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The Florida agriculturist. [volume] (DeLand, Fla.) 1878-1911, May 22, 1878, Image 1

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The Florida Agriculturist.
Vol. 1.
Contents of this Number.
Ninth Pajre—Orange Culture in Florida;
Arlington Nurseries: Arredoudo to the
Front; A Gross Scandal.
Tenth Page—My Brother, poetry; “An
Old Kesidenter,” a Story of an Old Gan:
■losh Billings on Beer; Women and Prop
erty; Bees; Professor Huxley; The Best
of the Team; Tbe Fare of the Chelsea Pen
sioners; Recipes.
Eloventh Page—throning Grape Vines in
Summer; Directions for Brewing; Lice on
Poultry; Grafting the Walnut; A River
intensely Salt; Stick to Your Business;
Twelfth Pago—Editorials; An Insect In
jurious to the Orange; From Spring Gar
deu; Social Meeting at Orange City; laical
Items. <fcc.
Thirteenth I’aue—Astronomical Notes;
IToruiiana; (iardeu Ueeipts; The .Ship
ment of Vegetables; Fashion Notes; Cheap
Column; Auvertisements.
Fourteenth Page—The Halifax River:
Sheep Raising Protitable; Oranges iu tbe
the Olden 'rime ; Advertisements.
Fifteenth Page—Capital and Labor; State
Lands; The Lady who Keeps Lions as Pets;
A Burglarious Tree; Miscellaneous; Ad
Sixteenth Page—Telegraphic; New York
Vegetable Market; Auvertisements.
Orange Culture in Florida—ls it likely
to be overdone !
Morrison’s Mill, Fla, May 10.
—Orange culture in Florida is now
engaging very general attention,
and a few thoughts on the subject
may be interesting to some of your
many readers.
A large majority of those who
come to Florida to make homes are
controlled in a great measure by the
profits supposed to arise from oraDge
culture. Of course the unsurpassed
winter climate and general healthfui
ness of the Stale have the greatest in
fluence in attracting visitors and win
ter residents, but the culture of the
orange is the idea that predominates
in the minds of those who seek rural
homes in the Flowery State.
If it be true that the immigrants to
"Hits State are generally tu kogSge in'
orange culture, the question naturally
arises “Will not the orange business
be overdone and the price of fruit be
come so low as to render orange cul
ture unprofitable ?” This is a very
important question to those who are
now and will be engaged in the busi
ness, and its correct solution would
be valuable information. On this sub
ject, like all others, there is a diversity
of opinion even among those supposed
to be wise in the matter.
The writer is engaged in the cul
ture of this fruit on a small scale, has
some experience in the business and
is acquainted with the different soils
of East and parts of South Florida,
from this knowledge has come to the
conclusion That the culture of the
orange in Forida will not be over
done at least in the next generation.
It is very common to read of
orange groves bearing the .second
year with budded stumps and at five
years with seedlings, and it may be
true in comparatively few instances,
and it is the lashion to count on
one thousand oranges as the annual
average per tree; and further the
idea has prevailed to a great extent
that nearly ail the lands in East and
South Florida wer well adapted to
orauge- culture.
With such data as the above for
premises, it would be easy to reach
the conclusion that the orange pro
duct of this State would soon be in
excess of the demand. But it is uot
safe to reason from the data above
mentioned. To construct an orange
grove that will average annually per
tree one thousand oranges is a mat
ter involving considerable time, much
labor, directed by a knowledge of’
tbe business and a suitable location.
It is far from being true that the
lands of East and South Florida are
all suited to orange culture. Yet it
is true that many hundred thousand
acres embraced in the region men
tioned are well suited to the business,
except as to fertility, and this defect
must be remedied by the cultivator.
This difficulty most be overcome be
fore the prosperous orange grove,
yeilding annually the one thousand
oranges per tree, can be established.
Here is a restraining force on over |
production constantly and extensively j
acting on this class of land, which j
constitutes much the larger part of I
all the lands well suited to busi
ness. There are lands well adapted |
to the orange that are very fertile. '
and for many years wonld need no :
assistance in this direction from the
hnsbandman, but the proportion of
this kind of land is small, and general
ly this class of land has the objection of
being heavily timbered and difficult
to bring into immediate cultivation,
and besides much of it is situated un
favorably amidst or on the margins of
swamps, which location mars very
materialy its pleasantness as a home,
and hence here arises also an influenc
directed against this class of land.
