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SILVER Taken in Exchange for Fresh, Staple anil Faney Groceries At popular Free Silver Prices. o B. M. JOHNS!) 'JN & BROS Keep a full eupplv of Fresh Groceries constantly on hand which they are «eiling at small margins. Goods delivered free. See our new line of Furnishing Goods which has just arrived. B. M. JOHNSON & BROS TJR ANCII, MARTIN, 1 Eye and Ear, Phoenix, A rT. . ' .WEBSTER STBBB T. C. M. FRAZIE TREET <fc FRAZIER, LAW YERS, Rooms 7 and 8, Flern- Bl ck', Phoenix, Arizona. d* M. W. BRACK. Physician and Surgeon. Office and residence at the late residence of J. ‘Patterson, Mesa, A. T Diseases of women and Obstetrics a Specialty. . ■ ;i ■ ■ ; 'YUfTT; —, ; ' \ JJR J. W. BAILEY, —DBat > K Chemicals, FANCY AnD TOILET ARTICLES panges, brushes, Perfumery,] Bte MESA ARIZONA £1 J. WILLIAMS, s o lectio Physician and Surgeon 1 \ WILL ATTEND ALL CALLS PROMPTLY —Li— ✓ tiTChronfc diseases of women a specialty. Office: One door North of Bee- Hive Store Mesa, - - Arizona .X' - rr i . ... K DRANK. Physician and Surgeon. Office: One door west of the Pomeroy Block. Calls attended at ail times. H. C. LONG MO RE, Physician <fc Surgeon ——_ Office at residence, 2 miles west of Mesa. -r, ft--, W. D.MORTON. A. P.BHEWMAN. MORTON 4 SIEWIAI Attorneys-at-Law. Mesa City, - Arizona. Will practice in all the Court* of the Terri tor •rerament land business a specialty. Got ectiohs promptly made. City Attorneys otary Public in office. eoositions taken rd< pensions applied (or. K jWOmon—ArliiKton Block. M«*aCitj Mesa Free Press. THE ALHAMBRA Mrs. E. I. Long, Prop. Nicely furnished rooms by the day, week or month. Rates Reasonable. J H. BARNETT, Dealer in Medicines,' Chemicals, Paints, Oils, Glass, etc.; Perfumery, Fancy goods, Stationery, Toilet Articles and Tobacco. Mesa. Arizona. W. A. BURTON, OONT R ACTOR -and- BUILDER. Estimates Furnished on Short Notice. MESA, - - Ariz SE WING mens —AT— ONE-HALF THE REGULAR PRICES. I I jgjrAlso Furniture and Baby Carriages. At 60tt West Washington Street. R M. BOND. MESA CITY, ARIZONA, FRIDAY, AUGUST 21, 1898. IRRIGATION IN THE SOUTH WEST. \ The following letter written by James .Wood to the Country Gen tleman |is based on a personal visit to this country last spring, but was only recently written while the correspondent was on a voyage across the Atlantic and mailed from Europe to the publishers, on arrival: During the month of April I made an examination of the agri cultural results of irrigation in southerd California, Arizona and New Mexico that proved of very great interest to me, and now, while on my way to examine a very dif ferent agriculture m another quar ter of the globe, I desire to give some account of the wouderful re sults achieved in a remote section of our own country. What I may find in the three Scandinavian countries remains to be seen, but Dam confident I will nowhere wit ness the earth bringing forth such bounteous returns for human effort as she does in a portion of Ameri ca. Os course almost everyone knows that throughout the great middle region west of the Missis sippi, and on nearly to the Pacific, agriculture is largely dependent upon irrigation. The normal rain fall is insufficient for the growth of crops. It requires 24 inches of water to ensure any crop of value and much more than this to make agriculture profitable. In the vast region named, this quantity is not obtained. The great mountain ranges, however, catch the moisture bearing currents of air and cause the precipitation of rain and snow that supplies the streams which furnish the means of irrigating the land that lie along their course. Fortunately for this region, there are a number of plants, including some valuable grasses, that grow where the rainfall is very light, and thesa furnish food for the great herds of cattle and flocks of sheep that live and grow upon the vast ranges of w’hich we have heard so much and which have proved to be a great fountain of stock whose streams run into the corn growing districts where they fattened for the eastern markets, The buffalo grass, growing short and curling close to the ground, once furnished food for the great herds of bison that roamed over the region, and which, alas, are uow extinct; but domestic cattle have taken t)he plaoe of the aboriginal herds, and are cropping these native grasses too closely to allow of proper seed ing and reproduction. What the result of this will be remains to be seen, but already it is becoming serious in the diminished food sup ply. The results of irrigation in south ern California are well known. The production of citrus fruits and many other valuable products is almost entirely dependent upon it. The achievements of a quarter of a century excite our wonder and ad miration. But great as these are they are not so striking and im-* pressive