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THE HOLBROOK NEWS. HOLBROOK, ARIZONA, JULY 1, 1021.
BETTER "2et It Is a Debt to the Country That Falls ROADS Upon All of Us' áu LT l dc-silii l V M ZC -XL " FUNDS FOR BUILDING' ROADS By GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, Chief of Staff, U. S. A. Sum of $622,000,000 Available for Highway and Bridge Construction and Maintenance. Prepared by the U. 8. Department of Agriculture.) Approximately $022,000,000 is now known to be available for road and bridge construction and maintenance during the year 1D21, according to in formation sent to the bureau of public roads, United States Department of Agriculture, by the several state high way departments. Should pending legislation be passed by congress and additional appropriations be made for federal aid, this sum would be in creased by the amount of the federal The approximate amounts available our rights would never have been violated, nor our safety threatened. to each of the states from local, state, '"SW Our nnfiít.ion and infliiAnri in world affairs are not measured by our wealth and population, nor yet bjj our free and liberal form of government, but by our purpose to maintain the high principles of justice and humanity upon which our institutions are founded. The fulfillment of this purpose in turn depends upon the solidity of the government and our readiness to defend its integrity. Our success in the war was not due to forethought in preparedness, but to exceptional circumstances which made it possible to prepare after war had been declared. It is my belief that if America had been adequately prepared, tm In discussing preparedness it should be remembered that our tradi tions are opposed to the maintenance of a large standing army. Our wars have practically all been fought by citizen soldiery. But we have persist ently failed to train our citizen-soldier in time of peace, and waited until war was upon us before making any move to that end. "While recognizing the principle that every citizen may be called as a soldier, we have never emphasized the obligation of the individual to prepare himself to serve his country. Yet it is a debt to the country that falls upon all of us. From a purely military standpoint our policy should provide first, a permanent military establishment large enough to guard against sudden attack ; second, a force sufficient to meet our international obligations, particularly on the American continent; third, such force as may be nec essary to meet our internal requirements; fourth, a trained citizen reserve i3JE27ci!SSZ25?L4?B organized to meet the emergency of war. In the preparation of our young manhood for service in defense of their country, there are many personal benefits that the course of training would bring. It would develop the physical vigor and manliness of our ycuth and sharpen their mentality. It would teach self-discipline and respect for constituted authority. As recent experience has shown, it en- courajres initiative and irives voune men confidence in their abilities. The thought and the act of preparation for service increase their patriotism. Association with men from all walks of life strikingly emphasizes our democracy. The training broadens the views and increases the value of , our youth as citizens. It is especially needed among -our alien population, Hard Surface Road Builc by, Federal . and State Funds. and federal sources for road and bridge expenditure are: Alabama, $9, 000,000; Arizona, $8,000,000; Arkan sas, $12,000,000; California, $26,000,- 000; Colorado, $7,000,000; Connecticut, a large percentage of whom are illiterate. o,wu,wy ; Lwiaware, f),ouu,wv; nor- Ida, $7,725,000; Georgia, $10,000,000; Idaho, $4,500,000; Illinois, $20,000,000; Indiana, $9,500,000; Iowa, $37,000, 000; Kansas, $20,000,000; Kentucky, $8,000,000; Louisiana, $6,000,000; Maine, $7,500,000; Maryland, $4,800,- fifi4' ñ " h . . x' nil ? duite, Jut LZZT " . r tag jt I . . ' Í ' lilt i , irf x ! - . r . 3 JX IJP 0- 2)tJLr& lj L7JU. ffL UMTLV STATES J W OT AMERICA. L. CrJLCMnM. I ' AVl In considering a reserve, we already have a nucleus in our trained units that have had experience in the war. I refer to the units of the National Guard as well as those of the so-called national army. They have returned with traditions, history, pride of service, and high ideals of gether." citizenship, all of which together constitute a valuable asset in any organi- Ve ,mu" "jeea a" hanS together," replied benjamin rankiln of Pennsylvania, "or most as- By JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN. HEN in 1176 the president of the Second Continental Congress put his "John Hancock" to "A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America In General Con gress Assembled" he wrote it so large and so plain that he then and there gave to the American language a new and enduring synonym. "There 1" said the delegate from Massachusetts, "George III will be able to read that without his spec tacles." And as he touched it nn and