Newspaper Page Text
¥ MUON AL¥
CAPITAL AITAIBS American Is Head of the New Republic of Russia WASHINGTON. —This is a queer world nowadays. Did you ever hear of Uhro-Rusinia and its acting governor, Gregory I. Zsatkovitch? Os course not. Well, Uhro-Rusinia is one of the smallest of the new self-governing republics in Europe and Gregory I. J, . . Zsatkovich is an American citizen. He GOVERNOR ' / haS USt heen here after his wlfe an<3 of UHRO-f I chiJ dren and is on his way back to re o I sume is duties. His official title is “^ of the Directorate Vr o of Autonomous Rusinia.” *1 i-V ( >' American Russians are settled in ( To large numbers in about 150 cities of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, Con necticut, New Jersey and Illinois, and smaller numbers are to be found scat tered all over the country. They are represented by the American National council of Uhro-Rusins. This council worked so energetically that in 1918 at the convention of the Mid-European union in Philadelphia the Rusins were recognized as a self-governing unit of the Czecho-Slovak republic. This was ratified by an American plebiscite. Uhro-Rusinia has a population of about one million. Its capital is Uzhorod. Set in the Carpathian mountains, Rusinia is noted for its picturesqueness D. A. R. Exchange Stars and Stripes With Congress IN THE house the other day Representative Mondell of AVyoming, the majority leader, called attention to a beautiful new flag suspended back of the speaker’s desk. He read a letter from Mrs. George Thacher Guernsey, president general of the D. A. R., pre senting the flag as a substitute for the chapters of the society. He offered a resolution accepting the flag, which was unanimously passed by a rising vote. He then offered the following preamble and resolution and asked A\ unanimous consent for its immediate consideration: “Whereas the flag which was dis- ** played in the hall of the house of rep- resentatives from the year 1901 until displaced by the flag presented to the house by the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and this day accepted by the house, a period of time covering the first 19 years of the twentieth century, during which the house of representatives participated in the events preliminary to and in the enactment of legislation for the prosecution of the war with the Imperial German government and with the royal Austro-Hungarian government, and during which time also many other historic and important acts originated, were perfected, or consummated herein; therefore, be it “Resolved, That because of the association of said flag with the legisla tive history of the United States during the period aforesaid, and in token of the house’s appreciation of the patriotism of the members of said society and of the women of the United States, the clerk of the house of representatives is hereby authorized and directed to deliver said flag to the board of manage ment of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, to be displayed and carefully preserved in the archives of said society, together with a copy of this preamble and resolution,” Congress Apparently in Favor of Budget System CONGRESS is apparently taking the national budget system movement quite seriously. The Illinois plan of control of public expenditures through a budget system was explained to the house appropriations committee the other day by Governor Lowden of Eli nois, who suggested that machinery similar to the Illinois plan be set up rf '*■•"**i < v***LK) * n * e deral government, with the \ f? secretary of the treasury exercising \ rt A the exclusive authority and responsi /J' 0 h F hllity for appropriations analogous yl § with the position held by Omar EL VjCPjoj ( v y COMCftESS Wright, Illinois’ state director of J finance. The treasury department should be made the exclusive depart ment for national finance, the governor said, and the administration of the publie health service and other subsidiary bureaus should be removed from the treasury department. In other words, said the governor, while all the other departments are working to secure Increased appropriations, there should be one central bureau whose sole duty it should be to keep expenses down. “It cannot be emphasized too strongly that somebody outside the influences of the departments should receive the estimates and make up a budget for which he would be responsible and who should answer to the president alone,” Governor Lowden declared. “If we require the president to submit a budget, saying what expenditures he believes to be necessary for the proper running of the government, then the country will know that the president asks only that amount, and no more.” American Legion Post Opposes Reclamation Bill SENATOR FLETCHER of Florida read into the Congressional Record the other day resolutions adopted by Tampa post, No. 5, American Legion, which are substantially as follows: “Whereas various measures have been introduced in the congress of the Unit ed States for the aid of the discharged soldier, sailor and marine, veterans of THIS iSTHEOnF) the late war; and, whereas, among