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The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, February 03, 1904, Image 4

Image and text provided by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn95073194/1904-02-03/ed-1/seq-4/

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Fr a Hero's Grave
The tuner tttln to resonance again
The foreat lore .
But lie who heart housed wind and sun
and .rain.
Awakes no more.
They laid upon his breast a crown of
thoru , .
With roses twined.
For os, who braved so many stormy
His peace to find.
Now. -Mother Earth in her reat. tender
inn aun wwi mxr. .,, varue
That sons disturb, nor touch with au
His quiet sleep.
He was so tired, he waited Death's re
lief. A weary while throuah
Yet we who loved him may not tnrouu
our arlef
Forget his smile. nim-
-Charlstt e Seeker in New Orleans Times
Started ShcrMan on Famous RM
The aaaa who started Gen. Fnii
Saeridaa oa his famous ride from
Fairfax Station to Winchester to win
back a battle that was lost, lives in
Warreasburg. a village In this coun
ty., and his name is George MUeii.
says "a correspondent of the Chicago
Chronicle, writing from Decatur, IlL
This incident is the old veterans
most treasured memory of the war.
and he delights to tell how he sent
Sheridan galloping down the Shenan
doah valley at 2 o'clock in the morn
lag of Oct 19. 18G4.
-I was a private in the 202d Penn
sylvania," says Mixell, "and Col.
Charles Albright commanded our
regiment We were on duty at Fair
fax Station, twenty-five or thirty miles
soathwest of Winchester, in old Vir
ginia. Near Winchester runs Cedar
creek, near which Sheridan's army
was in camp. City Point, where
Grant was at the time, is about twen-ty-tve
miles south and west of Win
chester, in West Virginia.
"Yoa know Sheridan left his army
to visit Gen. Grant and have a confer
ence with him. He did not think
Early, the Confederate leader, would
surprise and rout his army; be didn't
think Early was strong enough. So
he took plenty of time and was in no
harry to return to his command. That
is why he came by Fairfax Station.
"It happened that I was on guard
duty at the headquarters of our colo
nel the evening Sheridan arrived at
the station. Col. Albright had his
headquarters in a large house near
the railroad and I patrolled the porch.
-When Sheridan arrived be was
aloae and came up on a black horse,
not a Urge one. but a magnificent ani
mal fall of spirit and splendidly pro
portioned. He dismounted in front of
the house and started to pass me. but
1 stopped him, not knowing who he
war. bat just then my colonel came
out and welcomed him and I saluted.
"He spoke to me pleasantly, and
that's probably what gave me courage
to do what I did later. Sheridan went
into the house and was soon in bed,
I guess, for it wan late when be came.
I .continued my watch without any-thiaa-
unusual hanuenlnc until about
2 o'clock in the morning, when sounds I
of cannon firing came from the direction-of
Winchester and some other
sentry called to me that he thought
Sheridan's army was in a night battle.
"I knew this was unexpected and
something told me to call my colonel
aad Sheridan and I woke them up.
Sheridan jumped out of bed and
baked what was wrong and I told him.
He ran out on the porch in bis shirt,
listened a minute, made some strong
remarks and called for his horse.
"While the animal was being
brought he was getting Into bis
clothes. He Jumped on his horse, or
dered my colonel to get bis men out
and galloped off. He was alone then
and If he had a guard he picked them
up ia our camp. He may have left a
couple of his men there when he
came up to the colonel's house. I
never heard anything more about his
ride except that he got there and
found his army on the run and made
them stand up and fight Our regi
ment did not get in the fight because
it was over before w got there and
we were stopped on the way."
Mr. Mixell gleefully relates how
Sheridan seemed put out when he,
heard the sounds of cannonading as of
distant thuader when aroused from
Fer the Yeueeer Generation.
The younger generation little know
the conflict trials and persecutions
endured by their fathers for the pres
ervation of the blessings which they
now enjoy, says a writer in
the Philadelphia Ledger. Had they
come up through the days of
Horace Greeley. William Lloyd
Garrison. William V. McKeaa.
George W. Childs. Colonel Fitzgerald,
of Philadelphia. Charles A. Dana, of
the New York Sun, and such revered
editors as A. S. Barber. Sr., and A. S.
Barber. Jr.. of the Woodbury Constitu
tion; Harry B. Paul, of the Camden
Review; Siaalckson Chew, of the
West Jersey Press; Bart L. Bonsall.
of the Camden Post; A. L. English, of
the Atlantic City Review'; Thomas E.
Hawkins, of the Cape May Star, and
a host of others who cannot at pres
ent be brought to mind, they would
be better fitted to appreciate the gift
oi freedom headed down to them with
dcaa hands and pure hearts as a
sacred legacy.
Very few of these leaders of thought
that shaped the educational course
throughout the civil war remain. Near
ly all the ministers of the Gospel are
dead: the makers or law have de
parted; nearly all the Supreme Court
judges have passed away; very few
-doctors that were distinguished in
' practice tea years ago remain, and it
seems a fittiag tribute, as we notice
them passing, to call attention to the
fact in-order that their memory shall
he perpetuated and their light shine
upea the pathway of a younger gea
eratJoa. The deaasing of the blood by the
sacrifice of such noble lives has caused
religion to assume the asceadency and
aaiae with a more intense eff ulgency
aad spleadpr than ever before. I do
not believe a greater height has ever
heea attained ia religion and educa
tion, fa the recognition of the rights
ef man aad individual.