blackened the heavy strokes of the auill he remarked to his fellow delegates: But we must be unanimous : there must he no pulling different ways. We must all hang to- w y7 tSsispí i4 7ft .. iTiifa, 000; Massachusetts, $8,000,000; Mlchi- zation. I should like to see those divisions held together, retaining their suredy we hall all hflnr ZtLu,n pun S2ononnno- unnnoantn no w . I . . .. . . .... , , "l" ulult separately. Mm officers in so far as their efficiency records show them capable of perform ing the duties of their respective grades. I would retain the organization of these divisions and utilize them as reserve divisions into which the young men would pass as they come from the army or finish in the train ing camps. We Americans of 1921 can read a lot between the lines of these two historic utterances, if we do a little digging Into before-the-Revolutlon American history enough digging to get a clear iaea or what brought about the Declaration of Independence. And it is every good American's t-q tnlntli Att-wr 3A a. 1 1 - In a reserve army it should be pointed out that there is great neces- ft now? WoTSSZTZ sity for a large number of thoroughly trained officers, not only for the I same brush but to use more time-honored Amer- combat troops, but for the various staff corps and departments, including Ican similes It's dollars to doughnuts that the t,0 cra-n coff T1,p rvffinor. nniiM bo vorv .rrfnllv and Ac " "a6 -"-tiu uumt Know enougn to mst 6 ' - j j ' i mm gan, $20,000,000; Minnesota, $20,0O0, 000; Miss'jssippl, $11,000,000; Mis souri, $15,000,000; Montana, $8,500, 000; Nebraska, $6,000,000; Nevada, $3,500,000; New Hampshire, $2,500,- 000; New Jersey, $16,000,000; New Mexico, $4,000,000; New York, $55, 000,000; North Carolina; $6,500,- 000 ;t North Dakota, $7,000,000; Ohio, $35,000,00; Oklahoma, $8,000,- 000; Oregon, $10,000,000; Pennsyl , , , - t V-, I hue t;ciiciai oiau xucoc o duvuaa ii.ii aAw.uur bwuvu uuu, i Lim v . . . 700000? Sonth Parol inn.. .0(10.000 r Z. .. , , , , ,i...x - luo out auuui uie muses leauiDg up ,.fh fwoto ernmiim. rn.J pending upon ís quaiincauons, eacn snouia nave a aenniui assignment to the Revolution. And as for the Declaration it- ecu iic ivuiuu t lu save iiis me teu wuti c imil vl it means. This is a bad business in itself and it's especially bad right now. For we are going to have a new kind of Fourth of July celebration in the United States of Amer ica. The Fourth has quit being the day of fire works and casualties. And in the new kind of Fourth of July celebration the Declaration of In dependence will come to its own as the crowning touch of public observance, The American Rev olution is the greatest stepping-stone in the march of the centuries toward freedom and the Declara tion of Independence is its symbol. Though the Declaration of Independence is to come back to its own, the new Fourth will not be the day when the American Eagle screams and the orator bawls because Uncle Sam handed John Bull a K O a century and a half ago. There are two reasons for this. One is the World war. John Bull and Uncle Sam bow stand shoulder to shoulder in defense of ail that our common race holds dear of personal freedom and political IdealsX The other Is the fact that the Revolution was not a quarrel between two peoples the British people and the American people. It was, in its $10,275,000; Texas', $60.000,000; Utah! to some particular unit or headquarters. An especial effort should be made to retain in the reserve those officers, and men as well, who during the war performed their duties efficiently. There is a moral side to the sort of training in question. Our experi ence in the war proved that in the association of young men together for a common purpose there was developed not only a new sense of patriotic obligation, but a very high moral attribute in the individual $6,000,000; Vermont, '$2,000,000; Vir ginia, $10,000,000; Washington, $14,- 000,000; West Virginia, $3,000,000; Wisconsin, $19,500,000; Wyoming, $3,- 000,000. DIRT HIGHWAYS ARE EASIEST Unpaved Country Roads Cause Least Wear on Tires, While Slag la Most Destructive. The much maligned dirt road finds a champion in a Denver tire manufac turer, who asserts that exhaustive tests show that the unpaved country road canses the least tire wear. But the road mu3t be in good condition, with no ruts to wear against the side walls of the tire. When properly dragged, the unpaved country road is found to generate less heat in the tire than any other type of road. "Books Broaden the Vision of the Farmer and Increase His Success" By M. O. STOVER, Bloomfield Farms, Mahomet, El. Books broaden the vision of the farmer, increase his success, and give many pleasant hours to his life. The farmer has to deal with more phases Slag roads were found to be most of learning than are found in any other occupation. A profound study destructive to tires, the sharp points 0f goüg üve stock raising, rotation of crops, and marketing deals with I earlier stages at least, a strife between two difl- onnn Tiittinir fha trend with vnv hnlpn. I ... - ... . . . . ' . 