WE WANT J such measures is H. R. 487, referred fO*M J— y to as the Mondell bill, otherwise the V 1 national soldier settlement act; and, whereas, such a measure will not bene- AM fit all soldiers, sailors and marines. and even under the most favorable 7 circumstances it is limited to approxi- Jf 0 mately 80,000 out of 4,800,000: and, r whereas, under the terms of said bill an initial capital of not less than $1,200 is required of each soldier, sailor and marine; and, whereas, said bill is not confined to the public lands of the United States, but provides for ‘projects’ to be purchased in the several states, thus opening the way for fraud, reckless expenditures of public funds, and real estate grafting of all natures and kinds; and, whereas, a certain measure has been introduced in the congress of the United States providing for loans for the purpose of securing to the discharged soldier, sailor and marine, veterans of the late war, city or country homes, and in the sum of from SI,OOO to $5,000 at 4 per cent interest and payable over 40 years of time; and, whereas, this in the judgment of this post of the American Legion is the fairest and most equitable of all such measures, both to the soldier and to the United States; therefore, be it “Resolved, That we condemn and oppose H. R. 487, known as the national soldier settlement act, and that we favor and acclaim this loan measure.” ARIZONA STATE MINER -"CUP § & •• "V - ||i Robert H. f K W 'X s Moulton ¥ Wj*^ I EARCHING for a small, thin, rose-tinted, almost ■ white caterpillar in 10,- 000 acres of Texas cot ton land; confronted with M the necessity of making jcertain that in all that r ~ area no single caterpillar made good its conceal ment in boll or stalk or leaves or grass or trash; forced to sweep every inch of the 10,000 acres as closely as a scrupulous housewife sweeps the kitchen floor and to sift every pint of the sweepings as care fully as a miser would sift dirt with gold nuggets in it —there is a task be side which the. one of searching for a needle in a haystack appears simple and as requiring no patience worth mentioning. But that is exactly what the United States department of agriculture, w r ith the help of the state authorities of Texas did in the campaign for the elimination of the pink bollworm of cotton. It was done so successfully that not a single egg, larva, or moth of the pink bollworm appeared in 1918, a result that appears to justify the characterization of the job as the big gest successful entomological experi ment of its kind in history. When it was first found that the pink bollworm of cotton had gained a footing upon the soil of the United States, the consternation that resulted was hardly less than it would have been if the discovery had been made that German gunboats were coming up the Mississippi river. But the con sternation was among agricultural scientists. The general public did not know the desperate danger. The scien tists knew, how T ever, that, unless checked, the little bollworm meant an annual loss of not less than $50,000,- 000, if, indeed, it did not threaten the existence of the cotton industry, and their alarm was not materially less ened because the infested area was limited to small areas around Trinity Bay, Beaumont, and Hearne, Texas. For the pink bollworm spreads, not by yards or acres, but by hundreds of miles at a leap. The chief agent of dissemination being man with his rail road trains, the distance from Texas to Georgia or North Carolina is no great jump, and it probably would not be a direct jump. The larva would be loaded into a car of cotton at Beau mont, say, shipped to New Bedford, Mass., and left in the litter at the bottom of the car, which would then go to Brockton for a load of shoes consigned to Atlanta, and would final lv get swept out on some siding in the Georgia cotton fields. And there it would begin anew the devastation that it has wrought in Egypt, India, Japan, the Philippines, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, the Hawaiian Islands, Brazil, Mexico, and practically every cotton-growing coun try on the globe except the United States. It is the most destructive of all enemies of cotton, often reducing the yield of lint by 30 per cent and sometimes by more than 50 per cent, and greatly lessening the quantity of oil produced from the seed. In the Hawaiian Islands the cotton industry has been practically abandoned be cause of it, and wherever it has gone the industry has suffered terribly. That is why the department of agri culture, when the worm appeared in Texas, thought it worth while to un dertake a campaign out of all propor tion to the area infested. CSB! The danger from the pink bollworm had long been recognized, and regula tions were made by the government requiring the fumigation of all cotton from foreign countries before it could be landed in the United States. Ev ery possible precautionary measure was taken, but there came one thing against which even the government could not guard. The great storm that ravaged the Gulf country in 1915 washed ashore around Trinity Bay, and possibly elsewhere on