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Educator Says Poorer Classes Are Slowly Starving to Death The poorer classes of the nation are slowly starving to death without realizing it, Prof. William F. Ogburn of Columbia university testified recently in the stock yards wage hearing before Federal Judge Alschuler in Chicago. Professor Ogburn offered figures to show the vitality of many of the present generation is so low there is little hope for a third generation. “What is the minimum wage necessary for the present generation to assure a third generation?” he was asked. “Not less than $1,550 or $1,600,” was the answer. Professor Ogburn made his survey of more than 4,000 families in every part of the country and arrived at his conclusions after exhaustive comparisons of living costs in 18 typical cities. He was called as an expert for the workers. In the 4,000 families it was discovered that the head of each house bought a straw hat every three years for an average of $2.19 and one felt hat every two years at an average of $2.70. The minimum comfort wage necessary to keep a family from suffering from slow starvatiom he fixed at $1,900 to $2,000. The minimum salary upon which the family of five could barely subsist is $1,550 to $1,600, compared to $1,385 in October, 1918. The average expenses of the 4,000 families for entertainment was: Movies, $5.03; concerts, $1.09; newspapers, 85 cents; postage, $1.65; magazines, 30 cents. Professor Ogburn said the cost of living had increased 73 per cent since the spring of 1917 and 8 per cent since June, 1919. ran >f > *g)l For years it was contended by au thorities that it was useless even to use nest eggs as attractions to hens, that biddy, like the cow, could not be deceived. The non-professional for in stance, rigidly adhered to the old-time idea that nest eggs were requisite. Prof. George M. Turpin, of lowa Uni versity, in a bulletin called the “Nest ing Habits of Hens” gives a prominent place to the “Use of Nest Eggs.” He starts out with the statement that no data had been established as to whether the nest egg influenced biddy or not. He made a careful test, placing 40 hens in a house and prepared 16 nests for them, some with China eggs, others hen product, and others again with no nest eggs. The result of bid dy’s choice was 214 fresh eggs in the China bait, 290 in the natural attrac tion and 108 in the nests with no cam ouflage, showing .35, .47, and .17 per cent respectively. The conclusion is that hens like nest eggs and prefer the natural one. Persia First Country to Discover the Secret of Aromatic Substances The first nation to learn the secret of aromatic substances was Persia, says London Tit-Bits. The priests of Egypt were the only people who studied science at that time, and Egyptian perfumes achieved great celebrity, especially those made in Alexandria. Reserved originally for religious rites, perfumes subsequently became of current use among the wealthy classes. During banquets they were diffused through the halls and were burned in profusion. The Israelites during their sojourn in Egypt adopted the use of aromatic substances, primarily for religious purposes and afterward for personal usage. The Jews were fond of cos metics and even used them to paint the face. All these perfumes were extracted from essences of trees and various plants. The Greeks, who loved ele gance, were especially addicted to the use of perfumes, and they taught their secrets and usage to the Romans. The latter, in the uays of their decadence, went so far as to scent the coats of their dogs. In the middle ages the Arabs, Vene tians, Genoese and Florentines be came famous for the preparation of sweet smelling essences. Saving of Fuel to Light Coal Stove Fire at Top Although a coal fire always burns better, especially at the start, when lighted from the bottom, it has been found to be much more economical of coal if the paper and kindling wood are placed above the coal, says Popular Mechanics. A few small coals and cinders are spread over the top of the kindling wood to enable a coal fire to be started. After the top layer begins to burn properly the fire will spread slowly downward if the air draft is right. This method secures the most complete combustion because the gases from the unburned coal at the bottom must pass through the burning layer at the top, and thus become completely burned. It is admittedly harder to build and control this kind of a fire, but the saving in fuel often justifies the extra trouble. Marriage Insurance. With the object of stimulating mar riage England has a marriage insur ance scheme by which the family will receive $2,500 in the event of the death of the husband, or the same sum will be paid at the end of 25 years if the husband still lives. fiath^^^LStrvtles Caught! “What did he do?” “He was visiting at our house and boasted before the whole family that he had never been sick in his whole life.” “I don’t see anything mean about that.” “Well, one night, not more than a month ago I told my wife I had to go and sit up with him. “Oh!” Doesn't Pay. • Hobbs Your d e bts don’t seem Q to worry you. Dobbs —No; if a J v I look worried it 1l worries my cred it & I itors > and then - / I they worry me I jj into worrying a 4HD** ° C lot more - Who’s Afraid? “Were you afraid, dearie, while I was detained downtown?” “I wasn’t exactly afraid.” “I was afraid you’d be afraid.” “And I was afraid you’d be afraid I’d be afraid, so I tried not to be afraid.” Check Gave Him Nightmare. “Do you think I—t1 —t that the things you eat influence your dreams?” A v/a t X “Undoubtedly! I It ate a sirloin steak \q 1\ | the other evening and dreamed j |T T® ;T: about bankruptcy / all