as are the results obtained within a very few years in the ter ritory as Arizona, where the desert has truly been made to blossom with roses, and the strange and viscous cacti have given place to the choicest fruits and| most pre cious crops produced from the soil in any quarter of the earth. The desert of Arizona is vast and in itself forbidding. Extending north and south nearly through its central portion is a great whale- back rise of land that reaches sev en or eight thousand feet in height and through which the Colorado river has cut the immense canyon that surpasses in extent and depth and wonder all the others of the world. This high land catches tha cur rents of air from the Pacific, and, extracting their moisture, has, as a result growths of grass and forests of pine. But here are the only na tive trees in the territory worthy of the name. AH else are but brush or straggling specimens by the feeble water-courses. Through the southern portion of the territory, south of the highlands described, in its hottest and most ard district, flow the Salt and Gila Rivers, fed from the melting snows of high mountains, and which unite and empty into the Colorado. Here the Pima and Maricopa Indians have lived and have grown limited crops of wheat and barley by a rude and limited system of irriga tion. Long before them a prehis toric race, of whom we know noth ing whatever except in the traces of their work that still remain, and whom for the want of a truer name we call Aztecs, irrigated these val leys on an extensive scale. Their great canals bear witness to their skill in hydraulio enineering and , the ruins of their towns and villag es tell of their great numbers. Lieut, Gushing estimates that a population of at least 250,000 souls once resided here. They were prob ably the same people as the cliff and cave dwellers, whose deserted houses so excite our wonder today. The development of irrigation in the Salt River valley in a few years is illustrated by the growth of the town of Phoenix to the pro portions of a city. Water has done it. A number of small canals were consolidated by the Arizona Improvement Company, which now supplies the water through a com plete system that irrigates some thing like 150,000 acres of land. The surface of the ground is per fectly adapted to convenient irri gation. It has just the uniform slope that permits the water to flow in every portion with the velocity that gives rapid distribu tion without washing. If water is discharged at the northeast corner of any tract, however large or small, it can be easily conducted everywhere upon it. This is a most important matter for economi cal management. The conditions of the Salt River valley are almost identical with those of the valley of the Nile. The climate is almost exactly that of Egypt, and every foot of ground is desert, except where water per forms its magic work. Here is no annual inundation, as along the Nile, but almost the same result is obtained by copious winter irriga tion, which so completely fills the soil with water that evaporation and seepage do not exhaust it throughout the season. But as along the Nile the greatest results are obtained by supplementing this with additional water throughout the year ; so a like treatment pro duces the same result here, but here it is done much more easily and cheaply than in Egypt, where expensive pumping plants are re quired. Nowhere in Egypt have I seen such astonishing results from irrigation as in the Salt River val ley, and nowhere else in the world I have I seen such abundant crops 1 grown. Tbe corner-stone of agriculture in irrigated districts is alfalfa. It is extensively grown in Colorado and other states and territories where irrigation is employed. In the Salt River valley its growth is phenomenal Five or six crop? are sometimes cut in a year. Here, where frost is unknown, there are 365 growing days in the year. All fruits ripen earlier than Hse where in the United States. Last year the orange crop was fully ripe in November and this spring sipri ‘■>cts were ripe by the 10th of May. Citrus and deciduous fruits receive constant irrigation, in carefully gradnated quantities. Eastern markets are reached by branches to the Southern Pacific railroad to the south and to the Atlantic & Pacific, known as the Santa Fe route, to the north One cannot help wondering what will be the result of all this mar velous development of production. Here the desert is practically lim itless. The water supply alone determines where the limit shall be. For the present this sufficient tor all purposes, and in the future by storage it can be greatly ex tended. In so far as these irriga ted districts furnish grain and an imals, they admonish us that the excessive production that has so crippled our eastern agriculture by its competition has not yet reached