A great deal still remsias to be
done. Let nil Grand Army men see
that -survivors of the civil war be
added to their aambers. that the rap
idly dinlaishiag poets may be replen
ished tad perpetuated. Let the Sons
of .V-twaas urge upon their fathers
still living the necessity of giving this
consideratioB. Aad let
brethren, who are bow
to the fullest extent the
ef freedom that have Jipenec
fraR. see that then-
children are taught from what aoarea
these blessiags bare emaaated, that it
nay be haaded dowa and perpetuated
as a sacred history
Drummer Bay of Shileh.
If he lives until 1915 the last om
cer on the active list of the United
States army who saw service in the
civil war will go upon the retired list
This will be just fifty years after the
close of the war. The "Old Guard."
as the civil war veterans now holding
commissions in the United States
army are known, is dwindling rapid
ly, the recent retirements having re
duced then- number to seventy. Two
of these veterans, who occupy impor
tant positions, will not retire for sev
eral years yet One is Judge-Advocate
General George B. Davis, owho
will remain in active service until
1911, and the other, Commissary Gen
eral John F. Weston, who does not re
tire until 1913. The last of the Old
Guard," if he lives, will be Lieut Col.
John L. Clem of the quartermaster's
department who will be eligible for'
retirement on account of age, Aug. 13,
This officer, who is depot quarter
master at San Antonio, Tex., is the
-Drummer Boy of Shllob." Few who
served in the great struggle of the
GO's have a more dramatic record. He
was an orphan when the war broke
out, in 1861, and. although but 10
years of ace. tried to follow the
troops to the war as a drummer boy.
Time and again he was refused, but'
in May. 1863, he succeeded in secur
ing a place with the Twenty-second
Michigan volunteers, and accompa
nied that regiment as a musician and
lance sergeant He was at last in
the army, although not quite 12 years
old. At the battle of Shiloh, or Pitts
burg Landing, his drum was shot to
pieces, and his gallant conduct earned
for him the title of the "Drummer
Boy of Shiloh," since woven into
verse and drama. At Chickamauga he
threw away his drum and carried a
musket and it is related of him that
when a Confederate soldier called on
him to surrender and rushed at him
with drawn saber, little Johnny Clem
used his musket to sucb advantage
that the Confederate was left on the
field and the drummer boy escaped.
Col. Clem was mustered out of the
volunteer service in September, 1864.
He returned to his home in Ohio,
spent several years at school, and
finally received an appointment to the
army from civil life in September.
1872. He recently came into public
notice by his indignant disclosure of
an attempt fb bribe him by a con
tractor sending him a box of cigars in
which was concealed a one hundred
dollar bill. Clem will be the last of
the "Old Guard." and will undoubted
ly retire with the star of a brigadier
general. Philadelphia Press.
The Heroes of Port Hudson.
In a letter to the New York Sun
i George E. Abbott of Brooklyn says:
"Mr. J. l. uunuicis leuer in ine
Sun of Nov. l. is in the right spirit.
The government should redeem the
promise of Gen. N. P. Banks to the
heroes of Port Hudson and appropri
ate the money to have a medal of hon
or struck off for the surviving mem
bers of the 'forlorn hope.'
"On June 14, 1863, an assault was
made on the Confederate works, in
which the Union side last 203 killsd
and 1.604 wounded. The Confederate
loss was only 22 killed and 23 wound
id. After this bloody repulse Gen.
Banks called for volunteers to form a
storming column, and over 1,000 men
responded, led by that gallant gentle
man. Gen. H. W. Birge. The fort sur
rendered on July 8, and the sacrifice
of the thousand was not called for,
but they certainly deserve the medal
for their good intentions.
"It would cost the government but
a small amount now, as a great many
of the thousand have answered their
last roll call."
Ellsworth's Zouaves.
Ellsworth's Zouaves were recalled a
few days ago to the minds of all who
remember the incidents of the early
days of the civil war, when it was an
nounced in a Washington dispatch
that the war department had received
from William Clausen of New York.
the old flag of the First New York Fire
Zouaves, the regiment raised and-commanded
by Col. Ephraim Elmer Ells
worth at the beginning of the war. It
was the same flag that Ellsworth
hoisted on the staff of the Mansion
House at Alexandria. Va., on May 24,
1861, after he had torn down the rebel
flag, which Incident cost Col. Ells
worth his life. Mr. Clausen came into
possession of the flag as a gift from
Andrew Govan, who was quartermas
ter of Ellsworth Post G. A. R., and he
asserts he has documents to prove
that it is the flag represented. The
gift to the war department was made
on condition that the flag should be
added to the war collection in Cullum
Memorial Hall, at West Point New
York Tribune.
Morgan Visits Old Cell.
Standing at the door of his old cell.
No. 21, at Columbus, Ohio. Col. "Dick"
Morgan. of Lexington. Ky., this week
set at rest the forty-year-old story
that Warden Merlon, in charge of the
old penitentiary, had helped Gen. John
Morgan and his officers to escape. Col.
"Dick" said Merion was true to his
trust and had not aided at all.
He declared the Confederate prison
ers dug the tunnel from his cell to the
outer world without collusion -of nny
one of the prison officials. "Dick" had
exchanged cells with his brother in
order to permit the latter to escape.
Mrs. Morgan accompanied her hus
band and was deeply interested in the
scenes of his early privations.
Veteran's Death Due te Accident.
Comrade Henry Kissenger, past de
partment commander, Grand Army of
the Republic of Ohio, who died recent
ly, enlisted when 17 years old ia com
pany B, Ninety-third Ohio iafaatry.
He participated ia raaay battles, and
was severely wounded at Missionary
Ridge. In 1895 he was elected senior
vice commander, aad in 1897 com
mander of the department of Ohio. On
the day of his death he was assistiag
to form the parade at Dayton, where
au-aftemoon reuaiea of the soldiers
and sailors of '-southweetera: Ohio was
taking place.'whea his horse sudden
ly reared, falliag over backward aad
inflicting injuries from which he died
wlthia the boor.
