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THE PALATKA NEWS, PALATKA, FLA.
PAGE NO. THREE FRIDAY, JULY 16, 1915. MINERAL-WATER TRADE IN 1914. 6 More Than 800 Different Wa ters on the Market and 54 Million Gallons Sold. The annual report on the produc tion of mineral water in the United States, which has just been compiled by K. B. Dole, of the United State3 Geological Survey, from reports re ceived from spring operators, shows . that 54.358,466 gallons of mineral 1, water, valued at $4,892,328, was bot J tied and sold in 1914. The water was marketed for both medicinal and ta ' ble use and ranged in composition from the purest of table beverages to the strongest mineralized waters in the country. In addition to this quantity, 6,261,743 gallons of mineral .water was consumed in the manu facture of "soft drinks." The lat . ter quantity does not begin to repre sent the entire production of soft drinks but only that part made from mineral waters, by far the greater part of the flavored drinks being V compounded with municipal or pri vate supplies not classified as miner al waters. Though 78 new springs reported production, a large number hitherto active were idle, so that the total number of commercial springs was 829, or 9 less than in 1913. The total production in 1913 was 57.867.- 399 gallons, valued at $5,631,391; thus the decrease in 1914 was 6 per cent in quantity and 13 per cent in value. Similar decreases in the trade have been observed since 1911, and may be attributed chiefly to general im provement in the quality of municipal supplies, because of which the neces sity of purchasing bottled drinking water has been lessened. During the last ten years the introduction of safe filtered water into several large cities has been followed by notable falling-off in business of table-water producers in the immediate vicinity. Cheaper Mineral Waters. Another change that has been tak ing place since 1906 fs the drop in the price per gallon, from 17 cents in 1906 to 9 cents in 1914. This , has been due partly to decrease of price of individual waters but most " . ly to increased sales of low-priced table waters and decreased sales of high-priced mineral waters reputed to have peculiar medicinal proper ties. The value of table waters sold in 1914 was $3,593,861, while . that of medicinal waters was $1,298, 437. The State of New York leads in number of commercial springs, in the auantitv and total value tof water sold, ana in value oi tame waters, though it is far behind in the value of medicinal waters, in the sales of which California takes first rank. "" Indiana and Virginia are also nota "" ' wTble producers of medicinal waters. In value of table waters Wisconsin is second only to New York and is followed by California, Maine, and Pennsylvania. Sales were reported from every State in the Union ex cept Arizona and Idaho. Wide Local Trade. Nearly half the trade was in the hands of about 50 producers, each of which did more than $20,000 worth of business, and more than 1,000,000 gallons was marketed from each of ' - o springs, let uie iraae is essen f tially local, for 778 other springs scattered throughout the country re ported sales ranging in value from $5 to $20,000. Practically four-fifths nf the mineral water was sold at prices ranging from one-half cent to 10 cef?ts a gallon, and only 4 per cent was sold at prices greater than cents. AS a general ruit? most of the high-priced waters are sold for medicinal use, though the demand for several well-known table waters has sustained their prices. Imported Waters. The total imports of mineral wa ter during 1914 amounted to 2,786, 142 gallons, valued at $857,707, a de crease of 17 per cent in quantity and 10 per cent in value from last year. Though the importations of mineral water have decreased annually since 1911, the drop in 1914 was more than might be attributed to decreased de mand for foreign waters, any of which may be duplicated in their es sential characteristics in this country. As in previous years, more than two thirds of the imported water came from France, Germany, and Austria Hungary. The trade with France in creased about 10 per cent and that v:ith Gciivany decreased r.bout 40 V" per cent from that in 1913. In spite i P nf var nnrlitinna tha rnfft nf im portation was greater between July and December than between January and June. Mineral water is one nat ural product for which the United States is not necessarily dependent on Europe, for the great variety of composition exhibited by the miner al waters of this country makes it possible to gain every characteris tic therapeutic reaction by use of do , mestic waters. The most stubborn fellow in a jury box is generally the one who does not seem to have an opinion. STETSON UNIVERSITY DeLand, Florida COI.tKfiE OF LIBERAL ARTS FOR MEN. The standards are the highest. Kqutpment for work in aolence unjurpaned. A atroug Faculty and a well estab lished reputation. COLI.KOK OF LIBERAL ARTS FOR WOMEN. Separate buildings. Liberal Arts end bourses for school Teachers. Domestic Science. CHILI KOK OF LAW. Three Professor! who are College aad Uw Oraituatea lve their entire time to Instruction In this department. Magnirlcent law library, practice court room, dnss