OCR Interpretation


Philip weekly review. [volume] (Philip, Haakon County, S.D.) 1918-1920, June 06, 1918, Image 3

Image and text provided by South Dakota State Historical Society – State Archives

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn95076627/1918-06-06/ed-1/seq-3/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

4 S
I
'r
1
humanfiictar in
AirplaneAcciclsnts
Cadets San Fliers, Not
German Agents, Are Re
sponsible for Most Falls
HE officers aud cadets of the Hying
fields that are scattered tlilckly
over Texas do not share the belief
of Senator Overman aud a good
many others that Teuton ugwiis in
airplane plants are responsive for
any of the deaths by accident
among them. They say they do
not know anything about condi
tions in airplane factories and
therefore do not know whether or
not lils assertions about the num
of Germans employed therein are
true, but they are skeptical about the senator's
fears and allegations. Tlicy think they know a good
deal about the causes of the many accidents, both
fatal and unimportant, that have occurred during
the last six months, says a writer in the New
York Times' magazine section. And they declare
very positively that not one of these accidents has
been due to faulty construction or to enemy tam
pering with the machinery. They say that In
every case, thus far, the
cause for the accident
was to be found in the
man himself and not In
the machine he was driving.
Among the flyers the
conviction is strong that
even if the machinery of
an airplane were to be
weakened by the method
indicated by Senator
Overman it would prob
ably be discovered in the
course of the rigorous ex
amination and tests to
which it is subjected be
fore It Is sent from the factory. Still, they admit
that a machine so damaged might possibly slip
through without discovery. But they do not be
lieve that, up to the present time, any such
damaged machine has been sent to an American
flying field.
TU0/?LAff£iS
And as for the possibility of a German agent
doing any "monkey business" with an airplane
after It Is received by a flying field, they scoff
•without mercy at the mere suggestion. They do
not deny the possibility of spies being present on
any or all the flying fields but they do not be
lieve that the most astute and malignant German
agent could "put anything over" in the hangars
which house their steeds of the air.
In charge of each hangar is an officer whose
dut" it is to know all about each machine in it,___
what happens to each one, where It is at any mo
ment, and what its condition is whenever it is
in the hnr ar. Three mechanics are detailed to
each macnJne to keep Jt in order and groomed
for use whenever it may be needed. The flying
men are confident that no sabotage could be suc
cessfully attempted under these conditions except
by means of an organization so large and so
unlikely in flying field forces that Its possibility
is not worth considering. In addition, no man
ever takes a plane up from a flying field without
himself first carefully inspecting Its machinery.
The aviators are so confident that the fault does
not lie in the planes that when they are discuss
ing the cause of accidents tliey do not even men
tion the planes or their machinery, unless they
are questioned by an outsider. They confine
their discussions to the human factor involved
and speculate upon why his nerves or his muscle,
his heart or his brain, failed him at some crucial
moment.
The percentage of losses among student avia
tors Is much larger at Canadian than at the
American training schools, while the number of
fatal accidents at the Canadian field at Fort
Worth, Tex., is appalling. That field has suf
fered more casaultles than all the other fields to
gether in Texas. The aviators of the American
fields are all of the opinion that the fatalities
there are mainly due to haste and carelessness In
training.
At the American fields a man must have had
from four to nine hours of training in the air
with an instructor, the time depending on his
quickness In learning control, before he is allowed
to take up a machine by himself.
A "tail-spin," one of the causes of accidents
most commonly cited, is an acrobatic stunt which
an aviator must know how to execute with skill
and ease. In it he noses his machine downward
with Its tail whirling in a circle above him, whije
its nose whirls in a similar but smaller circle
beneath him, and He, In the pilot's scat, is the
pivot of the two gyrations. To the landsman It
sounds a heady sort of a combination, and it is
likely to prove so to the airman unless he has the
knowledge and the skill with which to manage it.
To throw his machine in and out of tail spins is
a part of his dally practice after he begins the
acrobatic training, and in a very little while he
acquires sufficient knowledge of what to do and
Instinctive control of the machinery to execute
tall spins as easily and safely as he could twirl
on his toes or turn on his heel if his feet were on
Iflolld ground.
But he may get Into a tall spin accidentally In
his early flights alone and, although he may
'know what la the right thing to do to take the
machine out of it, he may lose his head at the
crucial moment and fall to do what he ought
Every man. woman, or child who has learned to
irlde bicycU or drive en automobile to famllla*
with that unconscious Influence of the mind over
the muscles which causes one who has not yet
acquired complete command of a machine to
drive straight at the-object which he wishes and
lis doing his beat to avoid. The aviator haa a brief
time in his training when he suffers from that
iaame difficulty and at important moments la
prone to give the wrong pressure upon his con
trol stick or his elevator. If he does this when
'his machine goes Into a tall spin and his mind
does not work quickly enough to recognize his
difficulty nad do the right thing, a fatal accident
ls very likely to result.
