Volume II I
AYrJNnn:sTF,ij, tinx, juxk in, ih.v..
She gomc Journal
"I'lVu'it'cd lo bo Vrty' urlillniry smi),
We follow Truth where'er nil li'ucls Hit wu).'
A( i KNTH FOU Till:
S. M. PiiTTINUlLLdiCO
JOHN P. HE FN Ell
T J. tMJM.YllNUS
JOHM li. RHODES
C. A. HUNT
L. I. fJILDERSbEEVE,
A. M. TEN 1SON
ci. W. N.STOVALI
. . .Wiiichontor.
(ireciwlMirn, A In.
lliaf Subscriptions for a shorter time
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do us a favor, ns well as be doing their
duty, to inform us when a subscriber ie
fuses his paper, or when the poper lies
dcud at their o (lice.
Clubbing. We will -supply eilher
Harper's Magazine, or Graham's, or Go
duy's and the Home Journal, ono year, for
four dollars. Arthur's Homo Magazine,
01 Peterson's, nnd the Home Journal, one
year, for 3 25.
THICK OF A HOK.SE THIEF.
The last Iluntsvillu (Ala.,) link-pen-den
says that pu olil inun, who gave
his name as Moore, stopped in that
phce a week or two ago, putting up
ut the Madison llouso. Alter a day
or two's stay, ho gave, out that he
wished to pay a visit to some relations
whom Ik; said lived in Franklin coun
ty, Term. With this seeming inten
tion, (and his ago did not permit of
suspicion of rascality.) he applied at
the livery stable of Air. W. !. Loyd,
for a horse and buggy for the purpose,
stating that he would return in a few
days. The vehicklo was promptly
furnished him, nnd he left on his pro
posed trip, leaving, we, may add, a
week's board bill at the hotel unpaid.
His return was delayed day after day,
until his absence began lo excite sus
picion, and nt last, it became evident
that he did not intend to return at all.
Mr. Loyd, with a parly of friends, then
started in pursuit, and they traced the
old rascal to Dechcrd, on the N. and
C. Hailroad, at which place he had
sold the horse and buggy to a resident
there, and himself made oil' to parts
unknown. The property svas proved
and brought home.
We hipo tho hoary old scoundrel
may be yet overtaken and brought to
punishment. In the mean time, let
the Press pass him around.
Thn Dying Never weep. U is a
striking fact thn dying never weep.
The circle of sobbing, agonized hearts
around, produces not one tear. Is it.
that he is insensible and still' already
in the chill of desolation? That
cannot he: for he asks for his father's
hand, as if to gain strength i.i the mor
tal struggle, and leans on the breast
of mother, brother, or sister, with still
conscious all'ection; ami just before
expiring at eve, after a long day's
converse with the angel of .Summons,
he says to his eldest brother the last
audible good night of earth '-Kiss
me, kiss me!" It must be because the
dying have reached a point Joo deep
lor our earthly crying and weeping.--They
arc face to face with higher and
holier hi ings, with the Father in Hea
ven, and his angel throng led on by the
Son himself, and what art: the griefs
of a morning, tears of a dying fare
well in that vision bright of iinmort il
life and everlasting reunion.
Cany A Thing Through. Carry a
thing through. That's it, don't do any
thing less. If you once fairly, soundly,
wideawake!)' begin a thing, let it be
carried through though it costs your
best comfort, time, energies nnd all
you command. Wo heartily abomi
nate this turning backward, this wea
rying and fainting of soul and purpose.
Jt bespeaks imbecility of min I, want
of character, courage and true mauli
less. Carry a thing through. Don't
Jcap and dally from one thing to an
other. Xn man ever did anything in
(hat way. You can't be strong-minded.
He pluckUh, patient, consistent. Lie
hopeful, stern and manly. Once fairly
in a work, don't give it up, D.m'l
disgrace yourself by beginning on this
thing to-day, on that lo morrow, and
on another next day. We don't care
if you are the most active mortal liv
ing, we don't cure ifyou woJk day and I
night, in season and out, be sura tli j
end of all s-ucccss lies in carrying a
Fm'iT Instead of McoicixE.-There is
no doubt but that the free use of good
fruit is highly conducive to health,
and indeed almost indispensable to it.
iUuch of tho sickness in the Western
country is occasioned by the Avant of
it. It is the great scarcity of it that
creates tucb a demand for physic in
oar western eountry. The various
fevers uiul billiotis disorders preva
lent in lire summer season are more
owing to tho want of it than to any
other cause. And not until fruit is
generally cultivated, and used as un
article of diet, shall we bo rid.of those
disorders which arc- sapping the life
lountains of thousands of bur farmers
nnnually. And if fruit wero admin
istered in many cases, as an article of
medicine, instead of the physician's
prescription, wo have no doubt it
would bo far better lor the patient.
Nature in this, as in all other re
spects, has bountifully supplied us
with varieties, whieh, if properly
cared for, will enable us to enjoy a
succession throughout the year. Hut
fruit is not only a necessary of life,
il is one of its great luxuries. What
is more enticing to the palate than
luscious fruit And as an article of
diet nothing equals it. It is easily
raised, costs but little, promotes
health and is lilted by everybody.
Most people! content themselves by
cultivating only two or three varie
ties. This should not be so. Fruit
is more needed throughout the sum
mer season than almost any part of
the year. And the varieties whieh
ripen at this time are least cultivated.
The farmer cannot take n step which
will add more to his own joys nnd to
those of his own family than by hav
ing such a succession as will furnish
him wilh fruit, the enlire year.
W.il lp.i for llie W ii.ilM-stL-c Home Joiu nul,
THE 1! RIG AND CHIEF.
D Y MHS. EMKI.IK C S. CUIf.T C'.V,
"News from CV.to (uiulo's I'ItI.j,
eh'i.lf-., lit)' " i'li tli.i M.ihi."
;t;.l ll.c int.. list's lu-a .Li wiling.
Far loo iloi'ii for human tot.im
W.1S till! liittPI UffHS ol wou
lln':illii..;; of In'.- buy luiil Inwt
'llioi; clear eyes sodi-nply liliii.
