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AID OVEN -FARIVIERS.
rducational Work by Departmtnt of AgricultureInstruction :y AgentsSystem in Operation in Twelve States cf t!is 'onion- Practical lt!cas Inculcated Larger Crops of Bettor Ccrn t!io Result Movement Bejun Amang the Boys. . Unknown to tho general public, nl- most unknown to the farmers them selves, the Department of .Agricul ture lias been engaged for several vcara In a practical Bort of uplift work that has expanded until It has mtercd twelve Slates and is Indi rectly Influencing 600,000 farmers. It Is the farm demonstration work, of which less Is known In Washing ton thnn perhaps anywhere else. Secretary Wilson calls It "carrying the department to the farmers," and that is what It practically Is. The work Is for the benefit of those who cannot or will not read the bulletins of the department or who. If they do rend them, do not profit by them. It is one thing for Farmer Jones to read a bulletin on seed selection andt.by anolher for him to find Farmer Smith on the next farm following Govern ment Instruction and doubling his crop. The bulletin may or may not be all right, but if Smith is doubling bis crop that Is a thing closo at home and wants looking Into. That la the ssy the work goes. When a farmer sees something good done he Is more than likely to want to duplicate the success himself. Four Hundred Agents nt Work. The demonstration work com menced In 1904. There arc now 400 regulur agents In the field nnd each farmer that is Instructed acts as a missionary. The work Is very sim ple. The Department of Agriculture merely gees Into a community anil shows a single farmer how without extra expense he can either double the crop he has been raislDg or raise a pew crop that Is more profitable. There has long been a prejudice among the men with the hoeB agalnBt what they style "book farmers." They thought that agriculture could not be taught in schools and that the mere fact that a man was wearing a "blled shirt" would prevent his giy ing them any useful pointers. Tho practical farmers are finding out, however, that the men sent out by the department can give them point ers In suite of "blled shirts or even of manicured fingernails. Regan In the South The work was first taken up for the benefit of the South. It lias now ex-V tended to the south Atlantic and Gulf States n;id to Oklahoma, Arkan sas and Tennessee. Whether It will be extended to other sections will de pend largely on the Congressional appropriation. It has been of real benefit to tho communities where It was established and despite the In roads of the boll weevil has enabled many farmers to make something more than a living where without it they would have made something less. The method is simple. The agent of Hie department goes Into a com munity and picks out a farm, never one of the best, to experiment with. Farmer Jones may object to lending himself to the experiment. In that e we the agent will talk Farmer Smith lito the notion and start to work with V him. One of the provisions of the ' i. i- - agreement is mat inn wr v going to cost Farmer Smith any more than his old method. Three Requisites Outlined. The department agent tries to In culcate three simple truths. They are that a good crop will depend on good seed, good seed bed and good cultivation. The next lesson Is that these things must be had without spending more money, or else the larger crop may eat up more than its own profits. Finally the farmer who has been taught to raise as much of a crop on naif us much land as former is shown how to put the remainder of his acres Into profitable forage crops and grasses and to treat the soil so that he Is not robbing It, but Is mak ing it better. Dr. S. A. Knnpp, who Is in charge of tho demonstration work, said that the farmers, as a rule, require only to see the truth to go nfter It. He said that last year In Inaugurating the work at a county Beat In worm Carolina the' farmers who attended were asked to bring to the meeting samples of the corn they intended to plant the following year. This corn was laid out on long tables and la beled with the name of the owner. Results of the Exhibit. Hy the time the farmers had com ) pnred the samples on the tables more than half of them had taken their names from the exhibits and seques trated their corn. All of thm want ed to get corn from the best exhlbitB. This year all of them are raising seed corn in special plots nnd the clinnceii hre that In another year the corn 'yield of the community will b:i doubled. Yet the most of these farmers when they came to the meet ing honestly thought they were doing the best they could nnd that tluir methods were better than those of their neighbors. Tho demonstration work Roes " r ther than into tho mere ralalns of field crops. . There h:s been a great deal of talk about the need of edu cating the boys, but the agents of the department, agree In saying that the home life on many of the farms makes such an unpleasant impression on the youth that, he takes the fret chaneo to got away from the farm, and then It is Impossible to win him back. Therefore, the demonstrators go at the homo life as well; show the farmers' wives how to preserve and ran their vegetables, how to raise the bull: of tho things they eat, and, saving money, to raise the stnnd- ard of home life so that a boy will not want to get away from the farm, but will bo willing to stay and grow up a modern farmer. Small Work of the Farm. The department sends out numer ous bulletins on