Dizziness, sudden panic, failure to think quick
ly
unconscious
movement, ignorance of what to
«o, tray cauae fatal accident «ha» a learner
v.
-y
i%
T/iAr COL/./£££ Jt/Y A//£ CJ?A3M£.0 TO 7^r2" G/?Ol//f£
gets into a tail spin accidentally. Or he may
Intentionally take his machine into one, before
he has had the usual Instruction, out of the spirit
of adventure, or even the kiddish desire to con
vince himself of his daring or exhibit It to his
fellow students. But, whatever the cause, It is
the opinion of flying field aviators that getting
Into a tail spin, purposely or accidentally, without
being able to manage It properly, is the cause of
a large proportion of fatal accidents at the fly
ing fields.
The same perverse, unconscious influence of
the mind over the muscles which forces the
bicycle learner straight toward the object he is
trying to avoid Is responsible for tnany of the
fatal accidents due to collisions. Even the most
expert of flyers may be unable to avert a serious
accident when he sees approaching him a plane
driven by a cadet who Is doing his level best to
keep his machine out of the other's way. How
serious and ever present is this danger in jpyling
fields Is proved by Capt. Vernon Castle's death.
In flying there are certain "blind angles" .In
which collisions are possible through no fault of
the driver of either plane. The sections of space
covered by the wings of his ship are invisible to
the pilot, and If such a section coincides with
the space concealed from the eyes of another
pilot approaching from below or at one side, a
sudden crash Is likely to be the first that either
knows of the other plane. This "blind angle"
may be the cause of an occasional serious acci
dent, but aviators do not think that such collisions
are of frequent occurrence.
Engine trouble causes many unimportant acd
dents, but, aviators say, should never offer any
serious difficulty to a man who has learned how
to manage his plane, if he is In a region where
It Is possible for him to come down safely. And
for engine trouble there are as many posslbl«^aB$
legitimate causes as there are reasons for an
automobile to balk.
In a few cases a broken propeller has caused
a pilot to make a forced landing, with injury to
Ma plane, but, up to the present time, never with
serious result to himself. The accompanying pic
ture shows what happened to a pilot when his
propeller weakened, cracked and broke over the
grounds of a high school in the environs of Hous
ton, Tex. He brought his ship down with some
damage to It, but none to himself, and greatly to'
the delight of the inhabitants of the region.
Various causes may result in the breaking of
the propeller. It may have been Injured in some
previous nose dive to the ground or a bird may
have got entangled In its blades. Cadets are for
bidden to chase birds because of the possibility
of such a result and the sure smashing of the
propeller. Nevertheless, they do it sometimes,
when the instinct of the chase is strong In their
blood. And It would be quite possible for a bird
to fly against his propeller,- to the undoing of both
bird and propeller, and the pilot to be Ignorant
of what had happened.
The men who by hard work and steady prac
tice have earned the right to the title of "bird
men" believe that with both students and skilled
aviators one cause of fatal accidents Is the fail
ure of the nervous system to respond Immediately
and accurately to the command of the brain.
Anything which causes nervous fatigue may bring
about that physical state—dissipation, nerve
strain, physical weariness, lack of sleep. The
flyer must be so alert, his grasp upon every situ
ation which may confront him so Instant, and his
action to meet and control It so prompt that the
fraction of a second in the movement of his hand
upon the controls of his machine may mean the
difference between life and death.
And anything which slows by ever ao little the
action of the brain In an emergency, or. the flash
ing of Its commands along the nerves, or the In
stant obedience of the motor nerves may send
him crashing to the earth. The cadets before
they have become what they call "instinctive
flyers" are especially liable to this danger, al
though even those who are skilled in the air are
not free from its menace. Blrdmen who an
skilled In one, or another, or several forms of
athletics aay that In nothing else have they felt
ao much the necessity of this Instant and com
plete response of the nerves to the demand upon
them.