'that lliRhky nrciiKil Ktjilii.
Clusc'l it. ilcith ... I sui. cil in yoio-.
fte'ur mi railli lo i ci-t lii.r ..nut:
Ami tie' fillior, ('ioa -true.
S.'l.lll f iOll'H will to lllMI' ..III ltd,
Tli)- IriM liai.u'il liis i. if. i. it leut
I'l.w.il'il lo (lie .Mt'iry sunt.
Tim', liiM was ii wilil,
l!ut, tlii'lc'M ni acc tor ei'l'il 's cliilit.
Il nii...M l.o in iti-atli'H lone hour,
Sonin nl llial swirl holy imwcr
l llllt hail w itl ili'J liis iic.l,
Milil iiiiihalii. the lansoiii'it (loud 1
Slowly. Kiiilly, ila y l.y day,
Worn llii-i. loiul of riii-f away,
lli-avi'li leul cvi-r Iiit.i tlit'ii Iru'it
And (io'l lu.'i-r r.iis.'ilii- the jiet.
Ai id II. fir clill'l say.Jvvas iiiiili iulf
Kirn.liis li-ct 1 !m nionliiiii tteiul!
l'lotlilly Ilisln'S his hli.n cyf,
I'roiiilly noils his rrosl on lo ',lt,
l-'irtxely i;!imiiis lits wi'll a. nn-il Miratli,
llohlly rules llaiulit lliii.fl
llal h liis laft' is staitiinl ii.nl !;uw
Jliil.ll llio hlacli cap i s his l.rowj
Kritas hlout), (lie mash ilotli li ml
All, .avd ftyi.s, its rol l. In:lii.i.l.
Illai li lihhaii jas raven's wing
n.iu?lily--n.tin;: as a Kin -UoinS
il'S'il-1 of 'la. Iviii'ss tilood
Tl.ilni. iiiountain's crystal flout!
K'er may wash away Ih.'ir ciinie;
Sclt' l In sin lo cml of I imp.
This is Charles--the IU.smt Loud,
( l.ier of Ihe (iiteriilli. honle
Piilne ol ilal iny wirkcilness,
From whose will them's no rrihess.
In some wilil aiel jiarroiv i.is
In some ileci nti'l da. k morass
Wails lie lor l.is suIi.nslo.nl
I,an ;hs he at Ihe warriors jnoiul.
".Somlil )0 Ihe ti.ier.illn Clner
'I'hns lo sin ink fion. rci tiilmleath?"
Sooner mi:;lil llie ft. win's prey
Nellhil, hope In K' t nw.iy--Than
lor ptisoneisttoo.uett lo ileath,
Toeeape wilh hpe'loin's hrealh;
Kisier 'Iwleol so. ire sweet chill
Toealchaii'l liiift the ca!e wil.l,
Than for the rulers of the la nil
To cheek in crime lliis heiie loianil.
M is only when he wills it so
'I h it s'liue poor travele.s by may go,
rhiveiin ; 'tii'i'l. his col-l liercc eje,
Lctil'Sith shouM seal I heir destiny.
And thus il was, a .icmhling few
'asi-il hy Ihe rohber's ho'il review,
When a wonial.'s rpl'evs eye
liaised lo view the Chief or. liili.
Tor a moment hjli.nl he gazed
Then the hrigaii'l's cap was raided
In a silent proud salute
'J'l Unite of ti"-ierl, llio' Illnfe,
h;!e Ihe movint ol he; eye
Told .'.in':-lioe fill ina-lery,
YensaM, I Iiki' t '.VI had met
Anl .heir in-.-li'i'! Iii.tdi ll.-i!iyet
Veari a::o, lar disl.int si ies
Wiluri'cl 10 ilnal smites an. --iliS,
And 'fivas (lieie on Mr.iii?;cr .round,
Wild and . (in "1, Ihe scenes art'titnl,
T h it he sa w lir now a wile
lilesed ad ,, ini: (.1,. isli.il, lire,
And 'he saw hint once jf:.ot.--.Not
Ihe (lend it. hiltle sl.iin,
::it liie mount ii.. lohlx-r hol.l,
Keeper ol ile Oil's hMilul fold!
Theif he r.an.s his patents weep,
Thinking ol hiswlr.ior s!r'-.
I i his so. r. Ihal' I'l'-ked In ileal 11,
Poisoned hy (lift In:.. del ei's lneuLli.
N.ss.ix p...., TliSN.
'I don't like to see small things so
strictly pointed,' as the boy said when
he cut oil' the cud of the scoutmaster's
I)i:sTni:erivB LtoiiTvisc. Mr. J.
I'lr.iiislbrd informed us that one day
last week, . a lloek of sixty-live sheep
were killed by lightning; in the neigh
borhood (d Madison Station, in this
county. They hail sought protection
from th'1 ruin under a tall tree, and
were lying in a &ioup whim tho cur
rent struck them. They xverc the
property of Mr. S. J. S'uankliii, of this
place, and Mr. J. J!. Turner. Hum-
lillc (Altt.) Iii'eprnttelll.
IIr.L 0.vi: A not sea. We must rub
out an.l commence nnew ; commence our
house upon the rock. Let us protect
ourselves by fostering ani protecting
each other, if each littlo village will
rear up its own little jys'.em of home in
dustry; encourage ils carpenters, tailors,
shoemakers, blacksmiths, etc., it will not
be long until we shall begin to retain the
wealth of our mines.
Examine your own merits before
you decry others.