The English laagaage is much la
tme in -Panama, especially oa the At
lantic aide.
Cam as a Fauttry Feed.
While we have for years dou all
la our power to check- the too- frae
use of corn la tha poultry ratloav-w
yet regard 'it as ome of .the moat im
portant feeds for poultry.- Fed for six
months at a time aad as a single ra
tion it la almoat always used at a dis
advaamge. Con fa badly over-aal-aaced
on the carbohydrate alaa. aad
its constaat feeding, not only injures
the Internal organs of the bird re
ceiving it, but It ia to a considerable
extent washed; aa the fowls can digest
only about 'so much of this klad of
matter aayway. The balance must go
through ia a partly digested state.
This may be the cause of the iates
tiaal disturbances that are sometimes
the result of Its contiauous feeding.
The man that feeds corn aloae 'is put
tinginto each fowl each year a good
deal more' money' than is necessary.
In some cases this may amount to as
much as 25 cents per bird per year
wasted, and worse.- On a lock of 100
fowls this. is quite aa iteni. But feed
corn In conjunction with other things
and all wUl be well.
Fowls vary greatly in the elects
upon them of the com fed. The young
and growing birds, especially those
that exercise a great deal, show less
elects of its use than the older birds.
This is largely because. the fowls in
exercising burn up more of the carbon
contained in the food by means of the
chemical action going on in their
lungs. The old hens are less active
and cannot use the carbon in such
great quantities. The result is that
tbey lay up unnecessary fat and in
time get too fat' to lay well. This Is a
condition hard to cure. The writer
once bought a dozen Plymouth Rocks
to add to his flock. To his surprise
they did not lay an egg till the winter
was about half over. He surmised
that the birds had been fed on noth
ing but corn for a long time before the
purchase was made. He asked the
former owner about it and found that
this was true. These hens were all
old birds; that is, more than IS months
old each.
When a fowl is to be fatteaed for
market for the American market at
least corn is the proper food for her.
If kept somewhat closely confined she
will put on weight very rapidly. Sucb
a bird might not do for the foreign
market where 'they want flesh rather
than fat But the American buyer is
not particular. He says that a very
fat bird is a tender bird, so he buys
the bird that is fat and throws the
surplus fat away. The fat bird sells
the best,. and the city retailer never
complains if the birds are fat The
country producer therefore has no al
ternative but to make all the birds he
sells as fat as the market demands,
and corn is his great ally in doing
When corn is to be extensively fed
we believe it is better to feed much
of it in the form of corn meal and
made into ' a pudding at that The
moisture content of such a mess is
worth considering. It takes a great
deal of water to ' carry the food
through the intestines, and when drj
corn is fed, it must frequently be the
case that not enough water is taken
to properly do this work. If the fowl
fills up on corn before going to roost
there is co opportunity to drink be
fore morning. This must frequently
result in a disarrangement of the
digestive organs. This view of it
would rather favor the position of
those poultrymen that say that the
soft mash should be fed at night and
the whole corn in the morning. The
matter is certainly worth thought anu
Cost ef Feeding Hens.
From the Farmers' Review: During
the last week in January of the year
now drawing to a close I weighed all
the grain and other kinds of feed my
flock of 205 chickens consumed and
estimated its value at what might
have been obtained for it in the local
market Although the aggregate sum
amounted to more than one who had
never investigated the subject might
have expected, yet for each individual
it was surprisingly small. I selected
this particular time because I was
then feeding only mature stock and
because there was then nothing to be
obtained from outside sources. For
these reasons I expected to be able to
make a fair estimate of what it cost
me to keep my poultry duriag'the
winter. The results quite agreed with
those obtained from former estimates
based upon similar investigations, and
I felt justified in computing the en
tire year's cost therefrom. Of rye I
fed 30 pounds, which was then worth
45 cents per bushel; of oats 76 pounds
at 25 cento per bushel; wheat, 20
pounds at 60 cents per bushel; soft
corn, one bushel worth 35 cents, and
ground feed, 20 pounds, at (1.00 per
100 pounds. I also fed a generous
quantity of ground bone and chopped
vegetables, besides what skimmed
milk they would driak every day,
which I estimated at 10 cents per 100
Altogether the total cost for the
week was about 11.65 for the 205
chickens, or about 4-5 of one cent for
each individual or a little less than
4 cents a month, which, at the same
rate would amouat to something near
45 cents for an entire year. This esti
mate seems incredibly small, but ia
reality It Is still too large; for during
the summer months the flock obtaiaed
enough from the range to materially
lessen the cost of their maintenance;
yet as little as it cost for one, it must
have cost me for the 205 .at least
$80 for the salable grain they con
sumed. Besides this, they probably
obtaiaed about the stock yards and
horse stables a considerable amount
of scattered grain, but since this was
not salable aad much of, it would oth
erwise have "gone to waste," it i eed
not be reckoned here. -iDuriag
the week specified I gart
ered nine and one-half 'dozens of
eggs, which I sold for $1.71. or C cents
more than the value of what the flock
consumed. Although this was quite a
falliag off from the aumber of eggs
usually produced (owiag, no doubt to
a protracted cold spell -foe a time
previous it' was still" ia excess of
what It cost to maintain the flock for
the same time. From trie above in
vestigations aad coasequeat estimates
I have drawn this coaclusiba: That
from twelve to fifteen eggs daily the
year rouad will malatsla a farm flock
of from 150 to 200 bees; all above this
should represent the. profit obtained.
