FRIDAY, JANUARY 1, 1915
Movements and Battles of Great Armies and Navies
Events in France, Belgium and Along the
8. Austria delivered ultimatum to 8er
vla demanding prompt punishment ot
assassin of Archduke Ferdinand on
June 28 and his accomplices.
H, The czar of Russia asked Austria to
extend the time limit of her ultimatum
X. Servia's reply to Austria'! ultimatum
resulted in the severance uf diplomat
Ic relations between the two countries.
Hostilities between Austria and Ser
vla began on the river Danube, near
17. Austria Invaded Servla. England pro
posed international peace conference
28. Austria formally declared war on
Servla Russia moves troops to
JO. Germany demanded that Russia cease
noblllzatioQ within 24 hours.
M Germany declared war on Russia and
. mobilized her army; France mobi
lized. 4. Germans Invaded France through neu
tral territory of Luxemburg Rus
sians Invaded eastern Prussia.
England mobilized and voted war loan
of t25O.0UO.O0a Belgium refused to per
mit German troops to cross her ter
ritory to Invade France.
I. Germans Invaded Russian Poland;
also France at two points.
4. President Wilson offered to medinte
In Europe. Belgians resisted Ger
man invaders at Liege and Namur
Great Britain declared war on Ger
many; also Germany on .Great Brit
ain. United States neutral
I Austria declared war on Russia.
10. France declared war on Austria.
12. Great Britain declared war on Austria
French troops Invaded German prov
ince ot Alsace.
Germans occupied Liege. Belgium
Belgian capital removed from Bis
aels to Antwerp. Battles In Lorraine.
Germans occupied Brussels and at
tacked Namur. Belgium.
Germans captured Namur and at
British and French retreated from
Cambrai, France, after a battle.
City of Louvaln, Belgium, sacked and
bumed by Germans
French government transferred from
Paris to Bordeaux.
llheims occupied by German troops.
Germans 25 miles from Paris on the
north and 20 on the east
German right wing, commanded
Gen. von Kluck, attacked on
march and forced
Sattle began on
line of river
Marne, east of
Von Kluck's col
umn retiring east
ward and allies,
Gen. Paul I'au. In
4. Germans captur
France, near the
from Marne to
ward the Alsne.
British army, led
by Sir John
the Marne in pur
suit. Gen. Pau
11 Action began on the Alsne between
British and Germans around Soissons.
where Von Kluck s retiring Germans
Rheims reoccupied by the allies,
ficrman artillery bombarded Rheims
Germans laid siege to Antwerp. Bel
gium's temporary capital.
Germans besan bombardment of Ant'
wern. shells reaching various parts
of the city
Capture of Antwerp by the Germans
r.-rmana took possession of Ostend.
Belgian troops Hooded the German
line, on Vser river by cutting the
dikes and compelled the Germans to
n n.,m..i, rantured Dlxmude, Belgium.
.li Germans crossed the Ipres canal at
two points, defeating the allies.
41. Germans forced back north of Iser
THE RUSSIAN FRONTIER.
Russians Invaded East Prussia.
Germans Invaded Russian Poland.
Germans detested Russian Invaders
m.ner.in and Tannenberg, East
u .i- ..anttirtnff many prisoners.
......!. .handoned Lemberg. Ga-
llcla, to the Russians
Tk. nrolonced battle of the Vistula,
in Galicla. ended In Russian success.
trooDS within ten mile, of
a.. Poland, retreated.
tL Ajutra-peonan torcf contlnue4 to
The Stevens Hammcrlcss
N hM the) celebrated
STEVENS RECOIL UNLOCst
providing safety agakiat
12 or 20 Gauge
iroia tne iortS,f PrzemjsT, Garicra,
against the Russian besiegers.
Battles on the Russian-Turkish fron
tier. Cossacks crossed the German frontier
Continuous battle In Bast Prussia.
Germans repulsed Russians around
Germans defeated the Russians south
of Kutno. Poland. . " '
Russians captured Plock. on the Vis
tula, in Poland.
Fierce and decisive attack on Lodz,
Poland, by Germans.