Ilavina for many years been confined
to a liio ol iilmost constant retirement
from tho world; seldom being permitted
to mingle in person with its diversified
scenes, or to culiivate much personal nc
quaintaut'o with tho people; unsolicitous
of popular favor; iuduliii;; no aspirations
ior oi.ii.-o or posmuu, ana louiiiu- .or no
station hieher limn that of the huaihle
und priva.lo cili.en the quiet and unpru-
teudiiiir member ol society, 1 had not tho
CM .11 (! U L
TO THE VUTUP..S OF
most distant expcctaiion of bein called J swer' all the commereial demand.'
upon lo become a candidalo to represent 1 of the country; oil. crs contend thafour
you in the lower branch ofyour approach- ; llnnkinu' ) stem isui.snlo, unreliable, uu
iiig Legislaluro, Highly appreciating any 1 ju,t, on I should bo dispensed w ilh as
doino.isiialion.s of confidence from tho i soon ns pr.iciical.ln, nnd tho cnnsiiiu
peoj.lo, and ever desirous to bo useful by ' tioual currency only be usiahlished;"
the employinent of ihe little ability 1 may that "I'auki and rag money are but a
possess, in whatever way it may bo direc- perversion of national and sound cur.en
ted, ami feeling myself second to ww in cVl deiriuionlal to the best rummer
loyally an I devotion lo tho laws nil. I in- 1 t-ial interests of llie country, and without
stitulicnis of our beloved country, I now, 1 wairaut in the fundamental law ol the
after mature relleciimi, comply wilh the 1 land," While soma are in favor of an
call.', made upon me, by submitting my entire metalic currency, and many others
self before you as a candidalo lor ihe of- nrc 'or miMuio of paper and specie,
(ice indicated; at the sumo time, distrust- ! convertible one into the other at llio
ftil ol my ability lo dis. barge tho duties will of the bolder, others again care
and obligations of mi olliro that emlira- i not wbi-tlu-r il be metalic, paper, or mix
ccs tho interest of llio whole coinniuiiitv, ' c-.l so tln-y have a sale and reliable cir
wilh that fun ess an I propriety that might dilating medium that they can at all
locxpeeied Iromoim of more experience, limes rely upon, while a rmj few. if I
more aplitudo, ami greater segacity. j
From the fact of my almost coiislonl
nhstriiction from the people of the conn- J
ly, thoiich a resident aniiniesl them Ironi
my iioyuooii, tmve clliisen lliis llietlioil
n Iho most elleclual ono lor introducing'
uiysoii id me many to wtimii l am nut a
stranger, and for making known lor; my
views, nnd tl.o piineiples 1 ciiterlniu,
touching soma ol'tiie cardinal poinls, bolh
ol Slain and (.Y.icral l'nliey. lhroiili
such a medium I liopo In address every
citizen of llio comity at his homo respec-
lively. Could I (latter myself, that I
should have llie pleasure of addressing
in person nil llieciti.ens ol tho coiiuiy,
the necessity of addressing llieiii ihroimh
a circular letior would be of no material
r or llio siilislnclion oi many to w iiom '
I tun almost, or wholly unknown, it may ,
l be n o t Ii ii i u aini
if notdesirable, lo make
a lew briel slntomeuts in reunion to my
sell during llio many years ol retirement
to which 1 have already alluded; j.isl
piecediim which I was a candidalo be-
lore you lur Ihe same ollice lor which i
am now asking your suffrages. Since
thai time sixteen yens have passed away.
From that dale almost lo the present mo
ment, llio school -room has b'-cii the prin
cipal iht-iilre nf my npcralion. In tin;
school-room, have been spent many ol
the best days ol my life.
If, indeed, I have ever done iiny good
for in v country, ih'il goo, I has been ihe
result of my feeble, but unwearied exer
tions in ihe school-room. There, amidst
toil, cures, and a ho.,' of vexations and
palieiicc-deiuolishin;; scenes incident lo
school- mows, have; my greiilest exertions
and nohlesi acliicvenieiit.s been made; j
and the belief of having done even a I
Utile no...! fur llie country 1 love with iho j
devotion ol a sou, begets my h
my iiroudest n Uei lions. Have 1
impetus to I.i: hliiig genius lor ihe attain-
m nu l of eminence and .lisliiiclion in any
ol tho liuoicr works ol lilt.-, or in any lau
dable cnlling, an hones! pursuit whalevei?
Then have I been heller lewarded for my
sL'hool room labors and anxiolies, tiii-u I
bv all the scanty necuiiiary rcwarlsofl
a hie tune service
science and a bri;:
An approvim: cm
assurance ihut all
has not been fur nan
it, lecble thou ;n
my exertions may have been f.
and advancement of "Voiui:.'
r llie eon, I
are to me. trophies
man's civic wreath,
ry, or diadem of kiiiL's.
To you, follow. citizens, who have
heretofore known any lliini of me, I conn;
to von wi'h no story of noble deeds no
recital of gallantry or patriotism in civil
or military service; nor to y on w ho have
known me long and well, whether in Ihe
finishing of prosperity, or strugglim; wilh
adversity, I havo no appeal lo make !
your favor beyond tho strietesi adherence
lo llie ju-l r 'wards of merit.
Whatever 1 am, whatever I hue" been,
is-lamiliar to i.iiiny of you. Until mai
lers not, whether fortune has wiiheld
roin me In r cnl.leti treasure, or lilled mv
coders lo over.'lo'.viim, my inlerest
iimirs as citizens ol llio sauieconmi
eovoriied by the saint.' laws, enjoyio;; tin
samo c.pialily of religions and pilitiea
riudils, nre identical ; whelher you bid ir
to ihe n 'ricnl lar.il , mechanical,
liie, professional , literary er
portion id the community. ,
At every arm has tho lii'it to ask i.f- ;
fiee at vour hands, it is uonallv ".vr1
rinht, as thinking, patiintic i-ud inlvlli -
gen' citiz' ii', I" examine rriiicnlly tho'
claims and prelentions of ihe man who:
solicits of von ihe author'nv lo bear a :
part in iiiiil.iir.r laws by which yon l ie to1
be gnvt.-rii''!. In the selection nl agents'
to transact die hu-iiie.-s nCle L'i-lalio;i, all :
personal an! selfish coiisideralioiishoiibl i
be sacrifice I at the shrine of your i-outi- I
trv's t;ori,. The honor and happiness ol ,
our country, its future ag'.'rainiiz -inei.t
anlgbiry. iias rlainis Iranst eudanlly hih- I
er on our piitrioti-m. If you fill your'
ollices with honor, ihey will be bono. a- I
,l; I the country " ill he honored. !