Actually, I believed that the average
farmer's family consumes eggs aad
poultry enough to compensate for the
cost of Iwwplmi their flock, and that
all that ia soli usually represents no
more thaa the real profit accruiag
from the tevestmeat
Certaialy oae la act justified la bas
in c the estimate of, aa entire year's
raiieas upon the amount coaaumed la
We are glad to note that at
of the dairy caseatkma hafaa held
this whiter, at wa!c! exhibits of but
ter aad cheese are made, oae feature
oa the program Is a coafereace be
tween the judges aad the makers of
butter aad cheese as fb reasons for
their acoriaga. Hitherto judges have
rendered their dectaloae aad this has
been the end of their work. The ex
hibitora aad the spectators could guess
as to the reasons for the low scores
aad the high scores. The' men that
so,;, the low scores west home aad
made the same old Manners that had
resulted ia their butter entered for
Prizes act gettlag any. it has long
been believed by progressive dairy
men that, the exhibits of dairy prod
ucts should be made more Instructive
by the judges explaining to the ex
hibitors aad audience generally why
they made their dectoioas. Of course
this is not aa altogether pleasant
thing for the judges to do. aa it opens
them to more criticisms than other
wise. For if all the exhibitors know
on just what points the jadges made
their decision many of them are bound
to. disagree with them, aad this will
give rise to numerous criticisms. Bat
we believe It Is the right thing to do.
even though it is hard on the judges.
They must be willing to sacrifice
themselves to public good. The ex
hibitors themselves must not be too
exacting in this matter. They must
re neater that all such decisions are
a uatter of judgment largely, aad that
fixed standards are impossible. The
maker, of butte- may use aa amount of
salt that will viease himself, but the
butter judge Must mark fte saltness
up or dowa as, it corresponds to the
requirement of the market in which
he has received his' experience. 7s
know that different cities of the world
have very different standards la this
respect So it goes as to color, flavor
and so forth.
But there are some things oa wh!c
there is considerable agreement
Among tuese is the presence of weedy
flavors or flavors resulting from the
butter haviag been exposed before or
after churning to smells of various
kiads. Where these are. detectable at
all In the butter they of course are
just cause for marking off the exhibit
Men differ very greatly in the keen
ness of their senses of taste and smell.
The fanner that has made the butter.
beng accustomed to the smells of the
barnyard, the weeds in the pastures,
and a multitude of smells of vegeta
bles aad grasses, may not be able to
detect such in the butter, while those
not accustomed to them detect them
at once. The butter aad cheese judge
must be keen in such matters. These
conferences of the judges with the
makers of butter and cheese are sure
to be helpful to both.
The Naming of Farms.
Until within recent years the cus
tom of naming farms was little prac
ticed, at least in this country. Here
and there a far-seeing man would give
a name to his homestead and proceed
to make it famous, for the purpose of
Increasing his revenues derived from
a good reputation. Recently, how
ever, we have noted a very great in
crease in the number of named farms.
That this practice has a certain value
can hardly be gainsaid. A man will
hardly trouble himself to name his
farm if he is only waiting for a chance
to get out of farming' and into some
thing else. The naming of a farm in
dicates a tendency to permanency on
Jie part of the owner. It Isnds tune
to' his establishment provided he is
able to sustaia the role he has be
gun to play. When we learn of a farm
being named we expect to see some
indications of enterprise,on the part of
the farmer. It would hardly be In
keeping with n nice name to have
fences tumbling down, the barn un
palnted, rubbish scattered about the
dooryard, and everything at loose
ends. We expect and generally find
that the owner of the named, farm Is
tryiag to make his farm more than an
ordinary one. It Is generally well
fanned and kept in tidy condition.
Frequently we find the produce com
ing from it of a superior quality and
put on the market in the best of con
dition. Before Farrowing.
For some days previous to farrow
lag the sow should be iatroduced to
her room to get acquainted with it,
for to be shut iato a strange place the
moment before the birth of her litter,
they sometimes are dissatisfied, get
restless and cross, aad endanger the
Uvea of many, if not all, of their prog
eny. Just before farrowing do aot
feed too much cold raw food, or a
surfeit of grata, but feed warm aaah,
bran, shorts, or a little oata or bar
ley chop, some warm milk, or whole
some slop from the house, and a few
roots. The same diet will apply after
farrowing, but do not be la a hurry to
feed for a few hours, nor intrude into
herjapartment with too much noise or
bustle. It worries aad excites her.
There are liable to be great damages
and loss incurred by the sudden rising
to bid defiance to an unwelcome in
truder. It ia very Important both be
fore and after birth to see that there
Is not too much coarse beddiag. It
will be bunched by the mother, and the
little ones will not be able to get
arouad easily, aad may, get crashed
by her. After a few days she may be
let out alone. Too much coaflaemeat
is not good, and being abut up with
her young she is liable to throw them
around and hurt them. Wm. Bunt
Coal Tar Colors Prohibited;
The food commissioner of North
Dakbta has sent out a circular prohib
iting the use in that state of batter
colors founded on coal tar dyes. Some
of 'tjiese dyes are called analine, but it
matters not what the aame given them
be, they will not be allowed to be used
in food articles, If 'the state can pre
vent it Ihere is really no necessity
for .the use of these dyes, which are
geaerally regarded aa ia a measure
harmful to the human system -when
used la food. There are vegetable col
ors that are just aa good, but which
have;been drivea out of the market
to seme exteat by the cheaper dyes
nsisnartarrid from coal tar. This law
toes.mto effect oa April ,1, 1904. A
similar ruling went iato efect hi Min
esota on January 1st We may ex
pect to see a similar rule put iato ef
fect la all of the states haviag dairy
aad food
There is something fine ia the idea
of love at first sight It usually meant
the first eight of real tove-the divine
clearance of worldly haae.frem the
eyes of the lovers.