rooms and deliatlne club rooms. t OI.LFOK. OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCHOOL OF MECHANIC ARTS. Me chanlcKl, civil, Klectrical and chemical Kngiueerlniand Manual Training Courses leadtne to degrees. Fine new building, costly equipment. TEACHERS' COLLEGE. Iads To a degree. The entire equipment of the College of Liberal Arts and the Normal School Is used for the benvni of those pur suing this course. , COLLFUB OF Bl'SINESS. Bookkeeping by best methods. Banking In all Its branches. Shorthand and typewriting. Klectlve courses open In other depart ments. I rge Faculty and commodious buildings. PREPARATORY ACADEMY. Graduates prepared to enter Harvard, Tale, Princeton, Cornell. Michigan. Chicago, and all first-class colleges. MUSIC SCHOOL. A fio.ooo pipe organ, a doten pianos, large Faculty, thorough oourees of study. ART SCHOOL. New atudlo. Costly casts, models, etc Museum of Fin Arts. Regular and special course given. Address JOHN B. STETSON UNIVERSITY, Deland. Florida. THE ELECTRIC FAN And How This Little Device Produces a Cool Breeze on Demand. "It's nice, but I'm sure I couldn't manage it, exclaimed the lady-of-the-house as the salesman showed her a small electric fan suitable for the home. "Oh, that's easy enough," laughed the salesman. Very deftly he attached the lead cord to the lamp socket by unscrew ing the lamp bulb and screwing in the fan plug attached to the end of the cord. "Now, you see," he continued, "all that is necessary is to move this lit tle switch attached to the base of the fan." v Instantly the fan set up its cooling breeze. "But they are so expensive," she protested. The salesman laughed. "It is not expensive," he assured her. "This eight-inch fan sells for but $8.50 and you must remember that with reas onable care it will last a lifetime. This first cost of the fan is the lar gest item of expense, because it con sumes less than a quarter of a ce.it's worth of current an hour. It will keep the dining room cool during the dinner hour for a small fraction of a cent." The electric fan. being somewhat of a new device, is little understood. For years it was rarely ever seen In the home, being considered an office and store necessity. But now it is being purchased for home use. It is not hard to understand the electric fan and any child can attach it to the electric light socket and start it running. The fan consists of three essential parts the small elec tric motor which drives it, the pro peller fan which moves the current of air and the standard to support this mechanism. The fans are also equipped with a little device for reg ulating the speed, which increases, or decreases, the amount of air current, and a mechanism for oscillating, or moving the fan to and fro, so as to distribute the air current to all parts of the room. The tiny electric motor differs in no way from the large elec tric motors of the same type used to drive machinery in mills and facto ries. It consists of a rotating arm ature, turning in a magnetic field, the shaft of which is extended so that the fan blades can be fastened to it with a set screw. The fan proper is mere ly a brass propeller, consisting of four to six curved blades, fastened to the rotating armature shaft. These blades, when revolved very rap idly, move a large volume of air in a steady, cooling breeze. Electric fans need practically no attention other than an occasional oiling. There be ing no wearing points, except the armature shaft journals, it cannot wear out for years and years. The first cost of an electric fan is very normal, considering the amount of material and labor required tp make a good, serviceable fan. The cost of electricity to operate such a fan is a mere fraction of a cent an hour. The cost of maintenance and repairs is practically nothing, with reasonable care. ine electric tan can be used in every room in the house where there is an electric light socket. It is light and easily carried from place to place. Provided with a long cord, in which are concealed the insulated current carrying wires, it can be located almost anywhere in the room, from the window-sill to the mantle. No one disputes the value of an electric fan on a hot, sultry day when there is not a breath of air stirring outdoors. It will supply a cool, re freshing breeze in any part ot the house, night or day, at a cost of less than that of an ordinary electric lamp. The old idea that the electric fan created dangerous drafts was exploded loner ago. The fan does not produce a dratt, but a steady, gentle movement of the entire atmosphere of a room. It is quite possible to keep cool and cheerful on the hottest day if there is a movement of air current to cool the body by the evaporation of perspiration. Largest Lumber Mill Uses Electricity What is said to be the largest lum ber mill in the world, located at Ever ett, Wash., will be operated entirely by electricitv. This mill has a ca pacity of 400,000 feet of lumber a day. It was equipped for electric drive by the General Electric Com pany. Motor-driven machines pro vide for washing the logs and freei.ig them of stones, convey the raw ma terial to the various saws, stack the finished product preparatory to dis tributing it to the kilns, and finally