The time generally allowed for i
the establishment of a grove bearing
the. one thousand oranges }>er tret an
nually, is too short. Any one who
oan raise such a grove within fifteen
years should be satisfied with liissuc
cess, for where one will succeed
many will fail to reach this figmv \
withi.n thattime. It is not pretended |
that trees cannot be shown that will |
give this average at a much earlier j
age. but there are very few groves J
of any considerable extent in this
State that Will give this yearly aver- j
age per tree at any age, and now as j
it takes considerable time, a proper;
selection of location and the exercise j
of industry, and all the better accom
panied with some cash to establish j
a flourishing grove —one thousand an- \
nually per tree —we will recognize j
other restraining influences against j
over production.
But there are many hundred thou- i
sand acres of land in the State well I
suited to the business, and there is a i
general feeling that there is money
in it, and a strong current of money,
mind and muscle, directed to this
business, which current seems to in
attsvtt, itJa -wwiiahku
that the production.of this fruit in
Florida in the next thirty years will
be very great. It may be thirty times
as much as at present; it may be
more. Yet it is the opinion of the
writer that the demand will be ahead
of the production. The present
prices paid by the consumer would
not, however be maintained, nor is it
necessary that this price should be re
alized to make orange culture profit
able. Before the business reaches
near the extent above intimated, the
facilities of transportation will be
much increased; the cost of freight
and handling, between the producer
and consumer, greatly reduced; the
deliciousness of the fruit, combined
with its cheapness, will tempt the na
tional palate , and scarcely any in this j
broad land will be so poor or live in j
a corner so obscure as to be deprived
of the luxury of this queen of fruits,
and hence the demand will be cor
respondingly as great as the produc
tion. The Florida orange, when
abundant enough, will not only drive
foreign oranges from the United
States, but will find a market in Eu
rope. This prediction is based on its
admitted Taking this
veiw of the subject, your correspon
dent is fully of the opinion that orange
culture in Florida will be profitable
to all who manage wisely and hold
out to the er.d.— F. M., in Savannah
Arlington Nurseries.
We had the pleasure lately of spend
ing a few hours at the Arlington Nur
series, of our friend Mr A. I. Bidwell,
where we found a great many things
of value and interest to our poinolog
ical and horticultural readers.
The great specialty of these nur
series is the propagation, by budding
and grafting, of all the choicest va
rieties of the citrus family, of which
Mr. Bidwell has an almost unrivalled
collection. Taking the report of the
poraological committee of the Florida
Fruit-growers Association as a basis
for his operations, Mr. B. has entirely
abandoned the raising of seedling
DeLand. Florida, Wednesday, May 22, 1878.
sweet orange trees tor sale, and
adopted a most careful sysi em of prop
agating only “known, named and
superior kinds,” which have stood the
test of the most critical examination
| and comparison, and received the ap
proval of experienced and competent
The great superiority of the new
oranges introduced {hiring the past
few years by the association just nam
ed, has already effected quite a revo
lution in the nursery business in Flor
ida ; and the prospective demand for
the choicest named and described
grafted and budded varieties, promise
greatly to out run the means of sup
ply; while carelessly raised “seed
lings," always of more or less uncer
tain quality, are rapidly falling into
Mr. Bidwell has wisely abandoned
the use of transplanting “sour stumps”
and is raising, direct from the seed,
large quantities of wll rooted voung
sour stock for buddtter— thus placing
the propagation of tfe orauge on the
same basis as that ofjthe apple, pear,
peach and other fruit trees, in the
best nurseries of F.urope and the
north. W- •
Passing through the loug lows of
“worked stock," and glancing at the
different labels, we nritiee large num
bers of thrifty young wees of various
size and age, bearing such names as
Magnum iTonnm, H&nasassa, Hart's
TardifF. Sweet Seville, (Ilicks ) Arca
dia. Old Vini. Nonpareil,’ Osceola.
Tangerine. St. Michael's. Prata. St.