its limit, while the growers of cit rus fruics throughout the world will find their most dangerous rival to be advancing with resistless strides. I have sought in vain for a satis factory analysis of these desert soils. The territorial experiment station could not supply me with the desired information. The food supply seems to be abundant and exhauslless. The disintegration of rock containing feldspar has fur nished the potash; the Crustacea of a former geological period have furnished the phosphoric acid, and the nitrogen, from whatever source it came, has remained undissolved in the soil that has never known of rain. Time has left these quietly stored for man to use by the ap plication of nature’s sole agent in feeding plants—water The small town df Werda, in the kingdom of Dahomey, is celebrated for a loathsome den called the Temple of Serpents. It is a long building dedicated to tbe priests and mystery men of the kingdom, and in it they keep thousands of snakes of all kinds and sizes. These slimy, crawling creatures literally own the village, as well as the temple, which has been erected for their special accommodation, and may be seen hanging from the rafters and door posts of any house pi the town. In Werda to kill a serpent is a crime punishable by death. The serpents in the sacred temple are fed by a regular corps of hunters, who are paid for their services out of the public ex chequer. An Irishman got out of his car riage at a railway station for re freshments, but the bell rang and the train left before he could finish his repast. “Hould on 1” cried Pat as he ran like a madman after the car, “hould on. ye murther’n ould stame injin, youv’e a passen ger on board that’s left behind.” Despite the feminine name Al* iceton Wis., is the only town in the country without one woman inhabitant. Its population is about 100. ABOUT CANAIORE. The following extract irora Bulletin No. 21 of tin* Arizona experiment station will give ihe information asked by many as to whether canaigre may be grown in their respective localities : The best conditions for the growth of canaigre are a cool, bu* not freez ing climate, a moderate amount of moisture, sandy, fertile soil, and probably, also, a sunny and arid atmosphere. These conditions are nowhere combined more perfectly or for a longer peri d of the year than during the six or seven cooler months in the arid south west... A mean temperature of about 70 de grees or less is required for the growth of canaigre. Above this, even though there be abundant rain, as was the case in August, the roots will not do more than sprout feebly, and various attempts to make them grow in warm weather have failed. This seems to limit canaigre to the southwest, for nowhere else, excepting pos sibly in some southern stutes, is there so long a period of mild weather. It has been grown ex perimentally in Florida with Rome success, but iu the northern states the interval between the severe cold of winter and the extreme heat of summer is too short to al low of much root development. The sprouting of the roots in August under the influence of rain sug gests that in the culture of canaigre one or two summe** irrigations would prepare the plant to gr »w more promptly on the advent of cool weather. “The growing plant will stand a good deal of cold. The fros’ed leaves lie prostrate upon the ground, but immediately regam position when thawed out by the sun. The root also will endure freezing. It has been left in tho ground all winter sixty miles north of New York subjected to a temperature as low as 15 degrees below zero vithout injury. At Lincoln, Nebraska, the roots stood a very severe winter without any damage whatever. At Peoria, Illinois, plantings made in 1892 were still alive in 1895, and similar results are noted at Washington, D. 0., and Garden City, Kansas. The new root development, how ever, is stated in a number of cases to be insignificant under such con ditions. “A.B to locality, canaigre is fouad more commonly in sandy washes where water is more abun dant. With irrigation it- will make a good growth in any fertile, tillable ground, but the influence of soil conditions on actual pro duction has been little studied. It seems to stand considerable alkali and is even reported in the salt grass meadows of Tia Juana valley, near San Diego, California.” In order to put down the Cuban rebellion Martinez Campos esti mates that it will require 400,000 men. That will be almost one soldier to every four living inhab itants of the island, white and black, counting m women, babies and helpless old men. That is what Spain has come to in her de generate days. Greater New York consists of forty-five island*, just as many as there now stars in our flag, Fashionable young ladies in Ja pan, when they des’re to look very attractive gild their lips. !\O. 4(5.