Mori of soundness, integrity nnd slal.ili- I
Iv. will imparl soundness ami ellicieiicy (
lo legislation. Hasty and inconsiderate
Ic.'islatiou on the one hand, or unp-ason
able protraction on the mln-r, will only be .
ayeldo I hy men of soundness and ti I. li- :
Iv. imnervious to rorruiit influeiiccs. 1 ho
max.uiol mo P"?Vl V "7i
'-. - .1..
of ll.e preat Jellerson is no
ir.i.itst. is ie canno c: mmiiiih l-i- nn; ni"e
iii nl rtvnv ntilnnlir. heart in the selection
of all oflieers. Uv the slricte: t si riitiuv,
1 expect-nay. I desire l ) be '3'-"'.
; . , an . . .'-.' llllflljl tu nur.
mm ii hiii mi wnnii i ' in niu a.- iuu
c,8l0t which, upon examination, is found
, .. ,.. ----- . ,
to be wonldoss,
No question of State or national poli
JNo question ol .Mate or national pou-
.. -. -.-.c -.
everv cmzen of Ihe coioniunitv. tlmn
. ' r,n ..
I ... nl! in HI l'DDP.,.11 '
Through the Press, on the Slump. nd
tli a nnonle it IS a uhjccl
. 1. : nf nrar:irfll ininof
un". 10 lh. peop'o -i-m.ndin5jcircul.tie3 .nediutn.
their most bcrious coiitfidcMiion, mid
I iha exorcise of tho soundest jud-inient,
it fhould be a rpiesttoii iiitinitely i.bove
puriizau zeal. , .
! ,!,., ,,. ,l, li,v nrwi...li,itf .... ,11 ,1,.,
ous ominous urn cnicua i cu. iinu
, l?u,,kj of iho S.oie. so soon as their d.nr
ters shall expire, nr.il say, " If we aro to
havo auv Hunks, let us liavo the Stute
i jnk and brnuchoi which are under the
, control of tho I.ogisloturo of ilia State,
1 nn, xv ii J cr U have no voioed rights and pri-
, viIik'os that aro uiiconlrollatile Dv the
people " Some contendthat our pro -
ionl banking law will afford us a ci re u-
i hitiiu medium (sufficiently sound loan
mistake nut, say r.vt with all liuuks,"
regardless of consequences, bring oppo
sed lo rerha rieriug un y tank w hatever
may bo the d.-uiauds of commerce or in-
i duslrial pursuit
Surely in the multiplicity of opinions, ' I
an.l the ti.lo ol discussion, error will b.
1 deiecicd and truth coiilinned.
1 The great mas-i of the pooplo are lion
i est in their individual views and shade
' of dillVieiii o, and iloubtless ore desirmi.s
1 of llie s'l.ino result a good sound rui rt ii-
1 Hilliciciit lur nil pr.iclii al purposes. .
I I'liavo never been a fjreat advocate fur
banking iiiytiliilions as they have existed
.- nianv vcars.boih in the Old oil. I and
in Aini'iica. From such institutions,
according to their history, in bolh hemis
pheres many serious financial calami-
),,.,, hnvo taken
ice. In tho lnstu-
l I. Ill Ulll . . 1 1 LIIUIllll lll'-lll., Ii-I
rv o! our own
t i , ; half n century back, the most
ra v ated pecnu I al V cm
rassiio'iiis have, hum tune to tune, been
felt, trowing directly, or indirectly out ol
our ilelt'ctivc system of I!. inking, lain
bound lo believe thai In all mil bankin.:
systems, csiici'ially in tmr slate, the
;;reat liiiidiiliientiil evil thai lias prud'.u ed
so many inoiietary disasters, is in ihe t.r
cmsirr ifsum of llie banks compared to
the cold ami silver.
Ins 1 IK-1 HO
loci t.-N lei'ii c i'ii r v iir.ivi'd bv
iho icccnt revnl
oils iimler our
i observi'ilioii. i he
i states and cs.iocia
i' of TeiiuesSe
ri di i. in
ii'iidt.'d becniisu ihey
iht-ir noli s in specie
; w lieu it could ho had,
u our streets
I luiiit ten 1" liliee.l per c
i over the paper ol any ol the
hanks ol' unl
in ; evident, that iho c xee.-s
issues over gold and silver is llie
delect of our baiikinu sysicui.
i Then to
ct a gradual ami perniauent
wiiiiiiiil a total iinnihilalii.il nl our
iusiiuitions is to make eW nnd
m on; tiliii lldn lit , ii ml think Hates
si( .( ,
iv.s- av. "Auv other remedy w ill have the
iii'.nieutaiy cll'ect of a iiultn! nullum
,, - ., , . i i . i ..l
I allevinti; llie pniil lor a srcnin, out leave ,
tint diseased patient extiosed lo a similar !
uneiice ol s iiisiiis no i paralyses.
, i ,
Tbcic was a lime
cuiintry. uhen lb.
in ihe hlstury o unr
currency was aluioM
, p,,,:r,.,. ,1,,,. ,. f ,.,
entirely l Ii a t o I ):"i-.i ana silver, it ap-
ll it i s Iroin llio
t nainiiltee of tl
repoi I on coins," ol a
I nited Slates Senate,
i FeLiruary -'Jd, JS31, "That our curren
1 cy itt the adoption ol the ('oi.siiiinloii,
was almost culiiely composed of cold
i and silver money." Tho bank nf North
I America, established, I believe, in the
I year I .SJ wilh a eapilal ol only l.ouu,.
