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GEM THIEVES' WORK.
THEY SUCCEF.D. SPITE OF EVERY CAUTION. Constant Care of Jewelry Concerns Often Vain Against Wily Crooks. Mysterious thefts of a diamond neck lace and a valuable diamond ring from too workshop of a Fifth avenue Jewelry concern a few weeks ago called uten tlon to a fact which is not genorally known. There Ib no business so haz ardous as the jewelry business. Mon ey can be protected, physically and otherwise, but It ia almost Impossible to safeguard gems and gold in a fac- tory or a store. It would seem that the cash thief had an advantage. Ac tually the odds are In favro of the In lde or outside purlolner of Jewelry. A banker does not exhibit samples of money to customers, nor does he have show windows tilled with bundles of currency. The bank employe is checked by bookkeeping, Is bonded to perform his duties faithfully and Is shadowed by detectives at more or less regular Intervals, so that his life is under pretty complete inspec tion. On the other hand, a lurge Jew elry establishment has the wealth of Ormus scattered around miscellan eously, value more concentrnted than the eagles of the banker, handled dal ly by hundreds of employes and cus tomers. No ordinary bonding company, it is Bald, will Insure the honesty of a Jew elry worker, clerk ur salesman. The risk is apparently too great for any Insurers except Lloyds. Nor will the companies guarantee against loss by sneak thieve.-, window smashers or 'pennyweighters." "One hundred dollars apiece, or $900 for the lot of nine pieces," came the. prompt reply of the collector. "Oh, I don't want to stick you," said the di aler. "1 offered these identical stamps to a well-known stamp dealer here in town for $,15 each, nnd he re plied he would give only $1!5 apiece." "Never you mind," said the collec tor, "the $:i"u goes, and 1 am glad to lave the chance." The envelopes or letters had been sent from Baltimore in the 40's. Five of them bore two stamps, while the other four had only a single -El amp each. The letters were writ ten before the United Stales adopted the adhesive postage stamp and at a time when the postmaster of each large city issued his own stamps. The postmaster of Baltimore at this time was Jan.es M. Buchanan. Postmaster Buchanan issued G and 10 cent adhesive stamps and a series of 6 and l1) cent stamped envelopes. The stamps on the envelopes showed a largo figure "5"' or "10" surrounded by a circle. Above was the word "Paid." and ubove that the name of tho postmaster In full, "James M. Buchanan." This signature was placed upon each envelope with a band stamp. The Jewelers' Security Alliance, which Is the leading trade organiza tion and employs the Pinkertons by the year, only professes to look after safe burglaries committed against its members outside of business hours. The ordinary customer of a -great Jewelry house is not aware of the mul tifarious precautions which are taken though often In vain to guard against bis and other persons' possi ble lapse from honesty. Every step that he takes and every movement that he makes is watched. In a small place there are mirrors so arranged that, the proprietor cm keep his cus tomers constantly In view, while In Uie large establishment the army ot salesmen, floorwalkers and private de tectives observes the actions of visi tors. The man who U directly show ing goods to a customer does not In deed watch tho customer, but the lat ter reed not flatter himself, since the eye of the salesman Is ever glued on the objects be Is displaying. Nerves Disqualify Clerk. It is said that ft proprietor once tested a new clerk, who was showing goods to a customer, by firing s toy pistol behind bis back. The clerk jturned around, and was dismissed from his Job. A good salesman would not turn around for an earthquake; he would first of all seize the valuables and put them in a safe place. Of course, gem thieves are not credited with the ability to cause seismic dis turbances, but they have been known to start riots and alarms of firs in order to distract the attention of their victims. Access to the show cases of the large establishment Is barred by neat but securely locked grills of bronze. If you ask to have stickpins or brooch es shown you the salesman will show you a few and only a few, at a time. ;If you wish to inspect loose stones, whether diamonds, rubles or pearls, you cannot examine them in the main part of the establishment. You are escorted to a little cabinet In the rear, About three times the size of a tele phone booth. Here are two chairs and a little stand. The door of the passage-way to the cabinets is locked behind you and the cabinet door Is shut. Then the salesman opens the jacket of loose stones before you. The top of the cabinet is open and there Is a gallery overlooking It. Perhaps there is no one, armed with an opera glas, watching you from that gallery, but then, again, there might be some one. You ask to see another paper or tray of stones. The salesman retires with the first paper, and Just to make sure that you have not abstracted or sub stituted a gem despite his vigilance weighs the lot and Amis whether It tallies to a hair with Its previous weight. You may dress like a mil lionaire and look like a bishop, but It Is the duty of the salesman to as sume that you are a crook. In fact, there is extra suspicion against the opulent cr episcopal types, for In such guise Jewel thieves often masquerade. At the employe's entrance on the side street you may see heavy metal doors like those of a bank, only larger, to permit the passage of the firm's de livery motor cars. These delivery cam. In which valuables are conveyed, are entirely Inclosed and well locked