load it for shipment. Live rollers and sorting chains, all motor-driven, reduce the number of men required about the new mill. Storage-battery locomotives and trolley locomotives are employed to transfer the tramcars between the sorting table, yard tracks, dry kilns, stacking room and traveling crane. The mill contains 300 motors, rang ing from 2 h.p. to 300 h.p. in rating. A 'Cuo-h.p. steam-turbine plant has been installed to generate electricity for the operation of the main plant and of the cedar and hemlock mills to be completed later. Your Opportunity. There is a tide in the affairs of men that taken at the right time and in the right way, gives at least a fair chance of filling out the natur al span of life. The stop-look-listen signs become more frequent as the years go by and they are in bigger type they become more emphatic as maturity ripens into age. The average American is credited with the ambition to "idle in the har ness." It used to be in the old wes tern days, to meet the end with his boots on. But why? , Why should we not, as age creeps on, decrease our strenuous activities, mental and physical, and enjoy the fruits of an energetic and useful life? Why should we not sit quietly and watch with becoming pride the activi (tao nf tho mnn anH ummn, nhn nnn to follow us, those whom we have '"Tu trained to continue our work, and watch the development of enterprises we have established? For most of us the answer is plain and easy, if not complimentary; for most of us have not acquired the fi - nancia independence that permits a p0nsible iocai association or individu leisurelyold age. Our "pile' is not,al who wiu tne ex charges, of sufficient dimensions that we do The onl reairement is that the not have to supplement it by our con-slides be made of active and u. tinned exertions for a livelihood. ,cal use in the community anJ that This growing old is a hard propo-I th be returne1 in good ondition in sition for most of us to realize and 90 d In additio a brief outline to accommodate ourselves to. We of a lecture to accompany the slides have to be mighty close to complete wi be fol.warded on request, wreck before we admit that age is In addition to this educational winning the game. But it is inevit-'work the department is always ready able, sooner or later, for all of us.- nd requests for practical the time when we have to acknowl-1 :,.. ...u:,.v. i u. t , , . , edge defeat and take our weary way to the scrap neap. vet, what is more charming, more splendid, more dignified than a gracious old age, I? u !?, frf? b'tterness of model tem of highways for county, the battle and sits quietly watching To obtn such assistance local au the game of life with an interest no u;,;D i,ij .,,. m..l. is,- less intense than if it had part in it? cut inese warnings-wnat are whicn to make applications. Re they, and what are they for? The nata fmm ;ii. n- pliancy of arteries and muscles grad-es can not be et however, ually diminishes after man has Bl.id work jg 'ne braiK.h of road reached his physical prime. The Duildin g in which the d epartment may strenuous exertions of the thirties 'be pal.ticuiar service to local au and forties overtax the fifties and six- thoHtie Typical desif;ns have been ties. The headaches that follow pifcp,red copie3 of the,e can ,,e long continued and hard thought are ' ,vi,,i ,..,. a w minnr warnings against it. They are warn- ings that the prudent man heeds. ja !csj ni,itablerfor spe,hi The hardening of the eye Iense calls jtj pl enKineer may be ass.gn- for rest for the eye. The wearied !ed to' ; t the site and offer SUi?. brain resents the overtax put upon, gestions. In some cases designs by l- I yv. Jej Tne . Sten!' bridge companies have been reviewed which unheeded, culminate m the sud- b depaVtment for the benefit of den collapse or the broken blood Icfcal 0fficiais vessel in the brain, and we call it, Possibly ;he most important way, "a stroke." It is the beginning of , w in which the deartment as the premature end that might havesjsts individual communities in the been postponed for years. 'betterment of their roads is in laying These warnings have a cause. They t mode, tem of hi(;hways for are sufficient, nay, they are a de-1 t whic is about to 'end a mand, to break the practice of years , sm of mo on roads. In and consult the doctor the special- the department assigns an ist, and to follow his advice. These tn mak a thorough studv signs are many. Ihey come in line: with our greatest overtax. the breakdown of most human wrecks comes from worry than from physical exertion, and most worries are about comparatively unimpor tant details rather than about gen- lJF01!, tivity, should concern itself with generalities and leave details to younger men ,who are in the midst of the tight. .,, . WlthOUt Ihis world is going on you when you are gone. Probably it will go better and smoother than when you are here, and fifty years will work a transformation that will i i.j... in.. mij ii. inane irany 1WK. um me iviiuuie Ages. You are not essential to the world's progress, for it will continue without you just the same as if you had never existed. But you owe it to the world to stay in it as long as you can and keep yourself as fit as possible to do your part, to boost as long and as hard as your best physi cal and mental condition and natural abilities will permit. State Board of Health Bulletin. Backward Kansas. The Russell Sage Foundation has been making an investigation of in dustrial conditions in Kansas. Its report is not encouraging. Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia have laws Drotecting wo men from long hours ot labor. Kan sas is one of the nine states which have no such laws. In some occupa tions, women are employed sixty hours a week or more. Kansas has a child labor law, such as it is, but it is inadequate and it is loosely enforced. It pro hibits the employment of children un der fourteen in factories, workshops, the atres or packing houses, in oper ating elevators or in or about mines; but it says nothing about quarries, restaurants or laundries, in which oc cupations children were found work ing. It provides that children under sixteen shall not be employed in any occupation or place "dangerous or in jurious to life, limb, health or mor als," but this prohibition is too in definite to be effective, and it leaves it to be determined what occupations or places fall within it. Kansas has a workmen s compensa tion law; but the law leaves it op tional with employers and employees to come under the law, and some of tivitv , uri,is'ta. including drainage the largest employers of labor do not maximum speed of the ship will be choose to come under it. 22 knots per hour. It is estimated Altogether, this is not a brilliant .that 75 per cent of the power gen showing for a state which has en- ! prnfprl hv thp tiirbinps will be del lv- joyed the supposed benefits of .woman suffrage for nearly three years. Fussy Woman. A fussy Atchison woman returned a bag of salt to her grocer with the complaint that its "flavor" wasn't good.'-Kansas City Star. Cured of Indigestion. Mrs. Sadie P. Clawson, Indiana, Pa., was bothered with indigestion. "My stomach pained me night and day," she writes. "I would feel bloated and have headache and belch ing after eating. I also suffered from constipation. My daughter had used Chamberlain's Tablets and they did her so much good that she gave me a few doses of them and insisted upon try ng them ""help' me as nothing else has done." For sale FOR BETTER ROADS. Ways in Which the Depart ment Offers Advice and Assistance to Com munities. Communities interested in the im provement of roads are recommended by the department to apply for a lec turer on the subject. Lecturers will be sent at the Government expense wherever there is reason to believe that audiences will be large enough to make the expenditure of time and money worth while. Whenever pos sible it is, of course, desirable for a number of communities in the same ' . " . - lecturer are materially reduced The number of lecturers at the dis posal of the department is limited and it is not always possible, there fore, to comply with every request. When a lecturer can not be sent, how ever, the department will loan a set lf ':,0ui0 i;.t.. i;j ., ctoBiaiaiiiG wiiii.ii may lane vile juiui f ,ia, dvi d msDection. su. perintendence of county roads, road ;- ,j .i. brid ' rk.F0P the Hevelonment of n from the office of Public Roads Rttr.l .... W,,u,,7 nrnhaWv .;. su,h f"the HiBt,.i(.t. He asPertaina where the best road materials are, what roads are the most important and, therefore, to be improved first, and provides for the location of each road so as to secure the best possible drainage and grade, and indicates the suitable type and method of structures, to meet the needs and means of the community. When his work is completed the county officials have at their disposal the results of U,;., ,,J,r nt nn ,hnln problem and should be able to carry out the work with far more efficiency and economy than would otherwise be possible, p , mtr:l0 oro ls noino. tinually tested by the department and the information thus ' obtained is available for any community in doubt as to the kind of road they purpose to build. Similar tests can also be secured on dust layers, such as road oils and tars, and the department will furnish to anyone instructions as to selection and shipment of samples. The tests are made free of charge when they are desired in connection with public improvements. U. S. Dep't Agriculture. Battleship to be Driven by Electric Motors. The first electric battleship will be the 80,000-ton California now building at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. This great warship will be driven by pow erful electric motors and in addition to this electricity will be used for steering, hoisting ammunition, turn ing turrets, operating winches, for ventilating apparatus, for signaling, wireless communication and for cook ing the daily meals for the officers and crew. The California is the first large bat tleship to be equipped with a com plete electrical system. The excel lent results obtained with the collier Jupiter induced the government to adopt this novel method of propelling its latest new superdreadnaught. The contract for the propelling equip ment for the California has been re cently awarded to the General Elec tric Company. The apparatus will cost about $431,000 as against an es timate of $631,000 for