uiiO, could not havo had an extensive
, circulation of paper, as il is said
' bank notes were laiely seen Soilh ol
tho Fotuinac, o' west of llie mountains,
j " From the adoption of the Federal cmi
j slitiitiun ill J 7 S 7 ilmvii'lo lsii(" says s
: Virginia wriler, speakin:: ol llio.-e limes,
I "hanks wero tl 1 1 km . wit in 1 1 .'.nun,
tho exception of a branch of iho ol
S. Hank in Norfolk about poi'i. The pa
per of tins bank scarcely Poind ilj way to
the interior of tho country; and il in y
lo truly said, iho currency nf lie; coun
try e. ,n inula! i e. r.lil l.e; cue n
lev .liilioiiary war lo I "'Mi or ''.'!i n"
! wero luoro orosper ui. and I
wero luoio prosperous
ill. 1:1 wore iho peoplo of the
and in cuiia'iy within thn
over fl i'iri !-. i more r ipi
Virginians especially wofo ll
an I silver, an I every n;rii
llv; an I thn
ash wilh gob!
w is prudent and in lustrion . Inel in bis
colf rs in ire or b-si lo spare. Iljt ihe
bar. lis (nine! What n i lian.e! "bike
iho U).is irec,,tiiey loive di'troycd the
heiilihlul c in i. linn ol ihe country, and
ii.llii.led mi tho people polilh ill and pa
ciniiary ilisii of ll.o i.i i-t deadly char
acter." It is a matter of hi.aoiy, ihut
in limes of cr-jat liuain.ial tli.-lresi and
cinliarriiSsineiit, v.c le ar ol no mo it-tary
disasters in liiu.-e coaotrie-i where ihecur
rency w holly consists ol tho j.rocions ni' t
ab; and that liiemo.-t i!i:-!ie,-sin inn nelaiy
revulsions vu-it, Iri.iii I. me to time, ilm-e
Slates tied countries that " nbound in
ciiMjUiiiI and rotten banks.'
Tl.o domestic nn 1 foreign romniurce,
(ml indued all llie monetary operations
.,,.... ..,.' ui.rn ruirli. I 1,11
with an exclusive metalic currency. All
I,.. . li. r.,i I ,,'Str In. I tvi.r r.f l!,H
"" I" .'
tent eiiioires an. refill . it's, ioiii the
; Habtloniar. nnd Assyrian, lo .he Ore
i i . t .
i .... .,.!.. ,
i i;.ii 1VII1I. 111. 1111 1 l.i.ri lil'Jl-fl.illl. mu
, , ., - , .. , ...u
, -,ct;iwl uMous f ..e-riy idl
tf i.Mi:iiuiiiiiiii'iiit. nnd iin: c.xivti''"
. , . . ........ . on i i m i
have uten con.iu. n. ,
have been com
i-uncrcv. in uu i i.i.i-s. -
silver curirncy. in our .uue-s
moo and. America havg been riousiy
XleJ i. en,ho,r.,M..cnu from li...o -
i ..: f..t.. M...I li.'iraliur. ui8
CIUI iici-, w"" -- - - . .,
riirrtncy was wholly polJ end silver,
- , frrilll ,he fraud of,
. . . i.- ..r.
, ., . . a tns deoinunz 11 iiojioim ui
, u"7 . , ,- l i t .1
ih (in after eiaousnuieiiii. - imii -
I '.il l ... . . .
Tmm wo ,leaf 0f no dera,.Sc,J
; ...1 - , 1 !,( t P i ii.A 1.1
e : - " ; " - ."
",v" . .. T
So it wtiereer joi j and suvtr are tne
I If the civil and commorcial rdutions
of tho world for indefinite periods of
I tinie, .hiiiiostic and foreign, have f;oue on
I under the iiiom ui.lavorr.li o auspices in
i ii t to ins si i nil c.iwmrrr timnt p
! ,,-,;,, ; A- ;.; .,
to maintain thai "Hanks of circulation
luii i.i,,. ..... i.. i.-;,. r .. .. ... it
are indispensable to negoiiato the ex-
hunne of the country, wlien at lln nio
I ment with tho f xception of a veiy small
portion of the South under Itritisli suhju-
I eiilion all llio ilomeslie ami loreiKii ex-
j riiam;" throughout Asia of over 400,
tn.iO.uUO people, nro conducted without
agency ol Hanks ol circulation.
all nations who nave ar
any degree ofcivilizaliou, gold nnd silver
) have, by common eminent, been adople.l '
as iho measiiiM or standard by which the i
I value of all properly for excbaii'.'.o can
be . nmpared and inlerchaiiged between '
j individuals, the value of all coutiiiels,
and all property estimated according lo
j the quantity of llieso metaU which it will i
C'liiiiiaiin, ii u I lor commereial jiuipnses,
j That Hanks, as coiilended by some,
j "are indispensable in increasing capital,
' in elleciiiig llio domestic and foreign ex
! changes of the eountry, and carrying on
I ils cmnieri e," is the very climax of ab-
Mii'ililv, when ihe history ol tl
isiory ol tl.o couuiry
j wiiliin a very low y
jar back, proves, be-
I a iloul.l, llial they nre not only mil
speiisabl.! in negotiating or coulroll-
. i . . i ' . i .... i i'.
me connncmni, niu usi . ... i iiuu uiioii-
interests ol llio eountry, out have
r failed lo create dcbl, iulhilo prices,
i Inrni'li nil soils ol means lor
i nil soils of me, ins lor cori'dtil
; speculations, an.1 expel tho specie I roil I
l Ihe ci.iiMtrv to i:ive room for their worth- .
ess issues, uiioii which llie pour are tax- i
I lo oav ihe iulerest. Hanks never ilid ,
mill they never make pormaueut ad
dition to iho currency, they cannot reg- j
ulatc cNchairT, and they have never lur-
nished it unless lo Uurjit I hum. it la .v.
Increase ol eapilal, nourishing commerce,
an I favorable cm haiif.es, all grow out ol'
ihe thrift and indiistiy of the country, the
' pro lnels of llie sml, nnd the enterprise ol
I llie ciliieiis.