The cadets quickly discover, so they aay, that
J««k ot jieotj of sleep aooa rertita to a physfcat
PHILIP WEEKLY REVIEW
PHOTOS BY
u/r/Q/r.
s iii
.V
JYOJS D/v£ r/iATEJY££0 W/i£ff MOTQX 3URIEV
JTXJEJLF //V LAIiTH—-
SiVaA*
1
Xoctor
/(ZJULT Of ATTfrjPT 7U
VOjLPLA/fE hSt£/Y7ZOtiEAk
Trt£ GttOWD
condition which, although
they would not even notice
it in any other occupation,
they regard as dangerous in
flying. In one of the Texas
fields recently a lieutenant
with a reputation as a skilled
and careful aviator fell from
a considerable height and
was killed instantly. His
nearest friends were unani
mous in the belief that his
fall was due to the fact that
he had not been getting
enough sleep. For a week
he had been giving instruc
tion in night flying, working
ail night, and had not been
ible to sleep well during the
1
running an
Careful training and plenty
of practice soon bring the
student aviator to the point
where flying becomes as In
stinctive with him, in the
movement of hand and foot
upon the controls of his ma
chine, as the action of his
body in walking. For him
living becomes as safe as
automobile is for the skilled motorist
so far as the machine and his control of It and
the medium through which or upon
moves are concerned. But the unreliability of
the human mechanism must still be reckoned
with, and that unreliability seems to be greater
In the air than It Is upon the ground. It some
times results in strange and unexpected happen
|ngS.
Once in a while a man in the best of health
and the pink of condition, who has passed with
high success every one of the severe tests to
which aviation candidates are subjected, who has
never fainted before in his life, will faint while
he is In the air. One recent fatal accident at a
Texas field is supposed to have been due to that
cause.
One pilot fainted and the plane fell to the
earth, but neither he nor the student with him
was hurt except for a few scratches and cuts.
He said that he did not know why he fainted.
All that he knew was that he suddenly lost con
sciousness, and did not regain it until he was
being hauled out of the wrecked airplane. He
had never fainted before in his life.
Neither had another young fellow, to whom
everything suddenly became a blank as his ma
chine was sailing away through the blue. It was
still sailing along easily when presently he came
to himself again with the feeling that something
had happened to him. Looking down, he could
see that he had covered a considerable distance
since the moment when he had lost consciousness.
He does not know why he fainted any more than
he knows why he did not spin downward to prob
able death during those blank moments.
A British surgeon attached to the relay naval
air service, Dr. H. Graeme Anderson, who has had
extensive experience at British flying stations,
has recently written some Interesting conclusions
concerning these somewhat obscure causes of
iairplane accidents at training schools.
In the opinion of Doctor Anderson, based upon
study and comparison of the statements made to
him In such cases by a hundred student flyers,
there is a brain fatigue not due to previous men
tal or physical strain that may yet cause serious
accidents. He thinks it is induced by the Impact
of overwhelming sensations upon the mind of
the pupil alter he is in the air. The flying pupil
who Is overcome by this form of fatigue, says
Anderson, "reaches- the stage where he
has the power neither to reason, decide, nor act.
A state of mental inertia supervenes. This is due
to repeated stimuli received by his brain tn rapid
succession In his flight. He feels alone a suc
cession of errors occurs in the air he feels he
cannot manage to control the airplane fear does
not seize him, but the enormity of the whole
thing appalls him *he feels helpless, and a "tate
of brain fatigue occurs In which he, in a stupor,
awaits events and takes little part in the air
plane's control."
This form of brain fatigue would seem to be
largely a result of personal temperament Doctor
Anderson thinks It responsible for "a fair pro
portion of accidents" among students In the early
stages of flying, and he adds that student avia
tors who have suffered from it. If they escape
injury, are likely to give up flying.
There are many, many of the unimportant ac
cidents, of which nobody takes heed. But of
fatal accidents, notwithstanding the concern over
them manifest In some parts of the country, the
percentage Is no greater than should be expected,
Is less than In the flying schools of some other
countries, and is not higher than it Is In almost
any
extra-hazardous
occupation. And when It Is
remembered that this latter comparison brings
together figures representing men In the training
stage with those of skilled workers, It is evident
both that flying is a safer game than It has the
credit of being, and that It will be a good plan
for the country to guard against hxatarla owm
tte tytplittea that do occur.
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY.
"Baths are scarce in Europe. Itoequeotly yon
have to order a tub sent In."
"Is that so?"
"Yes, and It takes time."
"Urn. A fellow might do a good business going
around with one of these motorcycles with bath
tab attadMid.''—Louisville Oowler-Jouroal.
APPEAL FOB THRIFT
V
President Asks Citizens to Buy
Only Essentials.
SYSTEMATIC SAVING URGED
People Requested to Pledge by June
28 to Invest In War Savings and
Thrift Stamps, or Other Government
Securities.
