THE HOLBROOK NEWS. HOLBROOK, ARIZONA, JULY 1, 1021.
"2et It Is a Debt to the Country That Falls
Upon All of Us'
áu LT l dc-silii l
V M ZC -XL "
FUNDS FOR BUILDING' ROADS
By GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, Chief of Staff, U. S. A.
Sum of $622,000,000 Available for
Highway and Bridge Construction
Prepared by the U. 8. Department of
Approximately $022,000,000 is now
known to be available for road and
bridge construction and maintenance
during the year 1D21, according to in
formation sent to the bureau of public
roads, United States Department of
Agriculture, by the several state high
way departments. Should pending
legislation be passed by congress and
additional appropriations be made for
federal aid, this sum would be in
creased by the amount of the federal
The approximate amounts available our rights would never have been violated, nor our safety threatened.
to each of the states from local, state,
'"SW Our nnfiít.ion and infliiAnri in world affairs are
not measured by our wealth and population, nor yet bjj
our free and liberal form of government, but by our
purpose to maintain the high principles of justice and
humanity upon which our institutions are founded.
The fulfillment of this purpose in turn depends upon
the solidity of the government and our readiness to
defend its integrity.
Our success in the war was not due to forethought
in preparedness, but to exceptional circumstances
which made it possible to prepare after war had been
declared. It is my belief that if America had been adequately prepared,
In discussing preparedness it should be remembered that our tradi
tions are opposed to the maintenance of a large standing army. Our wars
have practically all been fought by citizen soldiery. But we have persist
ently failed to train our citizen-soldier in time of peace, and waited until
war was upon us before making any move to that end. "While recognizing
the principle that every citizen may be called as a soldier, we have never
emphasized the obligation of the individual to prepare himself to serve
his country. Yet it is a debt to the country that falls upon all of us.
From a purely military standpoint our policy should provide first, a
permanent military establishment large enough to guard against sudden
attack ; second, a force sufficient to meet our international obligations,
particularly on the American continent; third, such force as may be nec
essary to meet our internal requirements; fourth, a trained citizen reserve i3JE27ci!SSZ25?L4?B
organized to meet the emergency of war.
In the preparation of our young manhood for service in defense of
their country, there are many personal benefits that the course of training
would bring. It would develop the physical vigor and manliness of our
ycuth and sharpen their mentality. It would teach self-discipline and
respect for constituted authority. As recent experience has shown, it en-
courajres initiative and irives voune men confidence in their abilities. The
thought and the act of preparation for service increase their patriotism.
Association with men from all walks of life strikingly emphasizes our
democracy. The training broadens the views and increases the value of ,
our youth as citizens. It is especially needed among -our alien population,
Hard Surface Road Builc by, Federal
. and State Funds.
and federal sources for road and
bridge expenditure are: Alabama, $9,
000,000; Arizona, $8,000,000; Arkan
sas, $12,000,000; California, $26,000,-
000; Colorado, $7,000,000; Connecticut, a large percentage of whom are illiterate.
o,wu,wy ; Lwiaware, f),ouu,wv; nor-
Ida, $7,725,000; Georgia, $10,000,000;
Idaho, $4,500,000; Illinois, $20,000,000;
Indiana, $9,500,000; Iowa, $37,000,
000; Kansas, $20,000,000; Kentucky,
$8,000,000; Louisiana, $6,000,000;
Maine, $7,500,000; Maryland, $4,800,-
fifi4' ñ " h . . x' nil ? duite,
Jut LZZT " . r tag jt I . . ' Í '
lilt i , irf x ! - . r . 3
JX IJP 0- 2)tJLr& lj L7JU. ffL UMTLV STATES J
W OT AMERICA. L. CrJLCMnM. I ' AVl
In considering a reserve, we already have a nucleus in our trained
units that have had experience in the war. I refer to the units of the
National Guard as well as those of the so-called national army. They
have returned with traditions, history, pride of service, and high ideals of gether."
citizenship, all of which together constitute a valuable asset in any organi- Ve ,mu" "jeea a" hanS together," replied
benjamin rankiln of Pennsylvania, "or most as-
By JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN.
HEN in 1176 the president of the
Second Continental Congress put his
"John Hancock" to "A Declaration
by the Representatives of the United
States of America In General Con
gress Assembled" he wrote it so large
and so plain that he then and there
gave to the American language a new
and enduring synonym.