Michael’s Tangerine, Sustain* Bothela,
Exquisite, St. Michael’s Egg, Dulcis
sima, Maltese Blood, Navel, Berga
mot. My rtefolia.Mediterranean Sweet,
Accapuleo, Brown (European). Ac
hilla, Quam-quat, etc
This list. includesUome of the very
finest European anfi native Florida
varieties, among tha&Bt of which we
may mention as of lneriai value, the
sSSf 'Jt i . n . T-fryi's
I Tardiff (late ripening.) Arcadia, Old
Vini, Nonpareil, Osceola. Dancy’s
Tangerine, etc. In the absence of
auy positive evidence to the contrary,
we assume that these are all, or near
ly all. Florida varieties. However
this may be. there can he no question
whatever ot their ureal superiority
and value, and from a personal knowl
edge of their quality, we can safely
recommend them to public favor.
i Of lemons, limes, citron, grape frtiit,
etc., we also noticed ;t very large; and
fine stock, including the newly intro
duced “Lamb lemon.'' which is said
to be very thin skinned, juicy, and
very superior The ordinary seed
ling “Florida lemon'’ (so called.) is
lof little worth; and to obtain this
i fine and valuable fruit in perfection.
| we must bud or graft from such sorts
as the thin skinned Sicily, the “Lamb”
variety, etc. We notice that several
enterprising gentlemen are entering
largely into the culture of lemons
and limes in South Florida, and as
success in all proper localities is sure,
wo hope to see the culture of these
indispensable fruits largely increased.
After examining the orange and
lemon departments at Arlington, we
took a hasty run through other sec
tions of the nursery, among the roses,
ornamental plants,, evergreens, trop
ical and semi-tropical plants, fruit
trees, vines, etc. Here we found
several varieties of the banana the
date palm, thesappodilla, mango, tam
arind, sugar apple, custard apple, co
coanut, guava, pomegranate, Japan
plum, jujube, fig, etc., etc., including
nearly or quite everything of real
value either for culture in the open
air or under glass in this climate.
The present collection of Mr. Bid
well includes a great many things not
mentioned in his printed catalogue,
among which we saw a number ot
European olive trees just imported
from the Mediterranean (six varieties;)
and several varieties of the now ancl
promising, Japan persimmons ( diospy■
ros kaki.) This variety, which comes
to us so highly praised, can be readi
ly grafted into stocks or roots of our
common old-field persimmon—as Mr.
Bid well’s experiments thus tar con-
clusively show—and we may, there
fore, hope soon to see the trees wide
ly disseminated and satisfactorily test
ed through this and adjoining States.
There were a great many other
things on the grounds at Arlington
which we would like to allude to,
had we time and space; but we will
close this hasty and necessarily imper
fect notice by advising all fruit grow
ers, florists and lovers of rare plants
and trees to cross the St. Johns and
give Mr. Bid well’s fine collection a
careful examination. —Sun and Press.
Arredondo to the Front,
From the Florida News.
Mr, Editor: I have been sojourn
ing along the railroad, from Live Oak
down, and Arredondo is the liveliest
station that I have struck. Long car
avans of wagons are seen coming in
every day, loaded with vegetables.—
It carries our memory back to tbe
time when we used to see the long
trains of wagons on the Ellano Este
eado or “staked plains,” That übiqui
tious agent, Mr. W. F. Rice, was
everywhere receiving and deposing
this valuable freight.
A shipper—“Mr. Rice. 25 crates to
New York.”
“Go into the office and give them
to Mr. Reynolds." Mr. Reynolds
bills them and receives the money for j
the freight.
Another —“Mr. Rice, 30 crates to
Quebec, Canada; ” and another, “Mr.
Rice, 15- crates for Chicago.” “Por
ter, put that truck load in car No,
623.” “Mr. Rice, 20 crates for Phila-
delphia.” “Are you agent?" “Yes,
sir." “What is the time of the arriv
al and departure of the trains ?” “You
will find the schedule posted, have no
time to talk to you now.” “Mr. Rice,
ID crates for Baltimore.” And so on,
just as busy as thay can be, until the
loading the cars with the different
varieties of vegetables that please the
wealthy vegetarian epicure, where
these articles are yet out of season,
and often where the frost and cold
of the rigid climate forbid their pro
duction for weeks afhv they are
grown and ready for consumption in j
this genial climate.
After the ears had gone we took on
ourselves to interview the agent.
“Well. Mr. Ilice, it appears that!
you are kept very busy.” No more I
so than every day.” “How many I
crates of vegetables did you get off!
to day and where did they go to ?”
“Four hundred and eighty-one crates.
