly across the front or slanting to one side. Arrange the hair of a young girl becomingly and dress her feet nicely and she will appear well dressed even though she wear a must Inexpensive frock. Big, round Eton collars will prob ably hold their own all through the spring. They may be made of plain linen or decorated with squares of lace set In. . cBiir) "We will talk about htm an exception of the ureco-i unu ir.