the small work of the farm and the country home, all tending to raise the standard of coun try living, but the farm demonstrator does more, for lie puts Into practice In his demonstration work many small things that are not mentioned in the bulletins, but that probably would not be put Into practlro were they not rubbed In, so to speak, by close contact. Tho ravages of rats In the corn cribs Is a constant source of loss and worry to the farmer. It Is no use to talk to a farmer who Is barely making a living about the virtues of concrete foundations and rat-proof construction. Hut when he 1b shown that he can discourage rats In his unhusked corn by sprinkling a little lime over It he will do it willingly and soon savo enough, perhaps, to build a rat-proof -crib. In the same way tho demonstrator shows how the corn can be protected from weevil by salting down the unhusked ears. Fight on Texas Fever. The department has spent much time and money fifrhting Texas fever among cattle. It has worked out plans for clearing the ticks from large neras. u ii i '""" ' " " ing IOr UIO HIUII miu him how a little salt and sulphur mixed with the feed will make the cattle ticks drop off. It Is In little ways such as these that tho depart ment la being carried to the farmer. The training of boys Is not neglect ed, either. The corn clubs have been alluded to In Tho Star. The govern ors and the business men of the vari ous States where tho work Is being carried on recognize tho value of this training, and prlr.es are offered by the business men for tho best show ing made by the boys of the county In clubs orsanlzcd by the county supervisors. Eometimes the prize is a plow or a new buggy, and In some counties the first prize was a trip to Washington. Take a community where the boys have never been out of sight of their own county scat and let them know that the best one of them may win a trip to Washington, a talk with a Secretary of Agriculture and n view of all the immense ma chinery of the department at close hand. It Is something of a stimulus. Roy Raises Rest Crop. The best crop of corn that was raised In tha State of South Carolina last year was by a boy member of one of tho corn clubs, Basevent Usher. It was 152 ',4 bushels on a measured acre. The average for the Stale was less than sixteen bushels. Boys la the clubs frequently beat their own fathers, and this not only encourages the youngsters, but makea their el ders sit up and take notice. It Is the same way when a farmer under the Instruction of the depart mcnt raises o bumper crop of any. thing. Ho gets his name into ms local papers. Is consulted as an au thority by the adjoining farmers, and though he may have been a shiftiest box whittler, the effect Is almost in variably to make him swell his chest and try to do better the next time. The department repeats the truism that the best way to help the farmer Is to show him how to help nimseir, and it says that if this system is car ried out and persisted in there is no reason why the United States should not double Its production of farm p-oduee without Increasing Its acre age. This, It Is believed, closely touches the great problem of the high cost of living. Washington Star. Sherlock Holmes. The Policeman (Irish) "Thin n-oro sayrlous than Ol thought. '. window Is broken on both sides, : it's lucky for yez that ye have t brick aa evidence." London SkcU mw ittass Farm Topics j greex maxurixg ox clay soil. By tho following method a certain Duluth (Minn.) suburbanite has suc cessfully worked the Btiff red clay of Ms garden plot Into a rich lonm pro ducing very satisfactory resultB. The clay was of the stlfTrst red clay tho kluJ that abounds In Northern Min nesota and Wisconsin. He turned the sod under In the spring and sowed It to rye and cowpns as soon as practi cable. Then In July, when the growth was about eighteen Inches high, turned the green sniff under, sowing tho ground again to rye nnd cowpeas. In the faH the Recond growth was turned under and tho ground ma nured liberally. The next spring he planted the lot to potatoes, using tho Burbank and Rose varieties. From this plot, sixty by sixty feet, he has this fall taken out thirty-five bushels of the finer sort of potatoes. In fact, there have never been any nicer looking potatoes shown in Duluth or vicinity. The tubers were of good size, solid and thn quality sound. One of the specimens of Burbank weighed two pounds. The crop will no doubt be even better tho second year, for when this soil con taining compounds of Iron can be manured suffleently to produce grain and vegetables, tha Iron in the mix ture adds greatly to the constitution of the plant. II. Wilbur. BREEDERS' NOTES. Never bleed a horse overcome wllh heut, nor allow any one else to do so. If a horse has a tonder month the best bit to nse is the easlst, the one that will induce him to offer least re sistance. The same kind cannot bo used on all horses; the bit must be adapted to the mouth. The famous trotter, Dexter, for Instance, had a very tender mouth, and only the soft est kind of a bit could be used on him. Mr. Bonner had one specially made for him, a plain snaffle covered with bacon-rind, that he always went well In. Wllh Sunol ho used a leather covered bit. Other homes don't like that sort of a bit, and go better In a bar bit. or plain Bteel bit. Mr. Bonner was once asked: "Why Is It that the same horse will trot steady with one driver and break with another?" "You've heard of the painter who was questioned how he mixed his colors and what his