They are shipped to all prominent j
cities North and West and to the
British possessions ; but most to New
York. The people have been using
them longer in New York; and they
have learned to want vegetables
grown so early as these.” “Then you
thiuk people have to be educated to
cat. a vegetable out of season ?” “I do
sir. just as much so as they have to
learn to eat our guavas when they
come to Florida. When our water
melons first went to the Northern
markets, it was with difficulty that
our growers could give them away ;
but now they are sought after and
bring large prices.” “What do cu
cumbers that are first sent, to market
bring?” “Ten to fifteen dollars per (
bushel crate : tomatoes the same price, j
green peas. $5 to 88: beans, 85 to $8; j
patty pan squashes, 83 to $5 per crate.”
“Then it is a lucrative business ?” “It
is to those who get their vegetables
in early and good order.
“I would like to see the man who
got 810 for a crate of cucumbers.” —
“Look across the street; do you see
that big, red faced, good natured,
laughing man, in that crowd of per
sons ? His name js Mills; he has just
gotten returns for his entire cucutn-;
her crop —prices ranging from 810 to
$o per crate from his commission mer
chant, Taylor & Lane, Now York.—
His first shipment was made 12th of
April.” “Such prices ought to make
any man good natured and independ
ent.” “They are all independent. You
must not judge these people by their
| dress. Each owner mounts his wag
on himself. Strangers at sight would
mistake them for hired men. This is
a business that requires the owner’s
personal attention, or he will lose
his vegetables, for I will not ship
crate from here unless it is plainly
marked, full directions given to
whom to be shipped and the freight
Do the shippers have to prepay
the freight, and how much per crate?"
“On all crates going to New York,
via Fernandina and the Fcmandina
steamship line, from any points oa
this road, thirty-seven and a half cents
perorate, freight collected in New
York from consignee; by way of rail
to Savannah and thence by steamer,
50 cents per crate, freight prepaid
here; by way of Savannah £iid the
Coast line to Norfolk and thence to
Baltimore, Philadelphia or New York,
80 cents per crate one-half prepaid
here and the other at destination by
consignee." “By which route do
you ship the most?” “By the Fern an
dina route onthe days of sailing of
the New York steamers. It is qui ck.
Mr.Yulee is fostering the business
and is doing everything he can to fa
cilitate transportation and encourag
ing planting.” “Then Mr Yulee’s
line is the most popular?” “It is de
cidedly so. The great interest Mr.
Yulee has manifested in developing
the State, the great number of set
tlers he has indneed to come and lo
cate, the vast amount of money he
has spent to accomplish bis purpose,
and the liberal use of his means, rail
road and steamers to all parties who
wished to see the country and inspect
I its advantages, is gaining Mr. Yulee
many friends. lie is not only set
tling up the country, but he is get
ting for the people all the advantages
that others enjoy in other States.”
“What is your opinion of the future
j growth of this country?” “I belie ve
;it will cqntjnijo n. rrr/w until Jt... vrJJL
joe as densely settiThi as the oiuei
! States. The climate is equable , the
I temperature not being so warm as to
( prevent persons from working in the
i hottest weather, and not so cold as to
! require an extra quantity of clothing
in the winter. The fact is, sir, the cli
mate would till up the country if no
i thing else did. People will come
i here to enjoy it; at the same time the
soil will afford them a living.”
I thanked Mr. Rice for the intor
mation given, and for his courtesy,
j and we M ill remember the busy vege
| table village of Arredondo
Pie kb L \ Mottk.
A Gross Scandal.
The Portland Transcript gives this
story. Do they realy believe such
stuff in the North ?
A gentleman from the North, stop
ping at Jacksonville, Florida, recently
| wandered off on a little forest stroll,
and soon came upon a tumble down
old cabin, at the door of which was
seated a venerable white man, with
eyes blinking with age, and his snowy
hair falling thickly about his shoulders.
He was watching a little darkey about
fifteen years old, gathering palmetto
roots. The gentleman from the
North engaged the ancient forester
in conversation about the crops, Ac.,
and found the old man intelligent and
well informed about his surroundings
I “But as to wages noM,” pursued the
the Northern visitor, “how much do
you pay hired help down here ? Take
that little niggor gathering roots
there, how much do you pay him a
day ?
The old man hesitated a second or
two, and then slowly said, skeining
his long white hair through his fin
gers, “Well to tell you the truth,
stranger, I’m not much on wages my
self The fact is, that little boy gath
ering roots out there is my wife’s son.”
The Northern gentleman had no
further questions to ask, more partic
ularly, perhaps, as “that little nigger’s”
mother, a bi colored woman, came
out of the cabin about this time with
a big pair of tongs in her hand, carry
ing a blazinggcoal for the old man’s -
No. 2.

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