There are but fifty
mills Hall
If a mast baa aot selected his pota
toes for seed when he waa harvestias
them ia the fall, heat least should aot
permit the winter to "pats' without
doing it in the cellar. -Tab potatoes
that are to be used for seed should be
given better treatment thaa ia usu
ally accorded the potatoes that are
used for the family, table or that are
sold from time to time. Ia the first
place it ia advisable to select for seed
the,-potatoes that have the best shape
and, sixe. A man. may make a selec
tion oae year aad not realise that his
crop is aay better thaa the crop from
small aad gety Med. But ia the
course of several years' selecUoa, the
results are easily discernible. Ia fact,
it is quite generally believed that po
tatoes "run out" only because there is
a tendency to select the poorest for
seed. The potato grower may take it
for granted that selectiag seed does
count in the long run.
We know that oa many farms the
small potatoes only are saved for
seed. This is especially the case when
there are a great away of them aad
there is a strong market demand for
good-sized smooth potatoes. The bias
of potatoes are picked over again aad
again, the best potatoes always being
selected. We have seea bias In which
the only potatoes left at planting time
were very small ones, ana these were
used for the new en p. The farmer
should set himself againut the temp
tation to sell off his best The selec
tion should be made early ia the win
ter, and the potatoes saved for pleat
ing, placed in tight, barrels or boxes
and kept in as cool a place as pos'
sible to prevent sprouting. When ex
posed to the temperature and the heat
of the ordinary cellar potatoes begin
to shrivel aad to sprout by .midwinter.
The flrst sprout is always the best
oae the potato can send out, and it
aeeds to be kept back till the tuber is
in the ground. If the package la kept
so tight that the air cannot circulate
among the tubers, something will be
gained, even if the temperature can
not' be controlled. However, the tub
era so pat away should be examined
from time to time to see if sprouting
has begun, in which case the potatoes
should be promptly "sprouted."
There are some conditions where
the crop harvested should not.be used
as a source for selecting potato seed.
One of these Is where the crop the
previous year has been lessened by
the late blight This blight strikes
the potato tops in late summer sad
checks growth. The resultant pota
toes are generally small, as the tops
were killed before the tubers had fin
ished growing. The tubers them
selves have In them the micelium of
the. fungus that made the trouble and
will carry over the disease to. the new
crop. When this Is the case, rot ap
pears in the tubers stored in the cel
lar; for blight in the field and rot in
the cellar are one and the same dis
ease manifesting itself in a different
way. In such a case it will pay the
grower better to buy seed, even at a
high price, than to attempt to use
seed from the potatoes he has.
All growers of potatoes should work
toward a smooth potato, as such a po
tato is of-more value for the table and
for market than any other. We have
to-day very. much .better potatoes than
we had a generation ego. It will be
remembered that at that time a good
many varieties of potatoes gave tubers
of very irregular shape. Some of them
that were fairly smooth in contour
yet bad a good many "eyes" and these
were set deeply ii-to the flesh. In
both cases the paring of the potatoes
meant a great loss of the edible por
tions. During the last twenty-five
years the potatoes have become
smoother and the eyes are nearer the
surface or on, a level with it, so they
can be. pared off with very little loss
to the substance. The selector of seed
should bear this in mind. We should
not only improve our potatoes by the
Introduction of better varieties, but
we should constantly improve by se
lection the varieties we havo
Destruction of Weeds.
Much interest has been shown at a'
number of the agricultural experiment
stations in the possibility of weed de
struction by means of chemicals. As
long ago as 1895 it was found at the
Vermont Station that the orange
hawkweed, a serious pest in pastures
and meadows, could be destroyed
without injury to the grass by sowing
salt over the bind at the rate of 3,000
pounds per acre. Many experiments
have siace been conducted at the
same station with other chemicals for
the eradication of weeds in walks,
drives, courts, etc. Among the chemi
cals tested were saltcopper sulphate,
kerosene, !;verof-su!phur, carbolic
acid, arsenic and salsoda, arsenate of
soda, and two commercial weed v kill
ers, the active principle of which ap
parently was arsenic. The weeds
which it was sought to destroy were
plaataias, dandelion, chicory, rag
weed, knotweed and various grasses.
All the chemicals were applied in so;
lutkm except the salt As In the case
of the hawkweed experiments, salt
waa found efficient in destroying all
the weeds when applied dry and in
large quantity. When salt is used for
this purpose adjaceat lawns should be
protecetd against washing, or they
may be lajured. Crude carbolic acid,
1 plat in 4 plats of water, applied at
the rate of 8 gallons per square rod,
was very efficient The various ar
senical preparations proved valuable
as weed destroyers, aad choice be
tween them was largely a matter of
expense. All things considered, the
arseaate of soda and the carbolic acid
solutions proved the most valuable
chemicals for weed destruction under
the conditions of these experiments.
Seme Fianta That Need Lime.
