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J i (ferity p W VOL. XXI-NO. 20 PUNTA GORDA, FLAM THURSDAY, MAY 5 1913 1.50 A YEAR Cultivation Thorough cultivation of Florida soils is an effective means of in creasing crop yields. In many cases the success or failure of a crop depends on he cultivation during the period from first plow ing to harvesting. ; Farm lands in Florida would be more produc tive if the moisture supply were controlled by judicious cultivation. Soils that were deeply plowed early in the season and have a liberal supply of humus have suf ficient moisture now stored up, to produce a good crop yield, even little or no rain should fall be tween planting and ripening, pro vided the moisture is not unneces sarily permitted to escape by evap oration or taken up by weeds. Permitting grass and weeds to grow into sod, and then . plowing the middles out with a turning plow, is almost sure to result in a low vield of corn. The scooter plow or one-horse plow is no.t suit able for cultivation; The ordinary ' sweep or small shallow working tool is better, but will not do . ..." -4 enough work per day. One of the most useful implements is the ad justable weeder. It co3ts about $12. It is light, and one horse can haul it. When working over the crop (not between the rows), it should cultivate from 8 to 10 acres per day. It can be run over corn, cotton, sweet potatoes, some vegetables and even winter pas ture crops. All the surface should be cultivated , right up to the plants. This can be repeated un- til the plants are two feet high. Then the weeder can be adjusted to run between the rows, until the crop is made. If this is done reg it arlv once a week, little or no hoeing will be necessary. A light smooth harrow will answer a similar purpose until the plants are twelve inches high, if the teeth are set so as not to tear up the crop. The surface two-horse cultiva tor with knife-like attachments working like sweeps does excel lent work. It it adjustable to any width or row, and is tnado to work shallow. It is light, and will cut tivute six to eight acres a day. It costs about 115. It straddles the row and cultivates one-half the middles n both sides. A riding two-horse cultivator would be a good investment for any farmer with 25 or more acres in cultivation, providing the land is mostly cleared frotu stumps. These machines are equipped with levers and adjustments making it possible to run between any width of row or cultivate to any desired depth. Six or eight acres per day can be cultivated when the rows are four feet apart. The machine will cost about $45. For a larger farm a better tool is the double two-horse riding cul tivator. It cultivates the entire middle of two rows, will cover from 14 to 17 acres per day. It has various attachments and will cost about $55. Such machines have many uses. The Diverse Spring Tooth Cul tivator is especially good for keep ing down Bermuda or nut-grass in cultivated crops. The long spring teeth will cover most of the grass they fail to tear out, and if the Implements srrass is kept below the surface -A the roots will soon die. The im plement has two sections with leveiv for each. When cultivating between rows, if it is desirable to throw some dirt up to the plants the levers are thrown backward while to throw the 'dirt to the middle the levers must be shifted forward. The cultivator is also equipped with fenders, so that the row may be straddled WORLD WIDE CAMPAIGN Foe the Protection of Migratory Birds . Sentiment Developing When Congress passed the Weeks-McLean law to give Feder al protection to migratory birds throughout the United States, was winning only a skirmish in campaign that will soon be world wide. The next step is internation al action in behalf of certain spe ties of birds that are in danger o: becoming extinct. Senator Root has already introduced a resolution requesting the President to pro pose to other American countries that they join in negotiating treat ies to protect migratory birds. Even in Europe, which in some respects is behind our country in such matters, there is new interest hi the movement to protect birds. In a recent address in London. Lord Curzon made a strong pleaJ for better laws to preserve the song birds and the insect-eating bird of Great Britain, and also for laws to regulate if not wholly to prevent, traffic in the skins and plumage of tropical birds. Ho pointed out that this traffic, of which London, Paris and New York are the great .markets, will soon result in exterminating the birds of paradise of New Guinea, tha white egret of China and other lands, and the beautiful humming birds of Brazil and the West Indies. In three of the six sales held in Lonuon in lim, no fewer than 20,700 birds of para dise were sold. The tame sales included 120,000 specimens