"There 1" said the delegate from
Massachusetts, "George III will be
able to read that without his spec
tacles." And as he touched it nn
and blackened the heavy strokes of the auill he
remarked to his fellow delegates:
But we must be unanimous : there must he no
pulling different ways. We must all hang to-
y7 tSsispí i4
7ft .. iTiifa,
000; Massachusetts, $8,000,000; Mlchi- zation. I should like to see those divisions held together, retaining their suredy we hall all hflnr ZtLu,n
pun S2ononnno- unnnoantn no w . I . . .. . . .... , , "l" ulult separately.
officers in so far as their efficiency records show them capable of perform
ing the duties of their respective grades. I would retain the organization
of these divisions and utilize them as reserve divisions into which the
young men would pass as they come from the army or finish in the train
We Americans of 1921 can read a lot between
the lines of these two historic utterances, if we
do a little digging Into before-the-Revolutlon
American history enough digging to get a clear
iaea or what brought about the Declaration of
Independence. And it is every good American's
t-q tnlntli Att-wr 3A a. 1 1 -
In a reserve army it should be pointed out that there is great neces- ft now? WoTSSZTZ
sity for a large number of thoroughly trained officers, not only for the I same brush but to use more time-honored Amer-
combat troops, but for the various staff corps and departments, including Ican similes It's dollars to doughnuts that the
t,0 cra-n coff T1,p rvffinor. nniiM bo vorv .rrfnllv and Ac " "a6 -"-tiu uumt Know enougn to mst
6 ' - j j ' i mm
gan, $20,000,000; Minnesota, $20,0O0,
000; Miss'jssippl, $11,000,000; Mis
souri, $15,000,000; Montana, $8,500,
000; Nebraska, $6,000,000; Nevada,
$3,500,000; New Hampshire, $2,500,-
000; New Jersey, $16,000,000; New
Mexico, $4,000,000; New York, $55,
000,000; North Carolina; $6,500,-
000 ;t North Dakota, $7,000,000;
Ohio, $35,000,00; Oklahoma, $8,000,-
000; Oregon, $10,000,000; Pennsyl
, , , - t V-, I hue t;ciiciai oiau xucoc o duvuaa ii.ii aAw.uur bwuvu uuu, i Lim v . . .
700000? Sonth Parol inn.. .0(10.000 r Z. .. , , , , ,i...x - luo out auuui uie muses leauiDg up
,.fh fwoto ernmiim. rn.J pending upon ís quaiincauons, eacn snouia nave a aenniui assignment to the Revolution. And as for the Declaration it-
ecu iic ivuiuu t lu save iiis me teu wuti c imil vl
it means. This is a bad business in itself and it's
especially bad right now.
For we are going to have a new kind of Fourth
of July celebration in the United States of Amer
ica. The Fourth has quit being the day of fire
works and casualties. And in the new kind of
Fourth of July celebration the Declaration of In
dependence will come to its own as the crowning
touch of public observance, The American Rev
olution is the greatest stepping-stone in the march
of the centuries toward freedom and the Declara
tion of Independence is its symbol.
Though the Declaration of Independence is to
come back to its own, the new Fourth will not
be the day when the American Eagle screams and
the orator bawls because Uncle Sam handed John
Bull a K O a century and a half ago. There are
two reasons for this.
One is the World war. John Bull and Uncle
Sam bow stand shoulder to shoulder in defense of
ail that our common race holds dear of personal
freedom and political IdealsX
The other Is the fact that the Revolution was
not a quarrel between two peoples the British
people and the American people. It was, in its
$10,275,000; Texas', $60.000,000; Utah! to some particular unit or headquarters. An especial effort should be
made to retain in the reserve those officers, and men as well, who during
the war performed their duties efficiently.
There is a moral side to the sort of training in question. Our experi
ence in the war proved that in the association of young men together for
a common purpose there was developed not only a new sense of patriotic
obligation, but a very high moral attribute in the individual
$6,000,000; Vermont, '$2,000,000; Vir
ginia, $10,000,000; Washington, $14,-
000,000; West Virginia, $3,000,000;
Wisconsin, $19,500,000; Wyoming, $3,-
DIRT HIGHWAYS ARE EASIEST
Unpaved Country Roads Cause Least
Wear on Tires, While Slag la
The much maligned dirt road finds
a champion in a Denver tire manufac
turer, who asserts that exhaustive
tests show that the unpaved country
road canses the least tire wear. But
the road mu3t be in good condition,
with no ruts to wear against the side
walls of the tire. When properly
dragged, the unpaved country road is
found to generate less heat in the tire
than any other type of road.
"Books Broaden the Vision of the Farmer
and Increase His Success"
By M. O. STOVER, Bloomfield Farms, Mahomet, El.