1 . . erent political ana economic systems, it was no unrelated event, but formed- a part of the history W Lt c,Tsa: a fracTo; Poetically every science. In fact, the subject of agriculture is so vast that of an inch out of alignment, the tires I the successful farmer is compelled to specialize in grain, some branch of looked as if their tread had been sand- jve st0ck, or one of the many phases of intensive farming. rtanfipovl o ft ay nnlv o -four hnnra' tr xrol I V""-"-" - -" t. . i. i . j iv. t j. ; j Xemg Bomewnai isuiaieu uie lamict i cumpeueu uj use iuo uwu judg ment. As he deals with nature in all of her aspects he should know some thing of the constructive effects of sunshine, rain, heat and cold, and how to take advantage of them; he should know of the destructive effects of ADVANTAGES OF GOOD ROADS floods, bad seasons, insects, and how best to overcome them. With many years of practice it is possible to learn these things, but they are more readily learned from books in connection with farm practices. Asphalt pavement was found to de velop much heat, but little external wear. Macadam roads in good condi tion were found to be better than slag. Means Release to Farmer and City Man From Bondage of Rail road Discomforts. To both city man and farmer the good road means release from bond age bondage to electric, steam car Bchedules and discomforts bondage to distance bondage to time. Coun ties and states where good roads have become a steady part of a progressive program of legislation have seen val ues shoot up In most surprising fash ion, and this again has brought home the fact that good roads pay for them selves. Why on Earth Should Japan Abandon the Adoration of the Mikado?" By GILBERT K. CHESTERTON, in "Uses of Adversity" DEMAND FOR GOOD HIGHWAYS Nothing So Vital to Transportation System and Future of Automo tive Power. "Let's Preach It, Teach It and De mand Good Roads," says Orvllle D. Coppock, sales manager of the Com merce Motor Car company, Detroit. "Nothing is so vital to the transpor tation system of our country, and the future of the automotive industry as good roads." Bar Tractor From Roads. Because of its tendency to damage roads, the tractor is barred from many state, county and private highways. In spite of being thus in disrepute, however, it 1b considered indispens able in many communities for build ing, repairing and maintaining roads. Many a fine dirt toad owes its smooth ness and state of good ' repair to fre quent use of the drag or grader, pulled by a husky tractor. The plain facts, of course, are perfectly simple. Japan has borrowed our guns and telephones, but she has not borrowed our morality; and, morally speaking, I really do not see why she should. Under all Japan's elaborate armor-plating she is still the same strange, heathen, sinister, and heroic thing: she has still the two deep Oriental habits, prostration before despotism and ferocity of punishment. She Still thinks, in the eastern style, that a king is infinitely sublime : the brother of the sun and moon. She still thinks, in the eastern 6tyle, that a criminal is infinitely punishable ; "something with boiling oil in it." Why on earth should Japan abandon the adoration of the Mikado and the destruction of his enemies, merely because a scientific apparatus has made the Mikado more victorious and the destruction of his enemies more easy? of the race on both continents. There was a Brit ish revolution at the same time there was an American Revolution. The British revolution was to regain liberty. The American Revolution was to preserve liberty. On both sides of the Atlan tic ' the king's prerogatives were the aim of rev olutionary attack. Now, as to the many things that may be read between the lines of what Hancock and Frank lin said, here's just a hint: Hancock was a rich merchant. It was part of the purpose of the British troops at Lexington and Concord to cap- lure Hancock. At that time Hancock was re spondent in the Admiralty court in suits of the crown to recover nearly half a million dollars as penalties alleged to have been Incurred for viola tion of the laws of navigation ana traae. Han cock had inherited his fortune from his uncle, Thomas Hancock, who had become wealthy smug gling tea. So it was no more than right that John Hancock should sign his name large and plain to the document which, if made good, would save him from financial ruin and give him free com merce with all the world. Benjamin Franklin, publisher, printer, philos opher and statesman, seventy-one years or age, the oldest member of congress, was more con cerned with the political than with the commer cial aspects of the situation. He made a clever Jest, but no man there knew better that there Is many a true word spoken in jest. So the truth is that on our- side of the ocean the fundamental causes leading up to the Revo lution were both political and economic and pos sibly quite as much economic as political. To ar rive at the main features of the situation, the fol lowing chronology is helpful: 1760 Accession of George DX Conquest of Can ada by British. 