There are some plants usualy growa
in our gardens 'hat must have lime if
the son Is acid, or they will do noth
ing. It may wall be taken for greet
ed that most of the pleats, in our
gardens will aot do well where acid
is present A soil does aot have to
be-low to be add, though this is a
coauaoa impression. Add soils are
frequently found oa the sides aad the
tops of hills. Bad sorrel growa oa an
acid aoU, aad it ia usually found on
Wga aad dry mad. The experiments
carried oa at Kingston. Rhode Island.
areao valuable that they should aot
be pasted over la alienee. -They show
the absolute nteletsnett of plaatiag
such thugs as poppies, oa soils con
tabtiag much add, whether such acid
comes from the decay of vegetable
matter or from the use of too much
sulphuric add ia the application of
commercial fertilisers. la the case
of poppies the results of limlag were
very striking. Of oae plot, fertilised
with sulphats of mmualn, the limed
portion yielded 22 hfossoms aad the
Oi the other plot, fer
tilised wkh attrato of soda, the aa
Umed pottioa gave three bloatotms aad
the limed 100. Sack of oar readers
aa have tried to grow popples oa their
soU iistti iitsafilij will do watt to
try again, addtag some lime, aalag
U pounds of Hme to the square
are very susceptible to
the preacacs of add aad refuse to do
well oa soils so impregnated. Ia the
referred to. the pump
kins oa unlimed soil where sulphate
of ammonia was aesdV yielded only
L5 pounds, while oa the limed plot
with the same fertilizer, the yield
waa IS pounds. Even where aitrate
of soda waa used, the unlimed plot
yielded 28 pouada aad the limed 47
pounds. Squashes will staad acid a
littte better thaa pumpkias, 'but oa
the Klsgstoa soil liming Increased the
yield about SO per cent- .
Two Uada of curraata were tried.
Fay aad White Dutch, but these gave
approximately the aame results. The
sulphate of ammonia plot gave, ua-
limed, 110 pounds of Fay currants,
while the limed portion gave 4.5
pounds! On the nitrate of soda plot,
the unlimed portion gave 2.25 pounds
aad the limed 7.00 pounds. In the
case of White Dutch currants, the
sulphate of ammonia plot gave, un
limed, 5 pounds of currants, and
limed, 11.5 pounds. On the nitrate
of soda plot the unlimed portion gave
5 pouada aad the limed 15 pounds.
With raspberries the results were
Inconclusive, liming giving fairly good
resulte with the Cuthberts, but prov
ing detrimental to Ohio Blackcaps.
Asparagus proved itself hostile to
acid unneutralized. On the sulphate
of ammonia plot, the unlimed portion
yielded no tops, but the limed portion
yielded 5.87 pounds. On the nitrate
of soda plot, the unlimed portion
yielded 1.01 pounds and the limed'
9.62 pounds. The growth and vigor of
the plants upon the limed nitrate of
soda plot were very much greater
than upon the limed plot that re
ceived sulphate of ammonia.
Liming is a help to pansies on acid
soils as waa proved by experiments.
With Canada peas the results were
remarkable aad It may be assumed
that all varieties of peas would give
the same results. The peaa upon the
limed portions were much better thaa
upon the unlimed ones, both as to vig
or and color. The plants oa the un
limed portion were sickly end their
foliage waa yellow. All the plants
were removed carefully from the soil
and their roots carefully examined.
On the roots of the pleats from the
unlimed ground few nodules were
found. In striking contrast to the
plants from the unlimed plots, it was
found that with almost no exception
each plant from the limed plots was
supplied' with abundant nodules. The
few nodules that were found upon the
roots of the unlimed plots were fre
quently of urge size and tended .to
grow in dusters, while upon the
limed plots the nodules were smaller
and much 'more evenly distributed up
on the roots. The liming had made
possible the increase of these nodules
due to the nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Swine at Ontario Station.
A report of the Ontario statioa
says: Our swine comprise representa
tives of the Yorkshire, Tamworth and
Berkshire breeds. This Is quite as
many breeds as we can handle to ad
vantage. Representatives of the
Chester White, Duroc Jersey and Po
land China breeds have been fed in
the experimental piggery.
Feeding Swine. Breeding sows are
fed sparingly on a mixed meal ration
consisting generally of ground oats,
barley and peas, the oats constituting
about half the mixture. In addition,
tbey' receive a fairly liberal allowance
of pulpe'd roots, which is decreased as
farrowing time approaches. Before
feeding, they are given a drink of wa
ter, and tnen the meal is fed on top of
the pulped roots. Sometimes the meal
aad pulped roots are mixed a day in
advance of feeding, but either plan
seems to work well. Growing pigs,
four months old and over, receive the
same meal mixture as the sows, but
in the place of roots, they are fed the
refuse from the college kitchen. The
'meal is fed dry to these also. Small
Jigs are fed about equal parts of fine
ly ground oats and middlings, togethei
with skim milk when such is avail
able. In this case the meal is mois
tened with the milk. They arealsi
accustomed to eating roots, mangels
preferred. Our sows are turned into a
large shed adjoining the piggery, for
a few hours every afternoon. A very
little whole grain of some sort is scat
tered broadcast over the floor of the
shed to induce the sows to take exer
cise. Feeding Methods.
In the past the price or corn has
been so low that American stockmen
have been wasteful in their feeding
methods. One cause of the low price
of corn was the low price of land,
which meant a low cost of crops grown
upon it The steady rise in the price
of land has made the cost of corn
production much greater than before,
and It is not at all likely that we will
ever see corn very low priced again.
Therefore the methods of feeding
stock must be changed. The common
feeds must be more fully-utilized and
every new feed tbat promises anything
must be investigated. Soiling will
doubtless have to be more largely
practiced.- Principally we must cut
down the amount of corn fed daily to
each animal to the point where a
certain amount of grain will give the
greatest possible result Experiments
have shown that this point is far be
low the consuming capacity of the ani
mal. In days of very cheap corn it
was the practice to shovel out to each
animal all the ear corn tbat could bo
eaten. It was assumed that the
greater amount of corn eaten the
greater would be the profit from its
consumption; that no matter how
much corn was given, the last pound
was as fully utilized as the flrst This
we now know, to be an error.
Lime as Acid Neutralizer.