In the rear. They are loaded and un loaded In the basement of the build ing, being carried down or up on an Interior elevator. Tht Workers Are Caged. If you could pass two or three watchmen and timekeepers who eye you through peepholes In locked doors and ascend to the Jewelry workshops of a certain large concern at the top of the building you would see some Interesting precautions. There is a cage of steel bars in which girls are sorting and stringing pearls. Other smaller cages contain Individual work men or small groups of workmen en gaged In mounting gems, hammering nnd engraving ornaments of gold and the more previous metal, platinum. The method of caging workmen is said to be new and not practised out side of this particular establishment. Here there are not only cages, but all persons on the floor not confined in Hum are warned to keep away from them. Employes from other depart ments may not enter the floor without having Bpeclal business. The weight of gems and gold received by each workman is credited to him, and the valuable material is locked up at night in a safe equipped with a burglar alarm device. In the case of a $5,000 nerklnce the weight of material may be checked up daily, with a calcu lated allowance for waste. In anv event heiw Is a checking up when the job is finished. The water In which Jewelry workers wash their hands and faces is too val uable to be allowed to run directly Into the sewer. It hi carried off Into sluices, like those used in places min ing, and the riffles catch not a little dust, diamond chips ancWdlamond dust. Even the aprons of the workers hold enough gold dust to make it worth while to burn them periodically and extract the precious metal. A few years ago a building In New ark, N. J., which is a jewelry manufac turing centre, was to be replaced with a new structure. It had long housed Jewelry concerns and Its woodwork was believed to be Impregnated with gold dust. All the floors, beams and window frames were carefully burned In a special furnace, and the ashes yielded $10,009 worth of gold. The estimate ot average waste on . a job only prevents large thefts on the part of a dishonest workman. While placing a stone in Its setting the man may gouge out several dol lars' worth of gold or platinum from the interior of the setting and keep that much material for himself. The greatest opportunity for dis honesty, however, is In the substitu tion ot Inferior or lower weight gems. In order to guard against substitution some apprehensive customers who have stones to be nioimted or reset patronize small shops where they can watch the workman handle their gems, or at least where they can watt for the Job to be done In a few hours' Mm. The employer himself Is often baf fled by mysterious losses due to sub stitution. There was a case of a neck lace broken up In order to use the stones separately. On re weighing stones and setting there was found to be a considerable shortage. The same thing happened again with an other necklace. Yet the stones seemed to be all there, and there was no evi dence on which to proceed against the workman involved. Substitution which Is absolutely tin detectlble Is possible In the first stage of manufacturing rough diamonds, which is cleaving or splitting them, after which they are cut and polished. Most of the $16,000,000 to $20,000,000 of rough diamonds Imported yearly in this country are handled in seven factories in New York and Brooklyn. When a cleaver receives a large stone to split it is possible for him to sub stitute for a piece thereof a stone of his own and thereby gain one quarter to one half ot a carat, valued at be tween $25 and $100. The most ex port can rarely tell whether a split stone la the product of one particular rough diamond, and it Is quite impossi ble to identify a cut and polished gem with its rough original. About 35 percent of the weight of the stones is allowed for waste in manufacture, and the pllferlngs of one or two workmen might go on Indefi nitely without raising the general av erage of waste and thereby exciting suspicion. Individual checking would in the long run discover a persistent thief of weight, but It would not pre vent a cunning substltutor from re placing flawless stones of fine color with Inferior gems. Practically, there must be complete reliance on the honesty of the dia mond workers, and they are known to be as generally honest as they are skilled and Intelligent There are four hundred diamond cutters In the New York district and their wages are from $30 to $G5 a week. These are not the kind of men who would sub mit to being caged in factories or to being searched at Intervals or being put tinder espionage, if they were aware of the latter fact. Many of them work at home. How They Financed Club. In one of the Newark Jewelry fac tories, where 1,200 men and girls arc at present employed, some office boys were found a few years ago to be gath ering up small bits of gold, selling thera collectively and enjoying the proceeds in a club which they estab lished. In one factory the gold given out to the girls Is checked by an equal weight of small lead shot In a bottle. the finished work and waste gold be ing afterward compared with the bot tle of shot. The worker does not know the precise weight of her raw material, and has less chance of ab stracting some of the gold with safe ty from detection. There Is sometimes a chance for dishonesty on the part of the man who makes the alloys of precious metals. He may put a little less gold and a little more silver or copper Into the furnace. It Is easy to mislay or lose small pieces of Jewelry. Diamonds snap out of tweezers and disappear. They may fly up to the picture moulding or enter a crack