Books broaden the vision of the farmer, increase his success, and give
many pleasant hours to his life. The farmer has to deal with more phases
Slag roads were found to be most of learning than are found in any other occupation. A profound study
destructive to tires, the sharp points 0f goüg üve stock raising, rotation of crops, and marketing deals with I earlier stages at least, a strife between two difl-
onnn Tiittinir fha trend with vnv hnlpn. I ... - ... . . . . ' . 1 . .
erent political ana economic systems, it was no
unrelated event, but formed- a part of the history
W Lt c,Tsa: a fracTo; Poetically every science. In fact, the subject of agriculture is so vast that
of an inch out of alignment, the tires I the successful farmer is compelled to specialize in grain, some branch of
looked as if their tread had been sand- jve st0ck, or one of the many phases of intensive farming.
rtanfipovl o ft ay nnlv o -four hnnra' tr xrol I
V""-"-" - -" t. . i. i . j iv. t j. ; j
Xemg Bomewnai isuiaieu uie lamict i cumpeueu uj use iuo uwu judg
ment. As he deals with nature in all of her aspects he should know some
thing of the constructive effects of sunshine, rain, heat and cold, and how
to take advantage of them; he should know of the destructive effects of
ADVANTAGES OF GOOD ROADS floods, bad seasons, insects, and how best to overcome them.
With many years of practice it is possible to learn these things, but
they are more readily learned from books in connection with farm
Asphalt pavement was found to de
velop much heat, but little external
wear. Macadam roads in good condi
tion were found to be better than slag.
Means Release to Farmer and City
Man From Bondage of Rail
To both city man and farmer the
good road means release from bond
age bondage to electric, steam car
Bchedules and discomforts bondage
to distance bondage to time. Coun
ties and states where good roads have
become a steady part of a progressive
program of legislation have seen val
ues shoot up In most surprising fash
ion, and this again has brought home
the fact that good roads pay for them
Why on Earth Should Japan Abandon
the Adoration of the Mikado?"
By GILBERT K. CHESTERTON, in "Uses of Adversity"
DEMAND FOR GOOD HIGHWAYS
Nothing So Vital to Transportation
System and Future of Automo
"Let's Preach It, Teach It and De
mand Good Roads," says Orvllle D.
Coppock, sales manager of the Com
merce Motor Car company, Detroit.
"Nothing is so vital to the transpor
tation system of our country, and the
future of the automotive industry as
Bar Tractor From Roads.
Because of its tendency to damage
roads, the tractor is barred from many
state, county and private highways.
In spite of being thus in disrepute,
however, it 1b considered indispens
able in many communities for build
ing, repairing and maintaining roads.
Many a fine dirt toad owes its smooth
ness and state of good ' repair to fre
quent use of the drag or grader, pulled
by a husky tractor.
The plain facts, of course, are perfectly simple. Japan has borrowed
our guns and telephones, but she has not borrowed our morality; and,
morally speaking, I really do not see why she should.
Under all Japan's elaborate armor-plating she is still the same
strange, heathen, sinister, and heroic thing: she has still the two deep
Oriental habits, prostration before despotism and ferocity of punishment.
She Still thinks, in the eastern style, that a king is infinitely sublime : the
brother of the sun and moon. She still thinks, in the eastern 6tyle, that
a criminal is infinitely punishable ; "something with boiling oil in it."
Why on earth should Japan abandon the adoration of the Mikado
and the destruction of his enemies, merely because a scientific apparatus
has made the Mikado more victorious and the destruction of his enemies
of the race on both continents. There was a Brit
ish revolution at the same time there was an
American Revolution. The British revolution was
to regain liberty. The American Revolution was
to preserve liberty. On both sides of the Atlan
tic ' the king's prerogatives were the aim of rev
Now, as to the many things that may be read
between the lines of what Hancock and Frank
lin said, here's just a hint: Hancock was a rich
merchant. It was part of the purpose of the
British troops at Lexington and Concord to cap-
lure Hancock. At that time Hancock was re
spondent in the Admiralty court in suits of the
crown to recover nearly half a million dollars as
penalties alleged to have been Incurred for viola
tion of the laws of navigation ana traae. Han
cock had inherited his fortune from his uncle,
Thomas Hancock, who had become wealthy smug
gling tea. So it was no more than right that John
Hancock should sign his name large and plain
to the document which, if made good, would save
him from financial ruin and give him free com
merce with all the world.
Benjamin Franklin, publisher, printer, philos
opher and statesman, seventy-one years or age,
the oldest member of congress, was more con
cerned with the political than with the commer
cial aspects of the situation. He made a clever
Jest, but no man there knew better that there Is
many a true word spoken in jest.