Russians abandoned Lodz, Poland, to
the Germans. ,
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, belr to
the Austrian throne, and his morga
natic wife. Duchess of H oh en berg,
assassinated by Gavrio Prlnzlp, a
Bosnian student, while publio guests
at Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Is. Japan demanded that Germany evac
uate Klauchau. China.
Austria declared war on Japan. Zep
pelin airships dropped bomb on Ant
werp. German aviator dropped 5 bombs on
L Japanese landed at Lungkow, China,
to attack the Germans at Klaucnaur
Japanese bombarded Tslngtao, German
seaport of Klauchau, China.
&, British losses reported from Sept. 12
to Oct. 8 showed that 661 officers and
12,080 men had fal
len In the battles
In France, cfiietty
on the Marne-
dropped bombs on
13. Boers In South
rule and started
a new republic.
Q. The United States
demanded the re
lease of the Stand
ard Oil company
eteamet John u.
had been seized
by Great Britain as a war measure.
Germany reported that she held as pris
oners of war 5,401 officers. Including 27
Iwierals. and 281,468 men.
2C Second revolt of the Boers In South
Africa against British rule. Former
Boer generals, De Wet and Beyers.
appeared at the head of this move
ar Turkish government severed commu-
nlcation with Great Britain; also d-
ciarea war on rtussia.
France and Great Britain declared
war on Turkey.
Japanese captured Tslngtao, China,
after .the siege of 18 days; German
loss, 2.300 prisoners.
Turkish troops crossed the frontier
ZL British aerial squadron dropped bombs
on a Zeppelin factory at Fried erlchs-
. Allied airship dropped bombs upon the
famous Krupp gun works at Essen,
Austrlans captured Belgrade, capital ot
Servla, after siege ot 126 day '.
14. Servians recaptured Belgrade from
WARFARE AT SEA.
British cruiser Amphlon sunk by
German mine: 131 men drowned.
German auxiliary cruiser Kaiser Wll
helm der Urosse sunk by British
cruiser Highflyer off the coast of
British fleet destroyed S German war
ships off Helgoland.
British cruiser Pathfinder sunk by
German submarine In North sea.
British auxiliary cruiser Carman la
sunk the German cruiser Cap Trafal
gar off South America.
German submarine U-9 sunk the Brit
ish armored cruisers Abouklr, Creasy
and Hogue by torpedoes In the North
L Russian cruiser Pallada sunk In the
Baltic by a German submarine.
5w British cruiser Hawke sunk In the
North sea by German submarine U-.
1. British cruiser Undaunted, with four
destroyers, sank four German destroy
ers off the Dutch coast.
8. British submarine E-S sunk by a Ger
man warahin in the North sea.
7. British battleship Audacious wrecked
oft the coast ot Ireland, in the Nortn
sea, by contact with a German sun
8. German cruiser Emden sank the Rus
sian cruiser Jemtchug and a Fren
destroyer at Penang. British Straits
9. Turkish warships Goeben and Bresla
sank two Russian warships In the
Black sea: Turkish erpedo boats
raided harbor or iraessa ana sans
Russian gunboat and a Turkish eruis
er bombarded Sebastopol.
D. German submarine sank the British
cruiser Hermes In the strait of Dover.
L Battle off Chile between the German
cruisers Scharnhont. Onelsenau. Leip
str and Dresden and the British Good
Hope, Monmouth and Glasgow. Good
Horn and Monmouth destroyed.
1 British submarine D-4 sunk by a Ger
man mine In the North sea.
4. German cruiser Torek sunk by
Rriil.h mine In Jade bay. North sea.
a. German cruiser Emden destroyed at
Cocos islands. Indian ocean, oy Brit
ish cruiser Sydney.
U. German submarine sank British tor
, pedo boat Nurer off Deal, England
Japanese torpedo boat IS suns by a
mine In Klauchaa bay. China.
U. German submarine sunk by a French
torpedo boat off VYestsnde, Belgian
ZL German submarine C-1I sunk by Brit
ish warship off Scotland.