1761 Revival of navigation and trade laws of. 1660 and 1663. Issues of "Writs of Assistance." 1764 Parliament demands that colonies pay part of debt Incurred during French and Indian war. Colonial assemblies refuse. Parliament as serts right to tax colonies. Issue of "taxation without representation" raised. 1765 Parliament passes "Quartering Act," re quiring colonies to supply quarters for British army of defense. "Stamp Act," putting tax on newspapers, and legal documents. Stamp Act Congress issues "declaration of rights." 1766 Repeal of "Stamp Act." "Declaratory Act" maintains right to tax. 1767 Townsend, British chancellor of exchequer, brings in bill for taxes on tea, glass, wine, oil, paper, lead, etc. 1768 Non-importation agreement adopted by Boston and 'spreads to other colonies. Massa chusetts legislature dissolved by George DX Brit ish soldiers quartered In Boston. 1769 Lord North repeals all taxes except on tea, retained for sake of principle. 1773 "Committees of Correspondence" formed to enable colonies to keep in touch. "Boston Tea Party." 1774 "Boston Port Bill," closing Boston to shipping and removing seat of , government to Salem. General Gage, commander of British sol diers in Boston, made governor of Massachusetts. "Regulating Act," remodeling charter of Massa chusetts. "Quartering Act" "Quebec Act" First Continental Congress at Philadelphia. . Massa chusetts Provincial Congress meets and calls for 12,000 "Minute Men." 1775 Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. Armed clash at Lexington and Concord begins hostilities. Capture of Ticon deroga and Crown Point Battle of Bunker Hill. Siege of Boston. Canadian expedition under Montgomery. Second Continental Congress at Philadelphia votes to raise army of 20,000 and chooses George Washington commander-in-chief. 1776 Evacuation of Boston by British, accom panied by 1,500 loyalists. Repulse of British fleet and army at Charleston, S. C. Battle of Long Island and occupation of New York by British. Battle of Trenton. Continental Congress pro vides for the establishment of state governments and state conventions adopt constitutions. Con gress adopts Declaration of Independence. The most casual glance at this skeleton chro nology shows It to be literally loaded to the muz zle with the eighteenth century equivalent of po litical and economic TNT. The American Revo lution was inevitable, sooner or later. The mar-' vel Is not that It came, but that out of the condi tions grew a nation. What a chaos it was ! The title to the colonies was not In the people of England or in the state, but in the crown. The crown could make and re peal laws ; could appoint rulers and remove them. -The colonists were not citizens of the realm, but subjects of the crown, having only such rights as granted them in their charters. The crown claimed and exercised the right to amend or revoke these charters. Such rights and no more did the American colonists have, according to the view of the party in England which stood for legal and constitutional prerogatives of the crown. These . claims of the crown were resisted by every col ony as incompatible with Its essential rights and by the antl-prerogatlve party in England. Of the thirteen colonies seven were royal col onies, three charter and three proprietary col onies. Each colony was related to the others only through the crown. All the conditions tended rather to intercolonial hate than love. Find the causes that drove the colonies together and there are the causes of the Revolution. George HI was a stickler for the king's pre rogatives. One of his first acts In relation to the colonies was to revive the navigation and trade laws which had been only nominally enforced for a century. As a matter of fact all the colonies were technically smugglers, In that their evasion of these laws gave them practically free trade. These laws were comprehensive and strict being designed to give British merchants a monopoly; of trade with the colonies and to protect British, manufacturers against colonial competition. War ships were now placed along the coast to stop the colonial trade with France and Spain and their West Indian colonies. The "Writs of As sistance" were general search warrants given to customs officials to enable them to break into and search any premises at any time. James Otis, the famous Boston lawyer, opposed the right of the British government to issue the writs or even to pass an act of trado Imposing a tax on the colonies. John Adams said of Otis' celebrated speech: "It breathed Into this nation the breath of Ufe." Undoubtedly this situation was one of the contributing causes of the Revolution. Then King George demanded that the colonies pay the expense of a British army of about 20, 000 men to be quartered In America to protect the colonies against the Indians. The colonies suspected the purpose of this army and would have none of it Here was the beginning of real trouble a little