So the truth is that on our- side of the ocean
the fundamental causes leading up to the Revo
lution were both political and economic and pos
sibly quite as much economic as political. To ar
rive at the main features of the situation, the fol
lowing chronology is helpful:
1760 Accession of George DX Conquest of Can
ada by British.
1761 Revival of navigation and trade laws of.
1660 and 1663. Issues of "Writs of Assistance."
1764 Parliament demands that colonies pay
part of debt Incurred during French and Indian
war. Colonial assemblies refuse. Parliament as
serts right to tax colonies. Issue of "taxation
without representation" raised.
1765 Parliament passes "Quartering Act," re
quiring colonies to supply quarters for British
army of defense. "Stamp Act," putting tax on
newspapers, and legal documents. Stamp Act
Congress issues "declaration of rights."
1766 Repeal of "Stamp Act." "Declaratory
Act" maintains right to tax.
1767 Townsend, British chancellor of exchequer,
brings in bill for taxes on tea, glass, wine, oil,
paper, lead, etc.
1768 Non-importation agreement adopted by
Boston and 'spreads to other colonies. Massa
chusetts legislature dissolved by George DX Brit
ish soldiers quartered In Boston.
1769 Lord North repeals all taxes except on
tea, retained for sake of principle.
1773 "Committees of Correspondence" formed
to enable colonies to keep in touch. "Boston
1774 "Boston Port Bill," closing Boston to
shipping and removing seat of , government to
Salem. General Gage, commander of British sol
diers in Boston, made governor of Massachusetts.
"Regulating Act," remodeling charter of Massa
chusetts. "Quartering Act" "Quebec Act" First
Continental Congress at Philadelphia. . Massa
chusetts Provincial Congress meets and calls for
12,000 "Minute Men."
1775 Parliament declares Massachusetts to be
in a state of rebellion. Armed clash at Lexington
and Concord begins hostilities. Capture of Ticon
deroga and Crown Point Battle of Bunker Hill.
Siege of Boston. Canadian expedition under
Montgomery. Second Continental Congress at
Philadelphia votes to raise army of 20,000 and
chooses George Washington commander-in-chief.
1776 Evacuation of Boston by British, accom
panied by 1,500 loyalists. Repulse of British fleet
and army at Charleston, S. C. Battle of Long
Island and occupation of New York by British.
Battle of Trenton. Continental Congress pro
vides for the establishment of state governments
and state conventions adopt constitutions. Con
gress adopts Declaration of Independence.
The most casual glance at this skeleton chro
nology shows It to be literally loaded to the muz
zle with the eighteenth century equivalent of po
litical and economic TNT. The American Revo
lution was inevitable, sooner or later. The mar-'
vel Is not that It came, but that out of the condi
tions grew a nation.
What a chaos it was ! The title to the colonies
was not In the people of England or in the state,
but in the crown. The crown could make and re
peal laws ; could appoint rulers and remove them. -The
colonists were not citizens of the realm, but
subjects of the crown, having only such rights as
granted them in their charters. The crown
claimed and exercised the right to amend or revoke
these charters. Such rights and no more did the
American colonists have, according to the view of
the party in England which stood for legal and
constitutional prerogatives of the crown. These
. claims of the crown were resisted by every col
ony as incompatible with Its essential rights and
by the antl-prerogatlve party in England.
Of the thirteen colonies seven were royal col
onies, three charter and three proprietary col
onies. Each colony was related to the others only
through the crown. All the conditions tended
rather to intercolonial hate than love. Find the
causes that drove the colonies together and there
are the causes of the Revolution.
George HI was a stickler for the king's pre
rogatives. One of his first acts In relation to the
colonies was to revive the navigation and trade
laws which had been only nominally enforced for
a century. As a matter of fact all the colonies
were technically smugglers, In that their evasion
of these laws gave them practically free trade.
These laws were comprehensive and strict being
designed to give British merchants a monopoly;
of trade with the colonies and to protect British,
manufacturers against colonial competition. War
ships were now placed along the coast to stop
the colonial trade with France and Spain and
their West Indian colonies. The "Writs of As
sistance" were general search warrants given to
customs officials to enable them to break into and
search any premises at any time. James Otis,
the famous Boston lawyer, opposed the right of
the British government to issue the writs or even
to pass an act of trado Imposing a tax on the
colonies. John Adams said of Otis' celebrated
speech: "It breathed Into this nation the breath
of Ufe." Undoubtedly this situation was one of
the contributing causes of the Revolution.