Js. British 1&000 ton -battleship Bulwark
sunk by explosion at Sheerness, Eng
land; about WO lives lost ,
In action oft Falkland Islands, In the
Atlsntle, Bturdes'e Brltlsk squadron
defeated Bpee'a German squadron,
sinking the cruisers Scharnhorst
Onelsenau, Lelpslg and Number, with
a loss of 1.E2 to the vanquqlsbed Beet
British submarine B-U torpedoed
Turkish battleship Messudleh In the
German warships shelled Scarborough
and Hartlepool on the ooeat of Eng
. : -' TII5 PALATKA NEWS, PALATKA, FLA. ' U 2j " ' ' ' '
'r-r' 'J$$PtiPk inw Company Presided
mirt"i?i . Gi. VaWla Hint, .Dn
't&t tSM 3&- Tfp 1LC0H0LS HUT VICTiai
sir vgmgx? -ISWlWSQl Aft- A vw
, VfJK rXrA IIFsQI 2,000.000c. port. That Dr.nk- ,
- W t4 ftW-rW lllftrS; (WVrWJ - Gutton nd UnJarf,d
1SV1 2iSS57 Oi. Too Early by Many Ye.rs. $ALy
feis 1 8TED:CEHDuro. I d . $g ,
' f li 5Lr .'T"" Sr 53s! WsllV'l ? 5 1 Bow can you live longer? And aw V
M ST , 1,' lCTX I The Ablation of Life Urn t Wh.r.
Fl ii. i. -JLl C3rlBR,,r!!! Ay-ii? ; ia ' lntV i ance Presidents, which two in f . .N .
Ztyl&A I ve.tlB.ted 2.000.000 case., (riff -""V
V " k VEf ? f-1 n W1 "ll Couslstent uaera of alcoholic cncA Y
y if n P I iTiak il 'y,r youneer l NEW Srtl
V ic mi w0M' - I Trr , u. s. v
4 IV 4"' f VWwM'V V $ wb0 "reformed" be'"1,6 t00" I
V f If " r 1 1 (if t?" ' ' X V I out We f1811 PoUe' H S Addd Attention G
S3 -P -T1 i I . 'jm, four year, younger than they Tob.eco and C.rt
Bill . - . w v . MTt k w z. -sa IA Hallway enKineer. uio ut .
-7T 'ifiSt EVaI JiRtil-v' VA QrT four year, earlier than the nor & I country in particular uve x
Photos by American Pres. Association.
1. Arohduke Francia Ferdinand and consort assassinated. 2-Freneh soldiers attacking. 3. Be'jians landing in
. France after retreat from Antwerp. Burned Louvain. 6. Kaiser Wilhelm. 6. Pope Benedict XV. 7. Bel
gium fort demolished by giant German siege guns.
I914 WAS A VERY
1914 Charged With
Liege Burning of Louvain Germans Surprise World
by Work of Their Submarines and Big Guns.
By JAMES SCHREIBER.
VERYTHING else that baa hap
pened abroad duriiig the year
Is completely overshadowed by
tbe disastrous war which bus
overtaken Europe. Since tbat uiemor-
nble day, July 23, 1014, wben Austria
made ber demands upon Servla for
reparation for tbe assassination of tbe
Arcbduke Francis Ferdinand and bis
wife and for ber anti-Austrian agita
tion, to wbicb demands Servla con
sented with but one exception, tbe
world bas been kept on edge by one
big shock after tbe other. After Ser
via's reply proved unsatisfactory to
Austria and Germany declared ber in
tentlon of supporting Austria, when
Kussluu diplomacy Interfered. Austria
on trie a8tb of July declared war on
tier little ueigbbor -Then followed Em
peror William's demands on Itussia to
ease mobilizing, pnii'lnluilng martini
law throughout the German empire
On Aug. 1 Germany . declared war
on Russia, and France ordered mohlll
Then followed tbe terrible period of.
suspense which was to show tbe way
the other powers would act. Europe
bad been divided into groups for tbe
purpose of maintaining tbe balance of
power Germany. Austria and Italy
formed tbe triple alliance on one side,
while Russia. France and England
were pledged In a triple entente on tbe
Italy Backs Out.