Washington, D. C.—To save mate
rials and labor for necessary war pur
poses, President Wilson appealed to
Americans "to buy only those things
which are essential to the individual
health and efficiency," and to volun
teer on or before June 28, National
Thrift day, to invest systematically in
War Savings and Thrift Stamps, or
Mother government securities.
"This war Is one of nations—not of
armies," said the president, "and all
of our 100.000.000 people must be
economically and industrially adjusted
to war conditions if this nation is to
play its full part in the conflict
Pledge Is Sought.
"The problem before us Is not pri
marily a financial problem, but rather
a problem of Increased production of
war essentials and the saving of the
materials and the labor necessary for
the support and equipment of our
army and navy. Thoughtless expendi
ture of money for nonessentials uses
up the labor of men, the products of
the farm, mines, and factories, and
overburdens transportation, all of
which must be used to the utmost and
at their best for war purposes.
"The great results which we seek
can be obtained only by the participa
tion of young and old In a national
thrift movement. I therefore urge
that our people everywhere pledge
themselves, as suggested by the secre
tary of the treasury, to the practice of
thrift to serve the government to
their utmost In Increasing production
in all fields necessary to the winning
of the war to conserve food and fuel
and useful materials of every kind to
devote their labor only to the most
necessary tasks, and to buy only those
things which are essential to Individ
ual health and efficiency.
-"Buy More U. S. Securities."
"The securities Issued by the treas
ury department are, so many of them,
within the reach of every one that the
door of opportunity in this matter is
wide open to all of us.
"I appeal to ull who now own either
Liberty bonds or War Saving stamps
to continue to practice economy and
thrift and to appeal to all who do not
own government securities to do like
wise and purchase them to the extent
of their means. The man who buys
government securities transfers the
purchasing power of his raonejTto the
United States government until after
this war, and to that same degree does
not buy In competition with the gov
ernment.
"I earnestly appeal to every man,
woman and child to pledge themselves
on or before June 28 to save constant
ly and to buy as regularly as possible
the securities of the governments
"The 281h of June ends this special
period of enlistment In the great vol
unteer army of production and saving
here at home. May there be no&e ttn
enlisted on that day."
SAMARITAN RACE NEAR END
War May Wipe Out Remnant of An.
©lent Tribe In thf.
Holy Land. \f v
'Pittsburgh, Pa.—The last remnant of
the ancient Samaritan race may be
wiped out of existence, according to
E. K. Warren, president of the Inter
national Sunday School association.
Mr. Warren, in his Sunday school la
bors in the Holy Land, found the lit
tle band of people whose ancestors
made up the great northern division of
the kingdom of the Jews. There were
162 persons id the group, and he has
not heard a word from them In 18
months. Mr. Warren said the race
dwindled down because It would not
Intermarry. Two-thirds of the group
were men Hnd of these 24 were draft
ed by the Turkish government for mil
itary service.
GIRLS DO OWN GARDENING
Will Raise Vegetables Needed by Stu
dent Body of Mount Holyoke
College.
South Hadley, Mass.—Mount Holy
oke college, one of the large girl's
colleges of the Bast, will be self-sup
porting, as far as its vegetable supply
Is concerned, If plans of the student
farmers succeed. The needs of the
student body for the year Is estimated
at 2,000 bushels of potatoes and 5,000
cans each of corn, beans and tomatoes.
The girl farmers are planting gardens
to cover this demand.
UNCLE SAM HARD ON TRAMPS
"Side-Door Pullman" Passengers Are
Decreasing, According to Rail
road Officials.
Albany, N. T.—Uncle Sam is severe
:on tramps. As a result, railroad offi
cials say, there Is a noticeable falling
off "in travel." In the good old days
a "pinch" by a railroad "bull" only
meant a few days in jail and a few
good meals. Now it's all different and
the floating element of the population,
the 'bo who prefers the "rods" to th*
"cushions," haa strangely faded,
IMPROVED UNIFORM INTERNATIONAL
StMfSfllOQL
LESSON
By
RHSV. K ±i. KIT/.tt ATKR, D, XX,
Teacher of Engllah Bible In the
Moody Bible Institute of Chicago.)
(Copyright, 1818. Writern Newspaper UnlOS.)
LESSON FOR JUNE 9
JESUft FACES BETRAYAL AND
DENIAL.
LE8SON TEXT-Mark 14:10-72.
GOLDEN TEXT-Watch and pray that
ye enter not Into temptation.—Mark M:tt.
DEVOTIONAL BEADING—John 15:1-17.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL FOR
TWAOUERS—Matthew 26:30-28 Luke 22:17
JO. John 13:1-35.