The use of lime on land has not
been largely encouraged by scientists
in the past though it has been used to
a considerable extent in isolated locali
ties. It was at first considered from
,the standpoint of plant food, and as
such of course could not receive a
very enthusiastic support from men
that had found out by various tests
that there was already in the soil more
lime than the plants could use. But
when the soils of the various states
came to be examined for acid it was
found that many of them were so
strongly acid that some of our most
important pleats would not grow oc
them satisfactorily. In the soil sur
veys carried on during the past three
years la Illinois it has been found tbat
one-third of the soils of the state are
so strongly acid that they will not
grow red clover and other legumet.
successfully until treated with lime.
Of the other two-thirds of the state.
some of the soils are slightly acid and
would be improved-by aa application
of lime.'
Fire visited Sidney destroying $20,
000 worth of property.
The Sarpy County Teachers asso
ciatioa will hold -its meeting ia Pap'.l
lioa February 6th.
- Zeph Camp, for eix years sheriff of
Keith county, died last week at his
uome at Ogden, Utah.
The Sarpy County Poultry associa
tion will hold its first annual show
ia Papillkm February 3, 4, aad 5.
Fraaz Krueger, a farm head of
somewhat unsound mentality commit
ted suicide st Hooper, by taking
Walter S. Crow, an Adams county
pioneer farmer, died of blood poison
ing, resulting from a wound from n
bay knife, aged sixty-eight.
Senator Millard has nominated for
an assistant paymaster in the navy
William I. Balone of Omaha. Mr. Ma
lone will have to take an examina
tion before he is selected.
,M. Bauer, veteran fire chief of Ne
braska City, who was elected presi
dent of the Nebraska state firemen's
association, was given a monster re
ception on his return home from the
A case of smallpox has been report
ed in the home of William Seikotted.
ten miles west of Papillion. The di
sease is of mild form. The mumps
have been epidemic in the western
and southwestern part of the county
for several months.
At a judicial sale a bid may be left
with the sheriff and considered on the
day of the sale. This is the effect of
a supreme court decision in the case
of G. H. Vradcnburg against F. A.
Johnson. In this case the successful
bidder was not present.
T. F. Reynolds, the 19-year-old soa
of Theodore W. Reynolds, residing
three miles northwest of Kearney,
committed suicide by shooting himself
in the head in a room at the hotel
Holt in Kearney. No cause has been
discovered for the act.
The central Nebraska Chautauqua
assembly will' hold their fifth aa
nual session at Fullerton from August
18th to August 28th, inclusive. The
citizens of Fullerton are awake to the
importance of this assembly and have
taken the initiative in the matter by
subscribing a guarantee fund of
j, 000.
The regular annual meeting of the
Shiloh veterans' association of Ne
braska will be held in Beatrice, be
ginning April 6. At the close of the
annual meeting last year in Lincoln
the president and secretary of the as
sociation were instructed to choose the
time and place for holding the next
The supreme court has decreed tbat
the Burlington Railroad company must
pay to Leo Krayenbuhl of Merrick
county $9,000 for the loss of a foot.
A jury in Merrick county first fixed
the damages at $18,000, but the dis
trict court cut this down to $12,000
and now the supreme court cut out
$3,000 more.
Saline lands are not a part of the
school lands and no revenues deriv
ed therefrom should become a part of
the educational funds of the state.
So decided the supreme court in the
case of James H. McMurtry against
G. Engelhardt. The suit arose over a
disputed lease of saline lands involv
ing the site of Burlington beach.
The various sheep feeders of the
territory immediately around Schuy
ler are feeding 56,400 sheep, the cer
tainty of feed being supplied here hav
ing resulted in the establishment of
the business upon a firm basis. Grain
is hauled in from as far as fifteen
miles because of the prices above the
usual market, that are paid. The
feeders pay 1 cent more than the
Governor Mickey at the request of
the governor cf Connecticut has ap
pointed delegates to a meeting of men
interested in good roads, to be held
in Hartford. Conn., February 10 and
11. These are the delegates: M. L.
Fries of Arcadia. J. H. Umstead of
Fullerton, P. F. Beghtol of Bennett, C.
C. Weed of Vesta, J. M. Cravens of
A number of letters have been re
ceived by different Tecumseh parties
which come from a prominent citizen
of Havana. Cuba. The letters ask
whether or not there is a reward for
the return of Charles M. Chamber
lain, the absconding cashier of the
failed Chamberlain-bank of that city,
and if so the party desires particulars.
There is a reward of $1,200 for the con
viction of Mr. Chamberlain.
Sheriff Mincke of Washington
county returned from a trip to Waun
cta. Chase county, bringing Ralph R.
Benedict, principal of the schools of
that place, who was arrested on a
charge preferred by Miss Lc3sie M.
Drown, who resides with her parents
residents cf Washington county. He
pleaded guilty and was bound over to
the February term of court in the
sum of v.000. Miss Drown was in
court with her cne-month-old baby.
William J. Cantrall and Frank Can
trail, who were arrested at Stockville
charged with shooting and injuring
two horses of Frank D. Murphy, had
their preliminary examination and
bound over under a bond of $500 each
to appear at the next term of the dis
trict court.
The following is a list of the mort
gages filed and released In Sarpy
county during the year 1903: Farm
mortgages filed, 113. $209,993.43; re
leased. 98, $218,028.50. Town mort
gages filed, 76 $37,611.75; released. 42,
$15,119. Chattel mortgages filed. 264,
$101,314.70; released 114, $64,569.31.
The Cass County Board of Insanity
examined Mrs. J. W. Richards, who
resides two .miles west of South Bend
and ordered that she be taken to the
State hospital at Lincoln for treat
ment Sheriff J. D. McBride aad his
wife accompanied her to that institu
tion. The combination sale of hogs, at
Superior, held January 21 and 22, in
which the herds of seventy breeders
were represented, each sending two
bead, was a great success. In the
number of breeders represented it was
the most important sale ever held in
the state.