1 1 am inter
to llie existing a!'
filiation of our Stale
llio Noithern Siockhol
ami riaiiter's bank.
leis of the Union
I it sue ' on whril i' n i :tit n nel ween I
,,,.,., t i tl,i.i ' I u I,, .llie i
Federal or Suite, and the money-power
of this country," there is great room for
serious objection, SiilIi alliance with
the Federal ( i u w I n lileli t Ii lids lo a con
solidation of power, destroying and
; ihe iin
nd v. lib tin
t it itl 'ii I,
c i a-, t rid
the till- 1
i oyer l
llie Slate an
heriy and pi
, r 1 1 1 1 1 1 :
r Stale llank, like all nicl
luiions, ,S;ale or .Natiminl, lias M
failed to establish
Isli a soiiini an
paper currency of tho stand
ihe precious metals. 1 am for an ever
lasting and in I ci mil i li mi i:l separation be
twTttn iho Siato and nil Hanks, le t (hi
li.inlc ol I eiiiiesM't', i.s na.s in'i'ii ici tun
in. 'lid. d by nil iho I
(iovernors of tho
Slale.inid tin; last I'lcsideuts of llial
i 1'i.iok, b u pot ill 1 1 . ; 1 1 i , I .i I i " i J , and ilscon-
ccrus closed up at as early a peiiod as the
' ( onvenii uee ol the ciii.ens will pi noil.
Such is the policy loo ol its lliruclois
from a M-llled coiivicli'Ui, that the he.n
I iulmests of the State reipiiro it. Hy such
1 policy an end would be made of the com
! petition foi making money between llio
Stale and us own citizens. As l.unlis
have been Irie.l, anil Inun I faithless as lis-
; cal a;;eilri, liinl sloinl ennneniiii'ii oy niu
i . oust, union anil hislm-v of tho country,
I pin III layer ol the lee
biir.-eineut ol the reveii'i
lion and ois- '
i.-d by the proper financial ollic
'I'reasiu-'-r ami I 'oniptrullcr of in
I h' lievt; it 10 be our lino p
put in firadiial Iniuidatioii t ry
our Slain Irec, slock, ne.ther nod hr.,in b, :
and wind them uj. so soon as it can be I
done t'Hii -diit wilh llio c.uniiicrcial, a.:- ;
riciiltiiral an I jiieehoiiicnl inleiests ol the'
country. I wmil I net be iindersluod as
bei.i opposed lo t iiarterlog a 11, ink will
everv lie-ii.ibh: ieslrictii.il, under any !
and every cir..uii!--liincc; lor such is iho
close anil iiiluualo connection of
I lank nancf an, I credits I rout loir, ton tin
in d habit wilh nil our extensive commer
cial up 'rations and business cute. p. i.-e-;
aii'Unch too, may be the connection id nil
revealed cniniti events wilh tho existing
state of ihiiigs, as may render sin
h p ill-
cy nece.-ary anl e pi; diet. I. ill lo
whatever extent I'uioks may exist anion -i
lis, I would say, let llielil by legislative
i lia, tiiicnls be Mibjecl' d to the Mile;; st
m ruliiiy, at stated periods, siiliieienll V
oil' n, to keep before lb" people tin-ir real
eiuiiliiioiil and whenever lin-y l iil I" com
ply rigidly wilh their ( hartered con !:iious,
b t theul he held .ic.'uuut.lble lo llie '
pie; subject to llie lorleiuiro or alioi:. h
inenl ol tln-ir i harl. is, or other puiii.-h-uienl,
f-.r u 'iicomplis nco Willi lio ir ( bar
tore I condiiious, an I secured lu'iu b-is-lalivc
interference while conij. lying with
I Wl! W'lsll lo
de..ioiic s'.v.e.- o
ex. I'isive n.r. ib'
Lo .1 ilivere.l l r iu llie
!.,!, k monopolies an!
s, wo mv.il place iho
tl,i; ban I.. oi loo I"'' ide.
iiliicienlly laiiht us llial
is, lory of power i.i in the
pern ru .
L. i, e,- .it;- i.f suppressin.; ihe is-uo
ireuiatioii of all bills or noles ol a
en'.'iiiiualion than livo dollars iii'.'r
civ in.: r
...oii.Uile iioucc, ( ' s.i... .it-,. j . -
, by what li.ieh or iilio:
i:ueil. ihe 111
' i 111 IIIO'I i all t V II 1 1 I' !'
created, will ,
Willi cola ami silver, i
j The holders ol si...
the . of I ail I I ''' ''
! noies are rcnerully
rin.r cl.issos ol the
.,. ,..,. ,
the last 1) find
out ami lh" fir-t 1 Miller, Il 0 Lau Mops
innieiil. It is eeneraiiv nio smaii nous
I - . . r . .- I i
' il,i nro seleeleil lor linuauon uy llie
tOll N 111111 I'M mx.; tnJ nib llli'Dl
.I.... c ii I I . if ft r it 1 1 ii i ri
. -;.rre..l .'; '
ui.iut nvi..-i v ....... -"-iif
, o . hi BlJ
7 , , ,.. . ., ' , ...... ,
, . ,.- .
nm' ' ""' . , ,)B ,t.(.iuriM i"r -
, noies. pari counlcrlcit, pari orn ,,.,, , iulo coin, the suppression o
out. part urn urrcnt, all incapaldo of.' ...i ,,i,... ihe redemption ot all
. - , , i f
bet n- used with any regard lo a bencfi
cial tconoiny" I would say let iho pro-
, con ui m i hchihii ui miii'imnii j'.
i it.. . : ti .11 1:11 1.. ..... an.l
r : r.n
under ten, m'
.fi.i'iuiii), uu u uma
, - .
when found necessary, all under 20, are
withdr.wn from circu'laiion. .ml m '
...... .iin, ... -ilu.
rnrr.K.. ,.7. rvn lero-r.lnol. coui"
lional currency fill upih. oJ-
" i r---rf -i
The people in whom reside thesov.
rreign power, nave tne riguc to
niainl redress at tho hands of their'
maud redress at t!
- jmmi. Jj;lie. representatives. Though
it would he injudicious to attempt all
. . ... : .1. ..
111 ."" 1111 ''"m" fuermi nan n o mu
at onee an enure extermination oi me
multifarious evils of our banking sys.
nn' J1'.1 "''y ri-presenlalivt; should
I r.'iuinueii ot ins patriotic duty, no
less than his constitutional obligations
to palliate the public distress, and
provide against the further conliuti
mice nt ruin upon the country.