the Texas coast, great quantities of cotton lint and cotton seed. Nobody gave any special thought to the matter at the moment, but when the next year the pink bollworm ap peared all around the bay, it became apparent that some of the washed-up cotton must have come across the Gulf from the Laguna district of Mex ico, where the pest had gained a foot ing some time earlier. That may not have been the only source of infesta tion, but it was the one that gave the greater part of the trouble. An oil mill at Hearne had received some seed from Mexico in 1916, and the bollworm appeared in a few fields in the immediate neighborhood of the mill. The infestation at this point was entirely eliminated in short order, however, by uprooting and burning all growing cotton, collecting and burning all scattered parts, the prompt milling and destruction of the seed, and the shipment to Europe of the harvested lint. A mill at Beaumont, too, had re ceived seed from Mexico and had vio lated its agreement to use it only for milling. It developed that some of this seed was sold to planters through out a radms of 20 or 30 miles from the mill. Each sale was traced and the surrounding district included in the clean-up operations. But it was the washed-up cotton in festation at Trinity Bay that developed the really alarming situation, involving more than 6,000 acres of cotton sur rounding the bay, and it was there that the really big operations were undertaken. A large force of experts and labor ers —not less than SOO negroes—with the voluntary assistance of any num ber of farmers and members of their families, was assembled, camps were established, and the cleanup was be gun on a thoroughly systematized plan that involved every inch of surface, to make sure that no lurking place was left for a larva to winter. All the cotton grown in this area was taken to Galveston under supervision and shipped to foreign countries. All seed was milled under the direction of gov ernment agents. The work ended with the whole area as clean as the top of a table. The result, naturally, was awaited with much anxiety. In the spring of 1918 the entire area was watched. The planting of cotton was prohibited, of course, and every stalk of volunteer cotton was pulled up and destroyed as- ter careful examination. At the end of the season the reports of all the investigators showed that absolutely no evidence of the presence of the bollworm could be found. But the success of the campaign will not be regarded as absolutely certain until two other summers have passed. In the meantime the quarantine will be rigorously enforced. Prior to the discovery of the actual presence of the pink bollworm in Tex as the state, taking precautions against its presence not far away in Mexico, had enacted legislation giving authority to establish a zone free from cotton culture on the border of Texas adjacent to Mexico. Since that time, quarantine and cotton-free zones have be<en declared in three areas. The normal planting of cotton in the largest of these areas is about 50,000 acres and the inability to plant has, of course, entailed hardship on the planters. Individuals—l 37 to be ex act —disregarded the law and planted some cotton, a total of a few hundred acres. Legal action was taken against them and they have since signed an agreement to bear all the cost of clean ing up their farms, under the super vision of government inspectors, and to leave the disposal of the cotton grown absolutely in the hands of the authorities. It is interesting to note that a con siderable number of these so-called outlaw cotton fields were discovered by aerial observation. Much of the country in the infested areas is heav ily timbered. Roads are neither plen tiful nor good in many places, and It was possible for an outlaw planter to tuck away a few acres of cotton in some nook of the woods beyond prob ability of discovery by ordinary means. This gave the inspectors of the fed eral horticultural board the idea of using airplane observers to spy out the hidden fields. The scheme worked ad mirably, the first flight alone reveal ing no less than seven outlaw cotton fields which had escaped discovery by all other means. While a feeling of reasonable safety is justifiable as to the elimination of the bollworm from Texas, the danger of new infestation remains so long as the bollworm exists in Mexico, and, therefore, extreme vigilance will not be relaxed. All railway cars and oth er vehicles coming across the line are inspected, cleaned, and fumigated. The disinfection of cars and freight with gas from generators placed with in the cars has been discarded as giv ing no security against insects that might be resting on the exterior of cars. Disinfection houses have been erected into which cars are run and disinfected both internally and exter nally. The question is now raised: Has the recent Gulf of Mexico hurricane brought the pest again to the Texas shore? The storm ravaged the Gulf shore from Brownsville beyond to Key West. If the storm of 1915 brought the pest to the American shore from Mexico, why should not the some conditions now obtain?