But Italy soon showed ber disincline
tloo to be brought into tbe tight and
announced tbat tbe alliance called for
defense entirely France and Russia
were as rightly Douncr as Germany ana
Austria, but England bad more free
dom of choice. She hesitated only Ave
days and then declared war on Ger
many, announcing it to be In protec
tion of Belgium's neutrality, wmcn
had been invaded after permission to
German troops to cross through Bel
gium Into France had been refused.
About this time began tbat now dis
toric attack ou Liege, which withstood
the German hosts so bravely until the
giant 42 centimeter guns were used.
Montenegro allied herself with Ser
via. and Japan declared war against
Germany and Austria and set out to
capture Tsingti. the German port in
China. (This was accomplished by Nov
1.1 Germany entered Brussels without
any resistance on ber way toward
Paris, and the Belgian government fled
After this came the terrible, never t
be forgotten burning of lxuvain by
tho kaiser', army becaase. Berlin
claims, tbe citizens bred tfion the In
vaders after the city bad-renderea
Belgium Left In t. .
By forced marches the German, ad
vanced through Belgium, lea ring ruin
and desolation In tbelr wake. Namur
Dlnant..Mons. Termonde and other his
toric cisle. fell- So quickly came tbe
fi.nnans. In fact that the allied r
mlee were unable to roastef their forces
in sutncleot strength to uf ike any ap
preciable .tend against I tbem. The
hastily organtaed British force, which
bad landed at Havre, r ranee. lonna it
necessary to retreat and Von Kluck's
army entered upon French territory
where It was met by tbe crown prince's
detachment Which bad entered through
the duchy of Luxemburg, another neu
tral state, capturing tbe French fort!
fled city of Longwy. Tbto comblneU
strength crept forward until a montl
after the war was declared It wit
almost at tbe gate, of Parts. Tbe city.
Greatest-War in History Defense of
bustling Willi life and activity, wai
thrown Into a turmoil. Bordeaux be
came tbe capital.
Suddenly the Germans wavered, and
then began the retreat, and for about
twelve days they showed their heels
to tbe enemy. The scattered forces
again; collected for battle when the
river Alsne was reached, and from
then the now famous method of war
ring from deep trenches began. Tbe
bombardment of the beautiful Gothic
cathedral In Rheims by German guns
evoked a protest from every quarter of
the globe when the Germans set about
to capture that city.
Zeppelin Attack on Antwerp.
Surprised us tbe Belgians were bj
the giant German siege gnus, thej
were us greatly astounded by the early
morning attack iiicin Antwerp by a
Zeppelin airship, hoinbs from wbicb
destroyed houses and killed citizens
But this proved to lie only preliinlnurj
to the part Antwerp was to play in the
war. as the later linmliardmeut of and
capture of that city showed. Tbe Bel
glun government shifted to Osreutl
from which Kins Albert aud his ad
visers went to Havre. France, whicn
then became the temporary capital.
With tbe fall of Antwerp tbe Ger
man desire to coutrol the coast line ot
Belgium and northern France became
evident, it being conceded that they
needed command of the coast before
tbey could commence nn Invasion ot
Englond with airships and troops.
Tbe fear of this Invasion kept London
on edge almost from the time war wut
Tbe Russians ou tbe German ail I
Austrian frontier advanced with mor.'
rapidity than was thought possible for
their army Galicia, the Polish prov
ince of Austria, fell to tbe czar's men
Austria's defeat being almost decisive
Germany sent her troops Into Russian
territory, but soon retreated toward
borne ground, and Russian troops push
ed Into eastern Prussia. But tbey In
turn had to fiee before German re-en
forcements. Tbe Russians once mor
organized and pressed hack the Ger
mans to their own couutry. Then cam
the memorable second march ot the
Germans toward Warsa w. In the mean
time the Austrians bad captured Bel
grade, the Servian capital, but were
later compelled to evacuate tbe city.