night.” They Didn’t. Whistler was once invited by a wed ding of a mere acquaintance, and promised to be present. When the wedding party reached the church the artist was nowhere to be seen, but a telegram was handed to the groom which read: “Am unavoidably detained. Can’t get to the church in time. Don’t wait.” Interesting Item. ‘Tm afraid Clubleigh doesn’t keep up with international politics.” “How is that?” “I asked him what was the latest ARIZONA STATE MINER Origin of Jury System Attributed to Peoples of European Countries The exact origin of the jury system is not known with certainty, it having been attributed to different European peoples which at an early period de veloped methods of trial somewhat similar to the early jury trials in Eng land. Trial by battle was cast in the background by the Norman conquer ors when the Norman institution of recognition by sworn inquest was adopted. The Curia Regis, or King’s court, directed the sheriff to select four knights of the county by whom 12 knights were selected to serve as recognitors. After being duly sworn they inquired into the facts of inter est to the new rulers of England which might be subject to public inquiry, such as matters affecting taxation. Suitors in cases affecting the title of real estate, as early as the reign of Henry 11, 1154 to 1189, applied to the king’s court for recognitors whose verdict, if unanimous, was accepted as conclusive. Originally the jury was selected be cause of their knowledge of the peo ple, locality and customs and thereby passing upon the facts from a more intimate knowledge of them. During the reign of Henry IV, the jury was instructed to judge the facts upon the evidence submitted to it, which is the single function of the jury of modern practice. —Kansas City Star. Holland Most Systematic in Cultivation of Oysters In the industry represented by oy ster cultivation Holland is the most systematic in its operations and em ploys more elaborate methods than any other country in the world. The nu merous sounds that indent the coast of Holland, particularly in the region of the River Scheldt, afford excellent fa cilities for the propagation of the oy ster and enable the country to conduct the most successful oyster industry in Europe. Public dredging is not permit ted, as the result of that system was the threatened exhaustion of the fish eries, and the beds have been carefully surveyed and specific tracts are leased to individuals and companies who are thus enabled to conduct the propaga tion of the oyster in a systematic man ner that insures the best results from the territory available. news from Italy and he said the res taurateurs of Rome were charging $lB a bottle for champagne.” Well, Even That Will Help. “They say food is going to be cheap pretty soon,” remarked the hopeful chap. “No,” said the man who loves to look on the dark side; “it isn’t going to be cheap—it will merely seem cheap by comparison.” Unnecessarily Worried. He—l may as well tell you, before you hear it in some other way, that I kissed another man’s wife last night. The Missus—l’ll get a divorce, but who was the horrid thing? He —I wish you wouldn’t speak that way of my mother. Serbian Families, Once Rich, Now Make Homes in Barns and Chicken Coops In northern Serbia many families, wealthy before the war, have been found by officers of the American Re lief administration and the American Red Cross living in stables and chicken coops. Their homes had been destroyed by the advancing or retreating armies. Now their beds were heaps of straw covered with burlap. It was all that remained as furniture in their once pretentious estates. Penniless and with no clothing except what they wore, these people returned in pitiable condition. Many of the refugees made their way across Serbia in makeshift garments of burlap bags, which had contained American food sent to re lieve their hunger. The condition of the Serbian peas ants is beyond description. A large proportion are homeless. Most fam ilies have been deprived of their wage earners by death. The mother is now obliged to support herself and chil dren on what she can procure on a farm stripped of its machinery and tools. Onion Production. Commercial onion production in the United States this year, as estimated by the government report, Is 21,569 cars, against 17,124 cars last year. EXTREME CARE IS MOST ESSENTIAL FOR PRESERVATION OF POULTRY IN TRANSIT Be Sure to Use Only Suitably Equipped Cars for Shipping Dressed Poultry. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Scrupulous care in pre-cooling a re frigerator car for shipping dressed poultry, always a matter of Impor tance, is doubly so now, in the opinion of food-research experts. The greater necessity for care comes, in the first place, of the fact that there is a na tion-wide ice shortage. The second important element is that, following the stress of war-time transportation, the refrigerator equipment of the coun try is in a run-down condition. The car should be carefully examined, the experts say, to see that it admits not even a pin point of light. Then it should be tested and, if it fall short of standard, there should be no hesita tion about rejecting it and calling on the railroad agent for a car that will meet the requirements. Extreme care, the experts believe, is essential just now for the preservation of poultry in transit, and the chief of the depart ment’s food research laboratory has just issued the following definite in formation as to how satisfactory re sults are to be attained: Select Car Day Before Loading. “When the refrigerator car is set for icing, enter it and with doors and hatches tightly closed look carefully for any crack or point of