propelling by steam. The equipment includes two 18,-000-h.p., 2200-r.p.m. turbine genera tors and four induction motors. The ered at the generator, and that there will be a loss of only eight per cent in the electrical equipment. The ef ficiency of electric drive is far ahead of that of the most efficient steam drive now in existence on any of the large Atlantic liners. A feature of electric propulsion not obtainable with steam propulsion is full power in backing. Full speed astern with electric propulsion means almost as many knots per hour as full speed ahead. this is an im portant military feature. If success ful it promises to revolutionize the present methods of propelling all our warships. Probably the Truest Form of Lev. There Is a love which can And it n. expression In sympathy and .U happiness In understanding. -Johm 1 Oliver Hobbes. Espoirt Adlvfc For ttUn Queries and Replies Covering Matters of Importance to the Man Who Rum a Car What ar th methods used in finding th tie rod bolt center position in re lation to king bolt center on a front axle for both tie rod in front and tie rod in rear of the axle? Ar the wheel base and tread of a car of importance in finding these position? The steering arms are aligned so that their center lines Intersect at the cen tral point of the rear axle. This iilljin ment Is independent to some extent ol the wheel alignment, as both wlieeli may be correctly cambered and pith ered, with one of the steering arms n' a faulty augle. In moving strainlit ahead this would have no effect, but tn turning the wheels do not run on a true circle, so that both wheels are subjected to a tire grinding. The same effect results from the tie being too short or too long. To determine whether or hot the steering connections are properly made It is necessary to know that the an gle of the steering arms and the axle spindles is right, and that the tie rod is of the right length. Both of these depend upon the distance apart of the steering king bolts and on the wheel base of the car. Measuring the angles of the steering car, as made with the axle, the correct angle that the steering arms on the car should make with the car is found. Frequently in lining up the wheels of a car the. steering connections are thrown out by lengthening or shorten ing the tie rod to get the proper gather. This should never be done, as improper gather is usually the result of bent wheel spindles. The tire wear result ant from bad wheel setting is obviated at the expense of a serious wear on account of faulty steering. How can I prevent the body of my car from squeaking, th body being all teel except th dashboard? Th queaking appears to be all in th dashboard. Body squeaks can be eliminated by lubricating the rubbing parts that cause this noise or by stopping their relative movement As a rule, though. it is extremely difficult to locate the exact poiut at which the noise occurs. Get some one to listen for the squeaks while you drive the car slowly over a rough road. Having found where the trouble is, a little lubricating oil or grease will stop the noise, or if it Is due to the looseness of adjacent parts the squeaks can be stopped by tighten ing up these parts. Can you suggest something which will claan out th radiator of my car, which has become clogged? Havo tried soda without effect. The proper solution to use in clean ing out a clogged radiator depends upon whut particular impurity has clogged It up. Usually this happens through a deposit of solid material from the cooling water which forms on the Interior of the entire cooling system. Soda quite frequently will dissolve this, but some deposits do not respond to this treatment The sltua tiou is the same as that of steam boil ers, and some of the boiler compounds probably will be valuable. It is sug gested that you send a sample of the water employed to a water compound manufacturer, who can then, upon analysis of the water, determine the proper cleaning compound to supply. There are a number of radiator cleaners manufactured especially for motor cars, and they may be beneficial. I th clutch of th disk type if th car is managed by th clutch coming against a round flat piece of metal? No. The disk clutch consists of a se ries of metal plates, face to face, alter nte ones being connected to the engine and the others to the transmission. When these are pressed together by a spring they all turn together. The device you refer to is the clutch brake to keep the clinch from spinning. My motor overheats. It steams when driven eight or ten miles. Would too much oil causes this, as it smokes at th exhaust? The use of too much oil for any length of time will cause carbon to de posit on the piston and cylinder head and thus cause the motor to heat. If misfiring is evident and loss of power, then treat the motor as one badly car bonized. However, the heating may be due to other things besides carbon. The motor should not be operated with the spark retarded too far, and the brakes should not drag. The water system must of course, be free from obstructions. If the pistons are poorly fitted or the rings worn excessively l he oil will work up Into the combus tion chamber, deposit carbon and cause heating. Try to do as little interme