If the representatives of the people
fail to exert the power committed to
them, by the omission of proper leg
islation, or the neglect of unceasing
vigilance lo prevent the recurrence of
such scenes of public einliarrassmenl,
and sad private disanlers as have pe-
iriodieally nlllieled tho community,
I they will he justly chargeable with in
j lid. -lily to lo iheir eonstiiueiiey mid a
' reeklesMiess oi' their ipialilied obliga
tions, and will render themselves lit-
tei lv utiwiiitliv of the uonlidenee and
A a c
The I i abilities of stockholders should
be such as lo secure the public against
: every pos.silrle eotiiingeney in the pay-
! mcni of llie notes ihev cause to be
suri, 'pi,,, unlimited liability ol tli
! st oe!xliul.U'i-s, not only itideinnilies th
. ' .
. . , cis:ui'es t lie superior
stability of tie' bunk. It was
able to Mich liability, that, in
and in lvia, when a great number ol
i.sh provincial II inks were swept,
Ii'om exisletice, among
stock Hanks ill I'higlalid,
Ireland, ami some oilier
entinl lies, scarcely it lailiire
known to have taken plaee. Th
isbil ores of some of llie .New
w as j
land, Nihil: and No
have, in the eiiacl iiii lil. of various
laws, w it bin a lew y.
i examples worths- of
irs since, set us
i - , :
liiiilalluli, l.y inereaMn1' llie lialnlll les
of the stockholders lo the, full extent
I llicii'i'i nl and pirsonal eslale.
'he fact is fully established by the
ol the people, thai
Hanks m e imt ri iiai'ie u iiom
i such rest net ions as will laily
the note holder and coiniiiaiii
If W e J u 1 1 LT1
I'msI, il cannot
of iho I'uliire by the
in doubled, but. cor-
iiiiali,ius live Icotii lilt: wholesome
restraints of legislative supervision,
will iicwt fail lo abuse llo; rights
and ri'.ile;',es conferred upon them,
and enihiii'.'er alike the liberties of
llie people and the prosperity I.I' the
Slate, Tin ir very iustinei is lo make
money. Tin-y care nothing for the
public wcilare any further than iheir
own ndvaiilage i-i eoacerueil.
1 1, is eerlaililv idle to talk about
'((iiial riirhts and privileges." while
' llie indiviilual property ofstoel. holder:
in l lilies is mil li, line lor
as ll'lleli us liie in !i idu.i
inercliaiils ami other tradesmen is
tiiriis. There is not one particle
, . i t
justice ill Ihe law llial, coil.pi
farmer or merchant to pay
hi.i note at j
maturity in lbuik and M-lb
s u 1 1 '( I s him to be dishonor!
and sued, if he fails to pay
ly, while it exonerates
ment and execution ihe ass
bun olil, or
'rou i judg
s of Hanks
and extends ihe time of the payment
of Mr d. bts, nnd e er denies to their
creditors n'd interest upon iheir
funds after lorcibly detaining (hem
lo suit, their own purposes. Forbear-
aiieo under sip'li unfairness and
Pot ism ceases lo be a s ir! lie.
li, i I eel I V 1 1 IS III 1 1
1 1, will be re.tilily perceived, that I goveriimeiit as tar as possible upon
base my doubts as to ihe cons: il ut ion- j plain and admitted principles; a lib
ably of'eslablishiii.: Hanks, National j eral and tuitrainmelcd cnminercul po
or Mate, that emit bills or bank notes j Hey the principles of live trade
which eiieiiliite as currency or luon- j throughout iho win hi, "the freedom
cy. Il is therefore equally doubtful i of the sea-," the doctrine ol progress,
uu nn , nil' nn i in" ii' r '" (
! i the State ol Tciiue.'-si'e,eo:isis;eiit. wilh
. ..... .., i" In, I .eel
the Legislature of
In r present consiiiiilioii, can exercise .
of the Slat
.1' Ki-hts, or
, s ivs, "lliat
ire ( outiiiiy to llie genius ol a
Mate, ami shall not be allowed."
I must aeknov, b-d.-e, I am not. able to
.-.' i' ;tiiv aiilliuii'y in otirSiate L'onsli
! 1 1 1 ( 1 1 1 lor es'iibli-hing iiiouopoly
' I i;;',ls or l In; eX'.'lii.-ivo pt i vili'Ues oi
, li uikinv: coi por.it ions, when they are
admitted to in; the sviil-t c
1 .'.::iill. ill See
deelarcs "T hal
money, emil. lull
10 rtielo "Jud it
no Siaie .vhafl coin
of credit, make tiny
((; but ojihl and silver coin a tcn
'ib r in pasmeiils of debts, or pass any
law impairing the i.bligalion of eoa-Irael-."
; To say ihe h-asl, it is certainly s:i
fir al all tunes ta abst.iiu from all
power which ihe .spirit and principles
of I lie consii uliou da not clearly an-
.1 I.. s I A ,t I (!,,.
I I, III l.f. HI - una ,iu, i j , 1,11
.ow( r lo I'eiii money, regulate i tic
Value thereof, cci
fun laoliey, can
...I i v.. 'l-l I- ...
Then of course to
o.iiv relate to
and not to wiper
v.biel. cannot be smelted, reliued vVc.
t'ns:.iu:;:i . f tiie United States de- ve and progressive, ami so wen cn.u-.-l,,!-s--Tlmt
('..iilm-css thall Arce Hated to accelerate a Ireo people in
Ibti it would bit ditlicult all at once to , fourths ot its existence navo been un
I'lisabuse the public mind relative to I Yr Democratic administration and
the constiiulionality of our system of every year ot such administration, lias
li.uiUi;!, kimci! it has hvin m loiitf at -
(mil wi-dil 'in ln n.ii'linlti iti I'Vi'TV I'Olll" ;
MllCt' IIS On,rIll. Llli
i at tin tiue nH
I I It...., t
lllillU Id IIUl !l Ill'll.i . I
to ibe ililicrence mm -.y-;-"' "'w ",
; inil- l' I'.iiikiiiii
' I...' u hen K i ' 111 1 '"')
. i , aHj impic scciiriiy
. i 1 s i i lit .t . -
"b" - J"" v.'rtil.ilit v of
- - , ...