daylight. The car should be absolutely black with not a pin point of light anywhere. If there are distinct cracks around the doors or hatches, the car will not main tain sufficiently low temperature and should not be iced for the hauling of dressed poultry or any other commod ity requiring ice and salt refrigeration. Be sure also that the drain pipes are open and in good working order. “The selected car should be set for Icing at least 24 hours before it is to be loaded. Its bunkers should then be filled three-quarters full with finely broken ice; that is, no piece should be larger than a man’s fist. When the bunkers are three-quarters full, tamp the ice down well so that all cracks and crannies are filled. Then add one quarter of the calculated amount of salt on the 12 per cent basis. For in stance, if the bunker holds 5,000 pounds of ice, when three-quarters full it will contain 3,750 pounds. On top of this amount of ice scatter 150 pounds of coarse gray rock salt. Mix this salt very lightly with the top ice and directly on top of it place more crushed Ice until the bunker is full. Then add the remainder of the calcu lated amount of salt, which, in this case, would be 450 pounds. Mix it very lightly with the fine ice so that the salt does not penetrate into the mass of ice more than 4 or 5 inches; level the surface and quickly close the hatches. Right Temperature Is 34 Degrees. “With both bunkers so iced and salt ed, the car should stand for 24 hours. Then, in order to make sure that the KEEP VEGETABLES IN WINTER Temperature Slightly Above Freezing Point Is Preferred for Beets, Turnips and Carrots. (By A. F. YEAGER, North Dakota Ag ricultural College.) Turnips, beets, and carrots will keep best at a temperature slightly above freezing. Cabbage will stand consid erable freezing, and sajsify and pars nips may be left in the soil over winter if desired. Squashes and pumpkins will keep best in a warm dry place. A warm attic where it does not freeze is good. Potatoes require a cool place not too dry. .Cabbage and nearly all root crops may be stored in the ground. They must be put deep enough to be below the frost line and should be sur rounded with straw to keep them from direct contact with the soil. Get Rid of Old Canes. Get rid of the old raspberry and blackberry canes as soon as possible after harvesting. They should be burn ed to destroy both insect and disease enemies. temperature is right for loading, a man provided with a thermometer should enter as quickly as possible by open ing one side of one dor, which should be tightly closed immediately. The man should stand midway between the doors holding the thermometer about 4 feet from the floor until the mercury has responded to the car temperature, which ordinarily is accomplished in from three to five minutes, depending on the quality of the thermometer. The temperature of the car at this point should not be above 34 degrees F. If it is more than 38 degrees at this point, it is dangerous to load the car for a haul requiring intensive refriger ation. Unless the shipper is willing to take chances on the condition in which his load will arrive at the mar ket, he should communicate with the railroad agent and request a car which is able to refrigerate the dressed poul try properly. “All refrigerator cars should be pro vided with a floor rack 4 inches in the clear, built of lengthwise stringers made from 2 by 4 lumber and crosswise slats made from 1 by 3 lumber, with IVz inch spaces between. These cross wise slats are nailed to the lengthwise stringers. They do not interfere with trucking the load into the car. They should extend across the doorway, since it is this part of the car which is hardest to refrigerate and where air circulation is most needed. All railroad owned refrigerators as rapid ly as possible are being equipped with racks which are fastened to the side walls so that they can be turned back for cleaning.” TREES GROW BEST ON SLOPES Roughest Areas on Farm Present Most Favorable Localities for Suc cessful Growth. (By W. J. MORRILL, Colorado Agricul tural College, Fort Collins, Colo.) Trees, especially cone bearing trees, seem to prefer newly eroded soil. Steep slopes are exposed to compara tively rapid erosion and here trees do the best. Level ground indicates old soil, old in the sense that it was derived from rock, as a rule, longer ago than soil found on steep slopes. Old soil probably contains an excess of soluble salts, too much for best tree growth. In the mountains one sees the steep slopes clothed with trees, while the occasional flat spot is likely to be bare of trees. The roughest areas on the farm present the most favorable localities for successful tree growing. Popular Strawberry. Everbearing strawberries are be coming most as common as spring bearing varieties. Progressive does well on most soils and fruits until the ground freezes. Preparing Honey for Market. After honey is removed from the hive it should be prepared carefully for market by proper cleaning of the sections, and especially by grading and packing in strict conformity with es tablished grading rules. Best Place for Manure. Manure is often placed very near to the trunks of trees. This may not hurt the trees, but it is far better to have It put where the fine roots get the benefit. Cut Out Old Canes. Cut out all old canes of raspberries and thin the new ones now. Thorough cultivation about the plants will re duce the insects that are apt to work on the plants. Shipping Comb Honey. Comb honey that is to be sent to a distant market should be shipped be fore cold weather, since the combs be> come extremely fragile when cold. Good Late Forage. Millet is good late-sown forage eub> stitute.