Then King George demanded that the colonies
pay the expense of a British army of about 20,
000 men to be quartered In America to protect
the colonies against the Indians. The colonies
suspected the purpose of this army and would
have none of it Here was the beginning of real
trouble a little later.
The "Boston Tea Party" was a serious affair,
not in Itself, but because parliament immediate
ly took measures to punish Boston and Massa
chusetts. The closing of the port of Boston, the
removal of the seat of government to Salem, the
appointment of General Gage as governor of Mas
sachusetts and the remodeling of the charter of
Massachusetts constituted a warning to all the
colonies that free government was In imminent
danger everywhere. On top of this came the
act providing that British oflicers or magistrates
charged with murder or other capital crime should
be tried In some other colony or in England; the
act billeting soldiers on people who failed volun
tarily to provide quarters and the act extending
the boundaries of Quebec to the Ohio river and
establishing an arbitrary form of government
This cumulation of activities on the part of the
crown seems to have convinced the colonies that
their only salvation lay in getting together for
united action. So the First Continental Congress
-met This congress was merely deliberative and
advisory; It Issued a declaration of rights; it
formed- an association for carrying out the non
importation agreement; It forwarded a petition
to the king and set out an address to the col
onies; It provided for another congress to meet
in 1775. Still there was no open discussion of
It was Massachusetts which finally set off the
powder barrel. General Gage summoned the pro
vincial congress to meet In Salem, but put off the
date of assembling. The delegates met without
him and his counsellors. They provided for the
appointment of a committee of safety and issued
'a call for 12,000 "Minute Men." Parliament then
declared Massachusetts to be in a state of re
bellion. . Next was the expedition out of Boston
to seize powder and to arrest the two chief "trait
Then came the "shots heard "round the world"
and bloodshed. The fight was on. And still there
was no open movement for Independence until
after a year of bloody fighting. It was not until
June 7, 1776, in the Second Continental Congress,
that Virginia's Instructed delegate, Richard Hen
ry Lee, introduced the resolution beginning, "That
these united colonies are, and of right ought to
be, free and Independent states "
The Declaration of Independence, as drafted
by Thomas Jefferson with the aid of John Adams,
Benjamin Franklin. Roger Sherman and Robert
R. Livingston and amended by congress, consists
of two principal parts : A statement of American
political theories in Justification of independence
and a list of abuses by King George IH that had
operated to absolve the united colonies from all
allegiance to the British crown. The facts here
in set forth make clear most of the abuses as out
lined in the Declaration.
Edgar Lee Masters, Chicago Poet There may be a Chicago school
of writers, but I don't know anything about it. No, the so-called Chicago
school is about as purely a local product as the Chicago Cubs. And t
that the Cubs have it somewhat on the school, since the ball players do
most of the work on home grounds.
Had It on .Bible Authority
Pauline Lord, Actress The obnoxious effort of girls to attract atten
tion by the short dress craze is upsetting to thoughtful people.
Keep out all weeds before they get
started. It is easier and cheaper.
Dr. William P. Hovis, Kansas City Clergyman There must be mere
religion" in the homes of America if divorce is to be curbed.
Woman Easily Proved Contention as
to Period Levites Gave Up
About a month before Dean Stanly
died he was at a dinner at Lord Sel-
borne's, former lord chancellor of Eng
land. The dean said : "I feel I am get
ting old," Miss Macaulay. The sister of
I the historian, asked him what he had J
had to give up on account of his age.
The dean laughed, and replied:
"Not much as yet except evening
parties." Lord Selborne remarked:
"I also am getting old ; I -will never
take office again." Miss Macaulay ob
served that the Levites used to give
up active work at the age of fifty, and
Lord Selborne asked where she found
that piece of information.
"Where should I get it except from
my Bible?" was the answer.
"I never noticed it in the Bible. Do
you remember the fact Stanly?" the
lord chancellor said. The dean shook
his head and owned he did not remem
ber it either. Miss Macaulay said no
more, but she announced a few days
later that she had found the passage;
and sent It to both Lord Selborne and
The passage Is Numbers 8:23
"And from the age of fifty years they
shall cease waiting upon the service
thereof of the tabernacle and shall
serve no more."
Indian Name of Quaint Old City.
The Indians called a strait "Kebec"
and the name was given to the site
of the present city of Quebec from
the peculiar configuration of the St
Lawrence river at that point for the
river there grows narrow and from
Its deep waters rises the bold height
on which the ancient city stands. The
French-Canadian still pronounces the
mnlo íínnfkimft- nhnH Tolano 1 .
xml | txt