diate and low gear work as possible. I have always considered that speed was an indication of power, but my car' performance on hill does not bear m out in this. Why is it? Ueganling the relation of speed and horsepower, there is no definite Inter relationship between the two and no rule which states that the maximum horsepower is being exerted at maxi mum speed. In fact, the contrary la the case. The motor may continue to revolve at a greater speed after th power curve has reached Its peak. What is th reason for heating .tha mixture befor it goe to the cylinder for combustion? The only reason that we preheat fuel is to thoroughly vaporize it In other words, for a given volume and a given mixture a great umount of heat units will hp contained in the cooler charge provided that both are completely va porized. The reason for this Is that the heut expands the charge, thereby permitting a smaller number of units of discharge to be contained In a giv en volume. The fact that some of the heat milts which would ordinarily be lost are returned to actual use by pre heating the cbiiw Is a factor In the situation and dues reduce the differ ence betweeu the two conditions, but it Is doubtful if us many heal units would be given up iu this maimer as would be !t by having n preheated charge. The practical side i.f the question, how ever, is one wlii, li must be looked upon. With the gasoline iliat we are now get ting it Is necessary to use heated air If the best lesiilis are to lie attained; otherwise I lie fuel will uot be vaporiz ed, especially during cold weather. How many teeth are needed for a two to on and two and a half to on ratio? The gears should be such that there are twice as many teeth on the large gear us there are ou the small gear, in order to get a two to one ratio. For a two and one-half to one there should be two and one-half times as many teeth on the large gear as there are on the small one. The ratio may be ob tained jvltb an iutiuite number of com binations. The size of the gearcase will determine the size of the gears, and then the shape and distance be tween teeth must be found to get tha number of teeth needed. I there any possible way in which I can install a pressure feed oiling sys tem on my car? It has a splash system at present. It might be possible to install this pressure feed, but it would not be ad visable. In the first place, a great amount of special engineering work would be required and many new parts, such as a hollow crankshaft and the pump itself. This would en tall a great outlay of money which would not be Justifiable, because, aft er the system bad been worked out and installed on the motor, the under taking would, in every sense of the word, be an experiment Any trou bles you may have been having with your oiling are probably not due to the original design, but to some local de fect which has come up and which can probably be readily cured In a much more simple way than by altering the entire system. 1 Should th clutch be thrown out on rough roads? The clutch should be thrown out and the brake applied slightly when deep ruts are encountered, and many drivers make riding easier by period ically throwing the clutch on rough roads. If the motor will pull slowly there is no reason, however, for throw ing out the clutch. What valve timing should on us on a two cylinder opposed motor with a bora of four and a quarter and a stroke of four and a half? Since the valve timing which will give Ideal results for any given motor is a variable quantity and depends largely upon such details as manifold design, the only thing which can be done Is to give an approximate timing, from which you can vary iu one direc tion or the other until you attain the best results. If the cams are already made and tn the motor you can only place them so that the valve openings will correspond with those given and allow the closing to take care of Itself. A fairly average timing which should give good results is as follows: Intake valve opens ten degrees after upper dead center and closes thirty-five de grees past lower dead center. Exhaust valve opens forty degrees before lower center and closes five degrees past up per center. Does it harm a high tension magneto that is, where a car is run by on alone to shut off the (park going down hill and brako with your gears? Is this th best thing to do on a steep hill? And could this harm the cylinders? It does not harm a high tension mag neto to do this, as no mechanical strain is put upon It. and naturally it does not generate current when switched off. The practice of using the motor as a brake will not harm the cylinders, but it is said to put considerable wear on the gears, due to the reversed ac tion of the reduction that Is. if the car should be geared four to one when the motor is acting as a brake the reduc tion acts in an opposite direction and becomes one to four. How can I stop rattling of scissor typ shock absorbers without tighten ing up th bolt until th rar rid hard? To stop rattling of scissors typ shock absorbers without taking np on the bolts until the car Is hard tiding, Insert two thin rubber disks cat from an old tube, on each aide ot each wood n washer as tarnished. by all dealers. i.: J" .3.J'y