of the egret, and 41,000 humming-birds. The same, destruction is in store for many other beautiful species that, every year are killed out in vast numbers to tickle the vanity of women. Tho laws that Lord Curzon sug gested go to the root of the mat ter. So long as the law permits women to wear theskins andfeath ers of birds, men will deal in them and there can be no effective way to guard the species. Those who profit by the traffic will fight the proposed, legislation. But if the European and American women of wealth and fashion would only heed Lord Curzon, how prompt ami far-reaching the victory for the birds would bel There is some excuse for the poor peasant of southern Europe who, to satisfy his hunger, 'kills a nightingale or a warbler. There is no excuse for the women who encourage the slaughter of birds to adorn themselves a slaughter all the more wicked because in many cases the plumage that is de sired can be got only at the nest ing season, when the killing of the old birds means the starving of the cultivating both sides at once, and the dirt thrown to 'the plants or m away from them as desired. The mulch harr w does good work, especially when crops are nearlv mature. The tooth bars are slightly curved downward so as to conform to the rows. The Iaitam n1-ii-t.jf ci (Ka a n rvt A rf tKa . ' . ..' , ,, A .. , teeth so that they run quite deep when it is thrown forward. By shifting the lever backward the J imntmnt Worn amoothinir u ' a i i .ki crust on the surface, ll has about sixteen teeth, arranged as with the cost is approximately $7. The ordinary one-horse culti vator, used mostly in vegetable elds, does good work in tall crops working between the rows when the crop is about mature. The best of these machines are equip ped behind with rake-like attach ments to smooth the ridges made by the cultivator feet, and drag out or bury the grass and weeds. Most riding cultivators have va rious attachments suitable for dif ferent crops. One of the most useful of these U the three disk attachment, especially in making . u-l m t makinir the beds thev ara slill too flat, the disks mnv he set tn thrnw " the soiV higher when going over thehfldfiflflRond time. Thaaama'flUknnltivRWn h used for cultivating the beds after the Plants are crowing or for . : m m .t. with theseisksl and then rever. ing on the same row so as to force . ' , the loose soil back. (The fender attachment between the plants and inner disks prevents covering the small plants.) This can be repeated until the plants hxve made a considerable arrowth. A. P. Spencer, Florida Experiment Station. IMMENSE PREPARATIONS Chattanooga's Plans for Entertain ing Confederate Veterans In commemoration of the bloods battle at-Cbickamauga 50 years ago Chattanooga announces perfection of the plans for entertainment of the United Confederate Veterans and the Sons who- will hold their 23rd annual Reunion May 27-29. High officials of the G. A. K. state that Chattanooga's expendi- tures for entertainment and amuse- ment, etc., will be on a more lav- ish scale than was ever necessary C . I - - - . or meir meetings, even surpass- ing the high water mark at Los Angeles. It is expected in Chattanooga that upward of 12,000 veterans will be tendered free lodging and meals at Camp Alexander P. Stew- art. Some fellow with a love for statistics has figured that this means the service of 144,000 free meals in the course of four days. The requisite number of Govern- ment tents and cots have been loan- ed by the War Department. The year 1913 will perhaps mark the ast pilgrimage of most of the vet- erans or lsbd to grouud made sacred by the heroes of the Blue andGJayoa the heights and in the shadow of Lookout Mountain, vouner ones, " xms, says ine ijonuon limes, ' J vy) I : n ..li. t I .1 ! L ..t ", uaiumriu tturvmg in an its pris tine cruelty." ion. -Youth's Com pan- Florida Board of Health lhe people of Florida have come to have such a strong senti- inent of confidence in Board of Health that a its State threat of impending epidemic has few fears .. .. vM." J3' he be I, eve that how- fr s:, eat the danger, this b.ard Will IVOVI if r4T risers. J m I " " . lv vu JU8b uuw they don't know, but somehow. J0 pest,,ence or ma,,P over" tak.e any ."J tim. SCIENTIFIC GARDENING Efforts to Improve What we Have are of Recent Date The agriculture department of our federal government has now some thirty thousand vegetable importations which are being "as similated," while we are to be ed ucated to their use and cultivation". since tne Asiatic civilizations are 0,d?r than by 80 man y ce? lurie8 Bnu 8,nt:o BOU1 W.UHjir A " J I i i i 1 1 a i PeoP,e.8 nave jen. compeuea .d7 necessnyas wen as leau uy me Pecu,iar bent of their mind8 to ex" I ; i ;.l i 1 J if penmeniwuanafcurai prouueuons il is sonab!e to believe that; we can