answer was, 'With brains." A horse's head and feet must be nicely balanced to produce best results, and It lies to large extent with whoever does tho shoeing and the driving. After long coaxing, with no lit tie use of the whip, we Jiave seen a balky horse started by putting a lump of earth 1n its mouth. The mind of the animal seems to be net on not going, and the point to be gained is to divert it. from the Idea entertained, and this tho earth in the mouth docs ef fectunlly. So soon ns tho horse gives his attention to the getting of the earth out of Its mouth, It forgets its hnlklnesa and can be started. Amer lean Cultivator. CTOrPAGE OF MILK. Dr. David Roberts, tho Wisconsin State Veterinarian, says: The stop' page of the milk In a cow or a heifer is usually brought on by abnormal conditions or infection. If a cow or heifer has a sore at the point of tho teat so that it 1b difficult to get the milk from the teat, it is advisable to wash the teat with an antiseptic Solu tion, then by dipping a teat plug i into the antiseptic Bolutlon, then Into a little healing ointment and passing it Into the point cf the teat, permit ting Bame to be retained from one milking to another. This should be continued until the teat is entirely healed up and In a normal condition. Never use a milking tube It It can be avoided. If the milk is retained in the quar ter and does not come down into the teat, this will indicate that there 1b a closure in the milk duct at the base of the teat. ThiB can be over come by washing the teat with the antiseptic solution, then dipping a teat slitter, or blstuory, In the same kind of solution, and passing it. up into the teat through the contracted sphincter or point of stoppage, then by manipulating a thumb screw on the blstuory a blade is brought Into action. This sphincter Is then cut by drawing down on the teat bls tuory, In this manner opening up the closed sphincter, permitting the milk to pass down Into the teat. The blada of the blstuory is then drawn Into the blstuory and the blstuory removed, in this way without cutting the point ol the teat. This operation should bo performed within a few days after freshening. By this method a valuable cow's quar ter can be snved which otherwise might be lost, but precaution must be used in washing the teat and tne uis tuory in an antiseptic Bolutlon to pre vent Infection. Meliran Man Sninee! A good man obeys his wife.-Tlng-Fans. DO ANTS REASON? tord Avebnry's Relief That Thcj Do I n .luikcn. Although Mr. Henry Hill at the London Institution last week would not allow ants any higher quality thnn tiiat of ' Instinct." Lord Ave biiry sees no reason to alter tho eon elusions at which ho arrived thirty year ago. after many careful experi ments. Ho still believes that theso Insects hava "the gift of rensen." "1 have not studied nuts for many yeans," said Lord Avcbury to a rep resentative of this Journal on Satur day, "but I hope to renew my experi ments before long, and I still adhere to the conclusions which you will find In my book on 'Ants, Bees and WaRps.' In that work I said. 'When we see an ant-hill, tenanted by thou snnds of industrious Inhabitants ex cavating chambers, forming tunnels, making roads, guarding their home, gathering food, feeding the young, tending their domestic animals, each one fulfilling Its duties indUHtriously and without confusion, It Is difficult altogether to deny to them tho gift of reason; and the preceding observa tions tend to confirm the opinion that their mental powers differ from those of men not so much In kind ns In de gree.' "My principle experiment was one In which I placed Intoxicated ants near a neBt, thirty-eight being friends and forty strangers to the colony. Of tho friends, twcnty-Beven were tnken Into the nest and carefully tended, seven were dropped into the moat surrounding It, and four were left alone. Of the strangers thirty were dropped Into the wnter, one wan left alone, and nine were taken Into the nest. Of the latter',' seven v ore attain removed from the nest and curried to the water. Could nn'thlng more clearly show tho reasoning power of the ants?" Lord Avebury gives Instances with out number which seem to show that ants have a higher power than that of Instinct. One of the most re markable relates to their treatment of t'.ie eggs of the aphis, or "ant cow. The carefully tend these eggB dur ing the winter, taking them Into their nests for the purpose, nnd then re move the young aphides when hatched In the spring, placing them In earthen "cowsheds" specially con structed on the young shoota of the daisy, the plant which provides the aphis with nourishment. The herd of aphides thus reared la then regu larly stroked or "milked" for the honey they secrete, "This means to me," said Lord Avebury, In his historic work, "a most remarkable case of prudence. Our ants may not perhaps lay up food for the winter; but they do more, for they keep during six months the egge which will enable them to procure food during the following summer, a cuse of prudence unexampled In tho animal kingdom." London Mall. Wellington's WnvliiR flumes. One of the oddest hats that ever surmounted the statue of n hero was that of tho Duke of Wellington, which used to atrnd on the Triumphal Arch at Hyde Park corner, but Is now at Aldershot. For Wyatt, the artist, wishing to give the semblance of life to inanimate bronze, caused the plumes of the duke's hat to be so riveted that they fluttered In the breeze, which mado people wonder whether or not they were the victims of an