in the wall. A salesman out West was showing a diamond to a customer when it slipped out of the tweezers and vanished. After a little search, he suddenly exclaimed In fun, "Take it out of your pocket!" The customer to whom the command was given confusedly put his hand In his pocket and sure enough pulled out the stone. A crook in a jewelry store pokes over a tray of loose diamonds with a waxed pencil picks up small gems with the point and scrapes them off casually into his vest pocket or even Into his ear. Once a man was looking over a paper of diamonds and pok ing them about with a long nailed lit tle finger. The salesman knew that long nails were correct in China, but be felt suspicious of them when worn by an American. He saw something that made him remark quickly: "Take that diamond out from under your nail." "Why, my dear sir!" protested the eustom'er, but the other seized his hand and extracted a sizable stone from beneath the finger nail. There was room enough under the nail, which was waxed, to hold a half carat stone, valued at from $76 to $100. Warning to Jewellers. A special bulletin to jewellers of advice how to avoid sneak-thlef losses was recently issued by the Jewellers' Security Alliance. An abstract ot this advice follows: The holiday season Is the harvest time for crooks. Always have at least a boy with you In the store all the time. Keep showcases locked. Don't lose sight of valuable goods for a single instant. Don't show valuable goods in trays. Don't turn your back on a customer without first removing the goods. Observe strangers care fully tor peculiarities so that you can Identify them afterward. Keep a light burning in the store all night Have an electric bolt on the door to shut a thief In the store by pressing a but ton and a connection to ring an alarm bell outside. Look out for the flim-flam C. 0. D. game, when goods are taken Into the next room of a hotel and disappear with the person who takes them into the next room. Look ut for a group of strangers. Have showcases and coun ters so arranged that a thief can't crawl under them and take goods from the inside. - Beware of partly locking the safe or drawer, for expert thieves can open it Look out for a fake fight outside the store, telephone calls, messages from home and the like, which may be lures to get you out of the way. To guard against window smashers, hanging by wires an extra sheet of heavy plate glass a short distance, behind the window pane. This does not prevent a view of the goods from the outside, but it folia the smasher when he reaches for the jewelry through the broken pane. Protect the side panes also, for crooks use hoops to get valuables. A lining of sheet Iron should be placed In the bottom of show windows to prevent buralars from boring up from, the cellar. Have double spring hinges and no handles on the door of your shop, so that smashers can't fasten It while helping themselves to the consents of the show window. Arrange arti cles In the showcase by distributing them about, so as to confuse and de lay the "grabber," instead ot massing the valuables In one tray, making it easy for him to get the best at one swoop. Look out for "pennyweighters" who substitute cheap goods for costly ones when pretending to buy diamond lings are their favorite. Women play this game. They even have fake tags on substitutes which duplicate the real tage on your goods. A pleoe of apple or banana may be used by a crook, who squeezes a piece of jewelry into it and then throws it Into the street for an accomplice to pick up. Look out for the chewing gum trick, the crook sticking a Jewel with a piece of chewing gum under the counter and an accomplice coming to get it af terward. Plunder may be carried off In an unbrella. A handkerchief laid on the counter Is used to cover theft. Look out for pepper thrown In your eyes by a thief. Keep a revolver han dy. Evidently the Jeweller is exposed to plenty of hazards, and It would not be strange If he were found to be more nervous and earlier gray haired than other men. New York Tribune. OIL LAKE IN GULF OF MEXICO. Strange Story Brought to Galveston by Ship Captains. Reports from ship captains entering this port tell of a great and growing oil lake out in the Gulf which is- evi dently fed from the oil deposits feed ing the oil fields of Texas. While It is known this oil lake, situated about 160 miles southeast of Galveston, has existed for several years, it is only re cently that it ho? begun to spread out and is now reported to be more than one mile in diameter, while anothor ship captain said tho surface of the water was covered with bubbling oil as far as their eyes could see. The latest report is from Capt. Net terton of the British steamship Com edian, just in from Liverpool. He re ports the oil bubbling' from three dis tant Jets in the Gulf and says the oil deposit is thickening and spreading at a rapid rate. As this point the Gulf Is 6400 feet, or over a mile deep, and a tremendous pressure is required to force this heavy oil through this body of water for over a mile and then shoot it out In three streams. A survey of the chart of the Gulf and the oil fields shows that the lake in the Gulf It In a direct line with' the strata of oil fom which the east Tex as fields are supplied. Whetherthe recent hurricane, plough ing through the Gulf, has punctured the oil Btrata, or whether the release of this immense quantity of oil ia due to a subterranean earthquake or dis ruption Is not known. Some experts Iodine to the opinion that a terrific ex plosion in the bed of the Gulf is re sponsible for this tapping of the oil in the bowels of the earth. Galveston Tribune, Able Judicial Definition. A decision In Toronto In