Tbe entrance of the Turkish govern
ment into the war after having sup
posedly bought the German cruisers
Goeben and Breslau created indigna
tion among Christians, as soon after
Turkey', attack on Russian sbtpptug
and town, on the Black sea she de
clared a holy war.
On tbe sea the biggest surprise of the
war was tbe work of lis submarine.
When the world was apprised t me
Inking of the British cruiser. Cresay
Abouklr and Hogue as well a. tbe
Path tinder, by tbe German submarine
U-9. nearly all on board drowning. It
stood aghast at tbe possibilities of the
little craft Great Britain also lost tbe
cruiser Hawke In a like manner, while
the blowing up of the Dreadnought
Audacious off tbe Irish coast was due.
it is thought to a mine. Tbe British
.hip Bulwark came In contact with a
mine near the month of the Thame,
not far from London.
A fleet of British warship, under
command of Admiral Cradock met tbe
assembled German sblpa off the coast
of Chile and gave battle. The British
were defeated, losing two snips, wltb
their men. Including the admiral The
German .-.ii.T.Meil little damage. To
avenge this Kngiaud sent out a strong
fleet, which sank four of the German
vessels, with nearly 2.000 men, on tbe
south Atlantic const of South America.
A short time liefore this battle tbe
German cruiser Emden. under Cap.
tain von Muller, was destroyed by an
Australian cruiser, thereby freeing the
Indian ocean of what had proved to be
a most disastrous enemy to tbe allies'
Everything else in Euroie was side
tracked Immediately upon tbe opening
of hostilities. Even the Irish home
rule trouble lost it momentum, wbicb
otherwise might have plunged the
Catholics and Protestants of Ireland
into a great war. After a third pas
sage of the home rule bill by tbe bousu
of commons It became :i law May 25.
Pius X. Died, New Pope Elected.
Closely allied with eveuts in Europe
since war began was tbe death ot
Pope Pius X. on Aug. 20. Although be
bad been feeble, bis death was not ex
pected by the world. Ten days Inter
tbe cardinals met to elect a new pope,
choosing from their ranks Cardinal
Giacomo Delia t'hiesa on Sept 8. Two
days Inter be was crowned in Rome as
Tbe killing of Editor Gaston Cal
mette of the Paris Figaro by Mme.
Caillaux. wife of the French minister
of finance on March 16 threatened to
be as sensational as tbe Captain Drey
fus affair, but after a remarkable trial
she was acquitted by the Jury.
On the western hemisphere the Mex
ican affair has created tbe most un
usual news features of tbe year, but
its doings have become so closely as
sociated with ours In recent years that
it cannot be classed as news of the
year abroad. The revolutionary out
break In Lima, Pern, Is noteworthy.
This resulted In the killing of Premier
Varels and the deposition of President
Billineburst. Moratoriums were' de
clared In several of tbe South Amert
ran republics because of the; European
war. and tbe Imports and exports ot
all tbe republics were affected. Inas
much as tbey relied greatly on Euro
Deatb bas taken Its share of not
ables abroad this year. Most prom!
nent of all tbe deaths, exclusive of tbe
pope and the Austrian Imperial pair
was that of Lord Roberts, the famous
English fighter, wbo died while visit
ing tbe soldiers In France. Lord
Strathcona. Canadian capitalist and
statesman; Jean L. Jaures, French So
cialist leader (who was assassinated)
Joseph Chamberlain, English states
man, and King Charles of Ronmania
were among those wbo passed away.
Excellent for Stomach Trouble.
"Chamberlain's Tablets are just fine
for stomach trouble," writes Mrs.
C. Dunn. Arnold. Pa. "I was both
ered with this complaint for some
time and frequently had bilious at
tacks. Chamberlain's Tablets af
forded me crest relief from the first,
and since taking one bottle of them
I feel like a different person." for
sale by all dealers.
Tbe III mot. river wa so termed
from the Illlni. a tribe of Indian, on
Its hanks. Another derivation 1 sug
gested in Isle aux Nolx, bland of nnta.
Several derivation, more or lea. fanci
ful are suggested by the etymoIogita
How can you live longer?