E. L. Smith of Lincoln was a-varded
the handsome silver loving cup at the
state poultry show for the best display
of White Wyandottes.
The bricklayers' union of Nebraska
City held their annual hunt, securing
158 rabbits and about as many squir
rels. Abram Ratzlaff. a Russian farmer,
living near Charleston York county,
was adjudged insane and sent to the
asylum for treatment.
The Modern Woodmen of America '
have just completed a new brick store
building and hall at North )xup at a
cost of $7,000.
Claim That it ia Veld and Cmmet be
LINCOLN. Savage aad compre
hensive argumeats have beea filed In
the scaveager lav passed by the last
legislature. The brief was filed oa be
half of the plaintiff ia the city of Be
atrice against W. W. Wright couaty
The suit is an original application
for aa injunction to prevent the couaty
treasurer from issaiag tax sale certi
ficates agaiast property recently sold
in the city of Beatrice under the pro
visions of the five-year dellaqueat tax
act A similar suit has been filed by
J. W. Woodrough of Omaha.
"The legislature shall have no pow
er to release or discharge any county,
city, township, town or district what
ever, or the inhabitants thereof or any
corporation or property therein from
their, or its. proportionate share of
taxes to be levied for state purposes
or due aay municipal corporation, nor
shall communication for such taxes be
authorized in any form whatsoever." ..
The attorneys declare that the legis
lature is inhibited from releasing the
property owner from aay portion of
his tax or compromising the claim for
him. The attorneys cite cases where,
they declare, the same principle was
Involved. They claim that the decis
ions of the Nebraska court have re
sulted disastrously to any such legis
Thomas Feck of Garfield County Must
Serve Two Years.
BURWELL. Thomas J. L. Peck, an
old resident of Garfield county, was
taken to the penitentiary at Lincoln
to serve a two-years sentence for at
tempting to murder his soa, William.
He was tried aad convicted at the
October term of district court, but has
been out since on bond pending tne
decision of the court on his motion for
a aew trial, but the motion was over
ruled. Enemies Help Each Other Out
FREMONT. A rather unusual event
happened in the district court here.
The case of Henry Has3eman against
J. H. Meyer and Charles Lucking was
on trial for the second time. The
parties are near neighbors, but have
not been on good terms for years.
Bath Hasseman and Lucking are Ger
mans and wanted to take out final
citizenship papers, but each was short
one witness. Finally on the sugges
tion of a mutual friend each agreed
to become a witness for the other.
So each swore to the good qualities of
his neighbor in spite of their differ
ences. Deuglae County Pays Up.
LINCOLN. Douglas county has
oald into the state treasury $16,563.09.
the amount of its unpaia balance of
taxes. This manes In all twenty-two
counties that have made settlement
with the state treasurer. From now
on there will be more money in the
treasury for the redemption of war
rants instead of a stringency, as dur-"
ing the last two months. .
Preparing County History.
The old settlers of Wilbur in Saline
county are talking of organizing a his
torical society to dig up and preserve
a record of things that happened in
that county and of those things that
the old settlers took part In years and
years ago of which there is now no
official record.
New Enterprise at North tcjp.
NORTH LOUP. A farmers' insti
tute has been organized here with a
large membership. It is rroposed to
have lectures from the state univer
sity at different times through the
Andrews Makes Denial.
Chancellor Andrews of the State uni
versity denied the statements publish
ed in a Nebraska morning paper and
the eastern press that lie believed as
society became more enlightened it
would cause to be put to death crip
ples and weaklings that skilled physi
cians had decided could not recover
and whose lives were wrecks.
Leap Year Club at Norfolk.
NORFOLK. A leap year club has
been formed by young women of this
city. A set of rules have been adopt
eJ. Eacn member must propose to
at least one man during the year.
They are not allowed to spend more
than $ir a week in "rushing." Any
man who rejects a member is to be
roported and put on the black list of
the order.
Think Fruit Uninjured.
TABLE ROCK. For the last three
or four days the ground has been cov
ered with an inch or more of smooth
ice, caused by the rain freezing at it
came down. Fruit men here do not
seem to think the fruit injured.
Thirty-Two Horses Burned.
OMAHA. Fire, believed to be from
incendiary origin, destroyed the St.
Mary's avenue livery stables, of
which Nathan E. Dillrance was pro
prietor. Thirty-two horses were burn
ed to a crisp and another was so bad
ly turned that it had to be shot. The
total loss is estimated at $8,000, the
greater part of which was sustained
by. Mr. Dillrance, as the building, own
ed by William Kmg or the Krug
Brewing company, was estimated to be
worth not to exceed $1,000. Mr. Dill
rance carried $1,000 insurance.
Engineer Graybill Killed.
ASHLAND. Burlington passenger
train No. 12, eastbound, jumped the
track near the entrance to the Ash--land
yards killing Michael J,. Graybill
of Lincoln, engineer of freight train
No. 30. No. 12 was about fifty minu
tes late. The engine and mail car
passed the frog in safety, but the rear
end of the baggage coach jumped the
track with the cars behind it. Several
windows were smashed ia the bag
gage coach and other coaches left the'
track .but no one was injured except
ing Graybill.
Heme Builders Prosperous.
LINCOLN. The report of the con
dition of the state building and loan
associations of the state compiled by
Secretary Royce of the State Banking
board has been received from the
printers. The report shows that while
the number of associations reporting
is the same as last year fifty-eight
there has beea a steady growth both
in business aad membership. The la
crease is assets at the close of busi
ness June 30, 1903, over' the previous
year wis $585,135.61; kwas, $614,059.
44; shares ia force, 153,424.

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