optical illusion. And one re members how a vas1: crowd was once collected opposite old Northumber land House at Charing Cross on the report that the stone Hon on top hnd wagged his tall, and how thousands went away satisfied that they had seen the miracle. London Chronicle. Grippe. While It ! too early for compara tive statistics, grippe has clearly been very prevalent the present winter, and during February In particular. It If about twenty years since an epidemic of this disease first made its appear ance. It was more, sweeping at Ha first visitation than It has been since, yet It remains one of the most formid able perils to general health, Iti worBt effect comes In undermining the system so as to leave the body an easy prey to more serious complaints. No aJm it Letter handled now than when. Its symptoms were mors strange, but it Btlll remains In tha elusive class to a considerable extent, both as to cause and cure. Boston Transcript. Visiting Cards. While It would be difficult to say just when visiting cards were flr.it j used, we are quite certain of the fact i that they ore not of very ancient date. ! Apparently they were adopted In Eng- j Ush society beforo they were gener- i ally used on the continent. It was probably about 1700 that they came Into fashion In Great Britain, and it was as late as 1770 when they were introduced In Paris. U appears that the first visiting ranis were regular playing cards, tho. backs of which were used for tlio address. Chicago i;xamlnov. . ... j T11E ICE KEEl'S WEI.' From nilsluken notions hoiivkeeperu wrap tho lee in many nows- paper or a piece of a blanket beforo putting it in the ico chamber and then marvel Unit though the Ice keeps so well the refrlgeraior is never cold. When it is understood that the princi pal of the refrigerators rests upon the melting and evaporating of tho ice, the reason becomes plain to anyone. New York Press. CARE OF SINK. In the best regulated families tho pink will occasionally get obstructed. My remedy takes about five minutes, saves many a plumber's bill and Inci dentally a great deal of temper. At tach the garden liose to faucet, re move sprinkler and Insert that end of hose In sink hole, pack a cloth around It and hold down tight. Turn on faucet, run a few seconds, remove hose and suction invariably removes all obstruction. Onco Is generally sufficient for most obstinate cases. Boston Post. COMFORT IN COLD HOUSES. All ye who dislike to get Into a cold bed and shivering half an hour this rold winter, sit up and take notice! Get two bricks, which can bo had for tho asking at any plaeo where they are building, nnd keep them In the oven when not In use or on tho back of range till near' bedtime, then put where It Is a little, hotter, turning two or three times that they may be even ly heated through, wrap In a cloth, drop In a bag made a Utile larger than the brick, having a bag for each brick, put In middle of bed for a short time, then moving a llttlo farther down, while undressing, then a little farther till they reach the foot. And In getting Into bed, you will experi ence a most delicious sensation, and will, I feel sure, offer up a prayer for the editor of this column, for bringing It to your notice. Mrs. Helen M. Stewart, in the Boston Post. SKIRT HANGING WITHOUT HELP. Finish the skirt nil but tha hem, put it on and adjust it properly. Take a yard stick, place one end on the floor close to tho feet and allow thn Hlick to rest agiilnst the front of tho Hkirt. Mark where tho top of the stick enmes on the Bltlrt with chalk and move the stick along to the side, being careful to see thut It Is always vertical and not slanting, nnd mark with chalk again. Proceed In this way until a circle of chalk is com pleted around the skirt. The skirt. H now marked an even thirty-six Inches from tho floor. Take It off and place It on a table and with the yard stick mark off the desired length below the circle of chalk. For Instanco, If you want your skirt two Inches from the floor, lay tho yard slick on the skirt with one end nt the line of chalk marks, and at tho other end chulk two Inches less than a yard. This makes a perfect hanging skirt. Mrs. It. E. ZGchlesche, in tho Boston Post. Ginger Bread One egg, one cup molasses, half cup sugar, scant halt cup shortening, one teaspooiiful of ginger, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of soda, three tencup fuls of flour. When mixed pour over one teacupful of bo'Iing water. Shrimp Fritters To three well beaten eggs add a pinch of salt, a quarter cupful milk, a tablcspoonful melted butter, a can of chopped shrimps and bread rrumbs to make a. stiff batter. Drop the mlxturo by the spoonful Into boiling fat and fry to a light brown. Drain on paper and J t . . ..K .,., ,...,( fll. , " ' b""u Plire(1 over ,1,em' Buttermilk Cookies Ono cupful of buttermilk, two cupfuls of sugar, one cupful of butter and good drip ping, mixed; two eggs, two teaspoon fuls of baking soda, dissolved; flour enough to roll out. Roll and cut. Into cookica, sprinkle Willi sugar and bake In a quick oven. Do not handle any more than necessary, as handling toughens the douxh. r Creamed Shrimps For alquart of the canned shrimps, allow" one table spoonful butter, a half tablespoonful flour, one cupful heated cream, one beaten yolk of egg, salt, paprika nnd a drop or two of meat sauce. Melt the butter, add the flour, and when frothy, pour In the cream. When smooth and slightly thickened, add the BhrlmpB, seasoning and egg yolk, serve on t)ast, In croustaJos or putty hells.