.riiin.i , .1 .
j the counter where issued,
; , Ue titutiiiii of sold and silver
. IVI JM, ----
,.,,,, to llio tircatest nractieable ex-
rr nnpiT ill oi uiiiary uusiness irans
1 ' . . .-
1 . i- . .;.
NV'l(. .,rol)crv ullt.r8toad there is
ihut little diilerencc with the'reat body
...... 0 . .
1 1 1 1 '
joflhu people only as to tho txtcnt to
; which the reform desired may safely
I think i havi shown from bistort
, cal facts, that Banks of paper circula
; (inn nro not ahtuluMy necessary
tor eominercial purpos
1 1 ... .1 ' . ..
( ,ur eomun rcia purposen, antt tlio reg
I illation ol exchanges, and from our
, own itnuicdiato observation and tho
, exper onon oi many w a ixwiy rcg
' ulated system of Hanking is ono of tho
; most vitiating and tleplorabla calam
ities that has ever nllliotcd our Coun
try. I have also endeavored to show
by rol'eronco to the charted conditions
oi' Hanks in existence, that such ro
form cun be made ns to furnish us
with an ever-available, sound circu
lating medium nl mixed currency.
1 If wo act wisely, we must profit
from the lessons of experience. The
i woik of reform has already comtiiPii-
eed, and a. w ise, nnd judicious I.egisla
I tun' will ellV'ct its consummation, and
! the indebtedness of the fState soon be
j liquidated. We have a cheering
: proof of' the reform already made
i from the late advancement of our
i n.mds from the low rate of about 00
cents in the commercial cities of the
Xorih to HI ets wilh an upward ten
dency. Overtrading and speculation
have been checked, and eonlidenco re
. tored. 1 oppose any further State
appropriations while the state is in
di bt, uiilcni in case of unseen rebel
lion or insurrection, or some such a
From the establishment of the Fed-
!(,ril t ; V(. ,.,m. ,lt, political parties
i have divided the people. During thn
i administration of tho elder Adams,
ic lines Were
distinctly drawn be-
I twecn the Federal and Republican
liiorties. Tho s! I'll.';'!.' between the
!,.,,,, .,,!,,. 'i,,,,,,,. ;,, .(, nv.
eiiiment. as is generally known to the
u.h(,() ,,, ,.Vi n,sll(.d j niacin''
ri,,,,,,,,. I il-,, . I, n-w.t.f nrm-nl,,
of liberty and defender of popular
rioliis.iu the Presidency over his an
tugniii.d, John Adams the leader of the
A government in the hands of the
people ii popular government, was
then but. an experiment. Many promi
nent stati sinan, honestly doubted
the capacity of ihe people to rule
I lieniseives, and were consequently
I he zealous advocates of a strong ecu -tr.il
government, a consolidation of
the power of the States in tho Federal
li'ovcrninont. The prejudices in fa
vor of such government, had been im
bibed from too great a veneration
of the lime-honored institutions of tho
mother country by a respectable num
ber of the statesmen ami patriots of
tho Keyolui ion. The republics of
oilier days had existed only long
enough to render doubtful the experi
ment of a government that was to em
iunle directly from the people. The
I'liiunl.ti ioti upon which most of them
I attempted to build the superstructure
of their greatness, svas deticient un
i generous, and coal racy to the estab-
isiieii principles oi iiuuiaii nature;
whilst others founded on a more endu
ring basis, met with their early down
dl by the political corruption and
moral turpitude that had crept into
their halls of legislation, ami contam
inated the eiti.ens,
The defence of State rights, nnd a
slrii't construction of the constitution
of (he general liiHcriunent, the advo
cacy, as a general principle, that it is
best for the peace and happiness of
I the I'uiou lo avoid the exercise of
I (loiibi ful posvers, ami administer the
111 Keeping wii.uue auvaniages oi ino
age and the increase ol tlio true re
sources of national strength by the
encouragement of industry in ag
ricultural and mechanical pursuits;
ihe general dill'usiou of intelligence,
. . -1 -, e ... I- ... t -
"llm"""""" "' r,,Ju","""v
keuing up of a general emulation and
muting in the lioiuls ol general tirom
erhood all mankind; the abhorrence
of I'ae practice of mingling up religion
with parlies and calling in question
eei 1,-iin iertus ol religion as objections
or disq i-tlbications for ollice, the sup-
t of I he policy of territorial expan-
; sion, and a hearty welcome with
: "i"'" '"' '". receive foreigners Hying
I rein oppression m their native land
and bestow upon them the rights of
American eiti.ens, after a brief resi
dence in lliis country; and in line, tho
amelioration of Ihe condition of man,
and the full exercise of his noblest
powers and attributes, have ever been
Miine of the leading characteristics of
tin; Deinoer.Uio hosts of the nation.
To principles so ennobling, so expans-
I - -- i ,
i :i',l iho dements ol Irue greatness.
---- -- - ...!.... -
I Till' r ,'. Il'i . . 1 1 S I S.
the Icdera lists, unut-r
i i lw..,n intiosed,
i ........ ,w...n i
From the origin ol our government
1 lo the present lime, more than three
, V4 " u!mJ
. i ... i
: ii-- I -"' ik vi iw ivnuuimi v Ajrailiu,
1111 ' rilP1 ftshasbrea the increase of
1 .1 I - .
I !"' " ""'P,
i ns inoii-cuuii, uiiu us uciicui."?. L i.uer
i democratic governinent, we havo
enjoyed a bountiful harvest of social,
national, and personal happiness, and
by it havo been conducted to our pre
sent state of unptirralleled resources
i and prosperity. The policy and ine
i - , :
surcs advocated bv thn jemocratifl
party from tho days ol Jrliersoo ana
Mad.son have ever been inopHWi'
to all Ihe old Federal 1 ?
Hamilton and Adam dywW and the
priUcih. oflh.t party J have ever
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