find among them many yege- taD,es Jf not some, snimals, that won,d. be valuable to us. Until me wizaru i3uroanK oegan m m- vestigations we were . content . to prove the acquisitions we had i i : i i - I l UJB 10 , 1 n even inie.ngem enoris w im Pv WUttb "au " UUb U1 cent date. While the government may waste many dollars as it did in experiments with tea culture, we may promise ourselves ' that something more valuable will be found than was implied in the proposition that we eat bamboo shoots or in proporal of a kindred department that sharks become an article 0 food. W e seem now to have narrowed our ideas somewhat and to content ourselves with se curing the seeds or roots of vege- tables already brought to an ac ceptable condition at first hand. Coming into possession of a new world it would seem that the En ropean might have done more than he has accomplished along these lines the barbarian gave us maize. and we have not troubled ourselv- es to repeat the experiment with other wild plants that might have . 11 ? - II ? proved useiui unuer more iniein gent handling; wo have accepted the foods we found in use and have seldom troubled ourselves about other wild plants that might have been made useful. We have improved the pecan, for instance, but why not take a fine variety of the scale bark hickory and do something for its fruit? One of these varieties in the South is naturally much finer than the native pecan. Many plants which in a wild state furnished food to the aborigines have been entirely neglected Florida has many of these wbich are remark able both for their nutritive quali ties and for their beauty. If the danger of exhaustion really hangs over our land we might adaDt its . . .. , lnutnt.nl ni'nnnpiinna tn mnro .). . Iu j TTuninrpa than imrfrtfl Q n H nnan " " " rw wuau ,mllf0H vnriAt aa. h nrwk Timaa Union. 'Tis the good old summertime. Board jor help and salvation. They make it the last resort al though the organization would prefer to be first. It advocates and work 'always for prevention and to war off the necessity of- curative Rssitance. . , r : It is clothed with mighty power in its control of the sanitary situ ation. Its rules have the force of law without'the special enactments of the Legislature, but it prefers to control through, reason and per suasion, rather than by arbitrary methods. According to the high est legal authorities , in the State, this . Board has the . authority to enforce compulsory vaccination, but it has mtver used . this power and probably it never will. Its record since its organization, 25 years ago, has been that of in creasing efficiency. 'This record is familiar to all who have resided in Florida since ' the board began its existence.' Dr. Brunner, of Savannah, one of the highest med ical and sanitary authorities in the South, said in a recent public ad dress: "With the exception of Florida, not a State in the South has a Board of Health worthy of the name.". ' K :v , - , The equipment of the Board at present is ample and well fitted to deal with any acute health ' prob lems that toay rise. ' It has three laboratories for the accurate diag nosis of communicable diseases, one at Jacksonville, one at Tampa and the third at Pensacola. It has an able man in charge of the vet- eafaary department, who has two assistants. It has a corps of as sistants in the field working for (be prevention and suppression of disease among Florida's citizens. It maintains an educational svs- tern of lectures and publications by and through which it is gradu ally bringing about a better under standing of things that make for sickness and health. As its headquarters the Board occupies its own building at Jack sonville, constructed at a cost of about forty thousand dollars, on a lot donated by the city, which is worth at present market values not far from fifty thousand dol lars. The building is of "brick and reinforced concrete and is admir ably adapted for its purposes. The board also has its own build ing at Tampa, a brick edifice cost ing about seventeen thousand dol lars on a lot donated by ' the city. The laboratory of Pensacola is quartered in the municipal build ing, rent free. The total value of real estate holdings by the board is between $135,000 and $140,000- The Board furnishes free to the citizens of Florida, laboratory ex aminations, diptheria "antitoxins, typhoid vaccine, tetanus antitox ins for the indigent when used for prophylactic, or preventive pur poses, the Pasteur treatment for the indigent,, and smallpox vac cine free to everybody who pre fers it to the disease itself. It sends out literature free on any and all diseases affecting roan or the lower animals; it makes exami nations of sanitary conditions everywhere, and on request it gives lectures on public health matters. Jacksonville Metropo lis.