Sunday selling cases finds that tobacco is a drug and ice cream is food. Sailing them comes under works of necessity and mercy', such as may be performed for the health and well being of man kind on Sunday. A druggist had been fined for selling cigars, and a restau rant keeper for selling ice cream on the forbidden day. The judge before whom the appeal was beard listened to evidence that tobacco was a drug, affording comfort and relief in coses of toothache, etc., and that ice cream was a food. He reversed the Judg ment of the lower court. These medi cines and foods must only be used for some known 111 and not for pleas ure. When one of the good people of To ronto now feels a gnawing pang with in himself he knows that a cigar is good for his health. Finally he has a throb in one of his porcelain teeth and hies him unto the medicine man, who prescribes from his drugs "three-for-a-quarter," or "ten-cents-straight," according to the extent of his patient's illness and finances. It Is also grati fying to know that if a Torontonlan be not filled after the usual corned beef and cabbage and his wlthlnness 'craves for Ice cream, he shall not Ix sent empty away. There have been people In Toronto who felt on the Day of Rest an Illness which they were sure would be cured by "a hair of the dog that bit them." They would like to eat within the sphere of influence of a repository of rye, old enough to give its color In the cup, yet they may not, even though alcohol be a drug and some would take a little for their stomach's sake. ' A Careful Guardian. Mistress I should like to know what business that policeman has in my kitchen every night of the weekT Pretty Servant Please, mum, I think he suspicions me of neglcctln' my work or soinethln't Judy. . Tlen-Tiln has a medical college lor women the only one in China, cVi J 'rnDKIF-IV -J : . - i FRIED ONIONS WITH SCALLOPS Put two tablcspoonfuls of butter over the fire and when hot slice ai many onions as desired and add to the hot butter. When the onions commence to cook put in the scallops that have been washed, dried, dredged with Indian meal or fine cracker dust, with salt and pepper to season, and cook until scallops and onions are a fine brown. Have In readiness strips of buttered toast and arrange them down the sides of a hot platter, let ting them overlap. Place the cooked scallops and onions on this and serve, New York Telegram. , RICH CHOCOLATE ICING. Break the white of one large egg In a bowl, add a tablespoonful of cold water to It and gradually beat into It one cupful confectioners' sugar. Beat three minutes, add a half teaspoonful vanilla and a tablespoonful cold wat er. Scrape fine one ounce unsweet ened chocolate and put into a small saucepan with one tablespoonful hot water and two tablcspoonfuls confec tioners' sugar. Stir over a hot fire until shiny and smooth, then add an other tablespoonful of hot water. Stir this in with the vanilla icing and Bpread. Washington Star. PINEAPPLE FUDGE. Ingredients: Three cups granu lated sugar, one cup milk, tablespoon ful butter, pinch of cream of tartar, one and one-half teacups fine chopped pineapple, one-half teacup cherries, one cup English walnut meats. Use a double boiler or place pan in anoth er pan of hot water. Stir sugar, cream of tartar and milk and boil. When it comes to a boll add the butter, stirring all the time. Take out teaspoonful, put in saucer and let it cool for a minute. Then beat until it becomes a soft cream. Add fruit and nuts to ingre dients In pan and boll for about three minutes. Remove and beat. Let cool before marking It into squares. New Haven Register. Grind a handful of sunflower seeds and give them to a canary. The birds relish the little tender pieces that are found among the seeds. When washing brushes use table spoonful of ammonia in cold water, rinse in two waters and dry' in the sun. This Is better than soap. Mold can be kept from the top of preserves by putting a few drops ot glycerine around the edge ot the jar before screwing on the cover. A good polish for oilcloth or lino leum is made by saving all ends of candles and melting In the oven. Mix with it sufficient turpentine to make a Boft paste. Delicious sandwiches for afternoon tea are made of raisins and ruts chopped together very fine, moistened with a little whipped cream and sea soned with a little salt. Do not throw away a discarded um brella. The ribs will be found most useful for stalking chrysanthemums or other stock plans. Raffia is better than string for tying up the plants. To arrange an attractive after-dinner dish, pile large handsome bunches of raisins on a doily in a glass dish and fill in the cavities between them with shelled and blanched nuts of all kinds. Canned goods should never be left In the cans after they are opened. Metal spoons should never be left in the fruit or vegetables. These are two household regulations that should always be observed. Great care should be taken to dry, towels thoroughly before putting them away. If placed In the linen presses without being well aired, while still damp, a mold is likely to form upon them which, it Is said, till produces skin diseases. Gloves worn at night when the bands are being softened should be white, as any dye is apt to come off on the skin. Cotton has no refining ef fect and kid has. The gloves should be at least a Size larger than those usually worn, that circulation may not be Impeded. Ironing may be made easy by sev eral thicknesses of newspaper, in stead of cloth being used when press ing. This prevents the shiny appear ance which often follows' the use of a damp cloth. Using a newspaper when pressing tucks In dress BklrH Vistead of cloth will render the Iron much easier In use, ' :