Tbe Association of Life Insur
ance Presidents, which tsas in
vestlgated 2,000.000 case., tells
Consistent users of alcoholic
drink, die six years younger
tban tbey should.
One time consistent drinkers,
wbo "reformed" before they took
out life Insurance poUe'ea, die
four year, younger than tbey
Railway engineers die Ave
year, younger than they should.
Fat men those carrying forty
pounds or more excess flesh die
four year, earlier than the nor
mal man. '
Social disease, cut down a life
time six years.
Overeating and undereating,
along with lack of knowledge of
tbe simpler diseases, also are
given as factor. Jin shortening
life. . r
An amazing record of the extent to
which alcoholic beverages shorten the
lives of both users and sellers was pre
sented at tbe eighth annual meeting
of tbe Association Of Life Insurance
Presidents, In session at the Hotel As
tor, New Tork, by Arthur Hunter,
chairman of the central bureau, medico-actuarial
To support his conclusions be bas
Infallible figures, bawd upon tbe cases
of 2,000.000 men and-women, insured
during tbe past twenty -five years wltb
forty-three leading American and Ca
nadian life Insurance companies.
"It Is a general Impression," Mr.
Hunter said, "tbat saloon keeper do
not live as long a. person, in non
hazardous occupations, but It is not
generally known that most classes con
nected wltb the sale or manufacture
of liquor have a high mortality. Saloon
keepers, along with hotel proprietors
wbo attend tbe bar either occasionally
or regularly, have an extra mortality
of 70 per cent tbat lav their lifetimes
are reduced about six years on tbe av
erage on account of their occupation.
"Reformed" Drinkers Gain.
Mr. Hunter pointed out that the mor
tality of men wbo had at one time
used Intoxicants, bnt 1 who bad "re
formed" prior to taking out Insurance
policies was SO per cent or a reduction
of over four years on the normal life.
gain of 20 per cent over tbe saloon
and hotel proprietor class.
The men who use alcoholic, dally.
but not to excess, Mr. Hunter divided
into two groups:
(A) Those wbo take two glasses of
beer or one glass of whisky a day.
(Bi Those wbo take more than that
but are not "excessive" drinkers.
Tbe expert's Investigation disclosed
that tbe mortality In the second group
waa 50 per cent higher than In the
A significant result of the Investiga
tion." continued be. "was the high
mortality ot railroad knen. Among
railway engineer, tbe mortality wa.
found to be 80 per cent! equivalent to
five year.' reduction la the average
"Overweight bas a mirked effect In
decreasing life. AmotTg men forty
pounds above tbe average weight the
lifetime of those wbo entered tbe com
panies at tbe age of forty-five was
about four years lees tban the life of
tbe man of normal weight"
A mortality of W per cent or a re
duction ot six year, of life, was ob
served to exist among tbe "risks" suf
fering from tbe social disease.
Mr. Hunter pointed to tbe tremend
ous loss of life due to tuberculosis.
But a well nourished man. taking
reasonable precautions against con
tagion, has little o fenr from this dis
ease, he declared.
If Russia carries out Its Intention ot
abolishing all alcoholic beverages from
Its borders, Mr. Hunter' maintained.
half a million live, would be saved
during tbe next tea years.
Man With License I Rewarded After
Thomas J. Harris, aged fifty -eevea
of Berkeley. Cat. purs tied course ot
watchful waiting for seven long years
to be sure that tbe woman be bad
chosen for bis bride was really "tbe
right one " Dnrtng the leren years
the marriage license v-Agatbertne
dust In the recorder. jbo. waiting
for Harris - '
Harris concluded nl. PPI wait and
took Miss Annie BtaeC aged fifty
three, to Judge Robert : Mgar,l and
they were married. Hi) flrat qui
a.ked tbe judge was whether
nment had been Invalidated bee
tt. age. The judge eald no.
Biliousness and Consii.ation Cuted.
If you are ever troubled with bil
iousness or constipation you will be
interested in the sUttment of E- F.
Erwin, Peru, Ind. "A year ago last
winter I had an attack of indigestion
followed by biliousness and constipa
tion. Seeing Chamberlain's Tablets
so highly recommended, I bought a
bottle of them and they helped me
Vireiu " 1
'." For sale by all dealers.