I'ltlilAld' TOPIC—Jeeue
ples.-Mark 14:12-28.
II. The Last Passover (w. 12-25).
1. The preparation (vv. 12-16).
In reply to the disciples' Inquiry
as to where they should prepare the
Passover for him, Jesus told them
to go Into the city where they would
meet a man bearing a pitcher of wa
ter, whom they should follow. In
the house to which they were thus
led would be found a guest chamber
—a large upper room—where they
could make ready the Passover. This
Is an example of Christ's superhuman
knowledge. He not only knew that
the disciples would meet this man,
but he knew that Judaa had bar
gained for his betrayal.
2. The betrayal announced (Tt. JLT»''
21).
The betrayal was to be by one of
the disciples who was eating with
Jesus. This betrayal had been pre
dicted, though such prediction did not
interfere with the free act of Judaa
In the betrayal. It was because of
this act of treachery being freely
committed by Judas that Jesus pro
nounced upon him the awful doom—
"Good were It for that man if he had
never been born."
3. The bread and the cop instituted
(TV. 22-25).
III. The Disciple* Cowardice Fore
told (vv. 26-31).
In spite of their cowardly tuT-nlng
from the Saviour, he assures them
that after his resurrection he would
go before them Into Galilee. Peter
protested against such act of disloy
alty by the disciples, and assured the
Lord that though all the rest should
forsake him, yet he would not. The
Lord showed film how little he knew
even of his own best resolve, telling
him that on thnt very night he would
deny him thrice. All the disciples
said the same tiling.
IV. The Agony In Getheemane (vv.
83-42).
The clear vision of the coming
anguish of the Cross, accentuated by
the utter failure of the disciples to
understand or believe, brought upon
him an indescribable anguish of soil,
so he took Peter, James, and John
and went apart to pray. The cup of
agony was not mere death, but the
sacrificial death for sin, under the
weight of the world's guilt.
1. The first prayer (vv. 85-38). i
Notwithstanding the darkness of
the hour, he prayed In faith accom
panied with a willingness to obey.
When he came and found the three
sleeping Instead of prnylng, he com
manded them to watch and pray so
as to be fortified against temptation.
V. The Betrayal and Arreat of
Jesus (vv. 43-52).
1. The sign to the mob (w. 43-47).
With the basest of hypocrisy Judas
pointed out Jesus to the mob by a
•kiss, the sign of love.
2. Jesus forsaken by all (w. 48-52).
At the sight of the Master's be
trayal and arrest, one of his disci
ples attempted to defend him by. re
sorting to the sword but seeing that
Jesus made no attempt at resistance,
they all fled. Their courage failed
them in the hour of trial. How little
man knows of his weaknesses until
the crucial hour.
VI. Jesus Before the Sanhedrln (vv
63£5).
1. Contradictory testimony of false
witnesses (w. 53-59). fe
High Priest's Questlo&M V
65).
(1) "What is it that these witness
against thee?" To this Jesus was
silent, showing that no evidence had
yet been given worthy of answer.
(2) "Art thou the Christ?" To
this he definitely replied: "I am"
and quotes a Scripture passage which
they recognize as referring to the
Messiah. This claim they answer
with buffeting and the most shame
ful treatment.
VII. Peter Denlea Lord (w. 06-72).
Though Peter lovea Jesus, yet la
the hour of supreme trial he falla.
Grievous as his sin Is, It Is not Ilka
that of Jndas. His failure was due to
1. Boasting self-defense (vv. 29-81).
2. Lack of watchfulness (v. 87).
8. Neglect of prayer (v. 38).
4. Service In the energy of the
flesh (v. 47).
6. Following Jesus afar off (v. S4).
6. Seek comfort among the Lord**
enemies (v. 67 compart Luke 22:55).
7. Open denial. (vv. 68-72).
His backsliding r«bly began wba*
to aorank p*m tte Groa.
n
••••-.-Is
it
and his disci­
JUNIOR TOPIC—Jesus betrayed and de
nied. 1
I. Judas' Bargain With the Chief
Priests (vv. 10. 11).
This black crime was committed
Immediately following the beautiful
act of devotion by Mary. The mo
tive actuating Judas was avarice.
This awful depth of Infamy wns not
reached at a bound. Because he did
not master this besetting sin at the
beginning, he was conquered by It.
v
i /.
,te $1
t,
r'jt
'M
.4
v
H*
i-
J!
f\
A
4
u
srH
•i
•,,*
r.i ..— sfT?'.
y 4f
s:
I
^Jv
'fk
A?
rM
/V
iS?.,'
s
41
7 '-'M

xml | txt