later. The "Boston Tea Party" was a serious affair, not in Itself, but because parliament immediate ly took measures to punish Boston and Massa chusetts. The closing of the port of Boston, the removal of the seat of government to Salem, the appointment of General Gage as governor of Mas sachusetts and the remodeling of the charter of Massachusetts constituted a warning to all the colonies that free government was In imminent danger everywhere. On top of this came the act providing that British oflicers or magistrates charged with murder or other capital crime should be tried In some other colony or in England; the act billeting soldiers on people who failed volun tarily to provide quarters and the act extending the boundaries of Quebec to the Ohio river and establishing an arbitrary form of government This cumulation of activities on the part of the crown seems to have convinced the colonies that their only salvation lay in getting together for united action. So the First Continental Congress -met This congress was merely deliberative and advisory; It Issued a declaration of rights; it formed- an association for carrying out the non importation agreement; It forwarded a petition to the king and set out an address to the col onies; It provided for another congress to meet in 1775. Still there was no open discussion of Independence. It was Massachusetts which finally set off the powder barrel. General Gage summoned the pro vincial congress to meet In Salem, but put off the date of assembling. The delegates met without him and his counsellors. They provided for the appointment of a committee of safety and issued 'a call for 12,000 "Minute Men." Parliament then declared Massachusetts to be in a state of re bellion. . Next was the expedition out of Boston to seize powder and to arrest the two chief "trait ors". , Then came the "shots heard "round the world" and bloodshed. The fight was on. And still there was no open movement for Independence until after a year of bloody fighting. It was not until June 7, 1776, in the Second Continental Congress, that Virginia's Instructed delegate, Richard Hen ry Lee, introduced the resolution beginning, "That these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and Independent states " The Declaration of Independence, as drafted by Thomas Jefferson with the aid of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin. Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston and amended by congress, consists of two principal parts : A statement of American political theories in Justification of independence and a list of abuses by King George IH that had operated to absolve the united colonies from all allegiance to the British crown. The facts here in set forth make clear most of the abuses as out lined in the Declaration. Edgar Lee Masters, Chicago Poet There may be a Chicago school of writers, but I don't know anything about it. No, the so-called Chicago school is about as purely a local product as the Chicago Cubs. And t that the Cubs have it somewhat on the school, since the ball players do most of the work on home grounds. Had It on .Bible Authority Pauline Lord, Actress The obnoxious effort of girls to attract atten tion by the short dress craze is upsetting to thoughtful people. Keep out all weeds before they get started. It is easier and cheaper. Dr. William P. Hovis, Kansas City Clergyman There must be mere religion" in the homes of America if divorce is to be curbed. Woman Easily Proved Contention as to Period Levites Gave Up Tabernacle Service. About a month before Dean Stanly died he was at a dinner at Lord Sel- borne's, former lord chancellor of Eng land. The dean said : "I feel I am get ting old," Miss Macaulay. The sister of I the historian, asked him what he had J had to give up on account of his age. The dean laughed, and replied: "Not much as yet except evening parties." Lord Selborne remarked: "I also am getting old ; I -will never take office again." Miss Macaulay ob served that the Levites used to give up active work at the age of fifty, and Lord Selborne asked where she found that piece of information. "Where should I get it except from my Bible?" was the answer. "I never noticed it in the Bible. Do you remember the fact Stanly?" the lord chancellor said. The dean shook his head and owned he did not remem ber it either. Miss Macaulay said no more, but she announced a few days later that she had found the passage; and sent It to both Lord Selborne and the dean. The passage Is Numbers 8:23 "And from the age of fifty years they shall cease waiting upon the service thereof of the tabernacle and shall serve no more." Indian Name of Quaint Old City. The Indians called a strait "Kebec" and the name was given to the site of the present city of Quebec from the peculiar configuration of the St Lawrence river at that point for the river there grows narrow and from Its deep waters rises the bold height on which the ancient city stands. The French-Canadian still pronounces the name Kebec \n\n mnlo íínnfkimft- nhnH Tolano 1 .