New line, of work Int,
the public service of t
general and for various st.
country in particular have,,
gurated by the weather bni
the past year, and other spe
Ice. are now in course of pre
Among the new lines of work ot
anA amtha fnllowlnlF!
A special service given to orchaV
and raisers of tobacco, oranges.
berries and certain other crop.
been rendered by means of frost wart
lngs issued In spring and autumn. Close
attention is paid by tne torecauters to
the needs of these crop, at critical pe
riods, and the growers are kept fully
advised as to the dangers of frost anil
are warned of the necessity of resort
ing to measure, of protection through
artificial beating and smudging.
Tbe establishment of a "cattle region
service," through wbicb bulletin, con
taining statements of weather condi
tion, over tbe stock ranges of tbe Tex
as Panhandle and adjacent regions are
Another opportunity for service has
been found In tbe timbered region, of
the west during period, of unusual
drought This baa been taken advan
tage of through the issue of special
forecasts of hot dry winds, which are
disseminated directly to tbe officials ot
the fire patrol of tbe forest service and
other similar organizations, placing
them on tbelr guard at times of un
usual danger of fire Inception.
A special Investigation of orchard
conditions In western North Carolina,,
where systematic observation, are be
ing carried on in a number of orchards!
by the weather bnrean In co-operanonj
wt the state experiment station, prom.
tsea to give valuable result.. These
studies have In view the establishment
of tbe Influence of topography on local
climate, tbe ultimate object being to
differentiate tbe safe and unsafe loca
tlons for orchards In such regions.
Explorations of tbe upper air and
studies of solar radiation were contin
ued by the bureau during the year. Ac
tive Beld work of this character wai
transferred during the year from Mount
Weather. Va.. to Fort Omaha, Neb.,
where more favorable conditions fot
atmospheric exploration exist
OPPOSE SURPRISE TESTS.
They Break the Health of Engineers,
Witness Tells Arbitrators.
The surprise test for tbe vigilance
of locomotive engineers and Bremen,
to see If tbey are on tbe watch fot
danger signals, was attacked at tin
bearing of the Western railroad arbi
tration case. The test It was asserted,
was dangerous to the men, breaking
tbelr health by useless shocks, and It
also had the effect of the cry ol
"Wolfl" leading the engineers to lose
respect for sucb signals. Tbe arbi
trators have been asked to eliminate
tbe surprise test
A. Phillip, testifying for the Brother,
hood of Locomotive Firemen and En
ginemen. told tbe arbitrator, tbat tb
surprise test defeated Itself in tlmt
and tbat It was an unjustifiable shock
and injury to the men In tbe cab.
SMOTHER BEES FOR HONEY.
Sci.ntifio Thieves Accomplish .Their
Work Without Danger of Stings.
Scientific larceny is responsible for:
tbe loss of 40,000 honey beea and 100
pound, of boney belonging to George
A. Beetem, near Carlisle, Pa. Beetem,
at one of tbe more prominent be cul
turlsta. ba. acquired distinction, but of
late year, bas bad serious mishaps.
Last year thousand ot Beetem'i
bee. were killed by feeding In orchard,
which had been sprayed by state offi
cials. Recently boney thieve. Invaded
Beetem'. yards and burnt flour sulphur
under the hives, suffocating more than
40,000 beea. Thus tbe Invader, cap
tured the boney without being stung.
A short time ago sixty-seven turkey
In Bee tern's yard were poisoned.
Eleetri Trap Pee Thieve.
War against chicken thieves waa de
clared In Alton. HI, by Mr Ella
Hayes, whose poultry stock baa been
diminished by recent depredation. To
prevent further Invasions Mrs. Haye
ba. erected barbed wire entanglements,
electrically charged, modeled after
those need by the armies of Burop.
These defense .unwind tbe cblcke
bouse snd sre so arranged at night that
any attempt to break through tbem
will ring a cowbell alarm erected st the
side of Mrs. Hay bed.
And occasionally a man ha money
in a bank because h doesnt own
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