Newspaper Page Text
The Florida Agriculturist.
Vol. 1. Contents of this Humber. Pane It—Fish and Fisheries of Florida; Lot Orange County be Known. Face 18—Keep a Stiff Upper Lip. poetry:' Mr. Delmayne’s Ward: Indiscriminate Giv ing; A Touching Story; Recipes. Page 19—Watering and Mulching: The Striped Bug; Blackberry root good for summer complaint; How a woman arises hen ; Josh Billings on hens; Lighting a room bv its wall paper; A prompt mule; Advertisements. Cage 30 —editorials; The Value of Para Grass Quertioued; Locals. Page 21—Real Estate Transactions; Flo ridiana; Waifcten ou the Death a Brother Mason, poetry. Page 23—Can every Farmer Keep Bees 1 Loss of Cud; Celery as a Cure-all; Water melon Sugar; Fertilizers; Value of Hen Manure; The Hatching Heu the Mother; Poultry. &e.; Legal Advertisements. Page 28—Mary’s Little Lamb; Siberian Exiles; Some Remarkable Winters; Heave tbeLead; A Growing Evil; Miscellaneous; Advertisements. Page24—Telegraphic; Advertisements. Fish and the Fisheries of Florida. From the Jaeksonville Sun and Press. The United States commission of lish and fisheries, of which Prof. Baird of the Smithsonian Institute is chairman, publish voluminous bien nial reports on the acouomical fishes of our country. Thus far the fishes of our State, and more especially the mullet, have been neglected, and I have been appealed to by Prof. Baird to assist the department, and to pre pare for publication in the next re port an article on the fish and fislier iers of Florida. No appropriation has been made by congress to enable the commission to collect data, and I am forced to appeal to Floridans for volunteer and gratuitous information. I am prepared to devote the time necessary to the preparation of such reports, but to accomplish the desired end, I must appeal to our citizens for 7 information irom numerous persons and various places. The department is desirous of ob taining information regarding the nat ural history of the mullet, so that its habits can be determined and describ ed. Hence the large number of quer ies propounded. The fisheries of the eastern and southwestern coasts of the State are an important industry, and only require the collection and publication of facts to develop them. The United States government has recently agreed to pay Great Britain $5,000,000 for the privilege of fishing within one league of her Nort h Ame rican coasts, wheu we have more and better fish, and if utilized, more profit able fisheries in the bays, inlets, and rivers of our own State. The oil extracts form fish is a mar ketable article worth at wholesale 60 cents per gallon, and as our fisheries are conducted, this product is wasted. The guano deposits of the Pacific are about exhausted, and agriculturists must look to other sources for manu ral’substances. The refuse of our mar ketable fish, and the refuse fish that are wasted, could be profitably con verted into oil and fisb guano. The latter would find a ready sale at from sl7 to $25 per ton. The fish commis sioners are prepared, to assist our State, and aid in the development of an important industry, and I ask our citizens to lend a helping hand, and supply me with reliable information. I append a series of question and urgently request that all possessing information will forward replies. In making a reply it is not necessary to repeat the queries, a reference to the number is sufficient. Replies should be written on one side only of the paper, giving name and residence of the cor respondent, and address to Dr. C. .1. Ken worthy, Jacksonville, Fla. DISTRIBUTION. 1. Are mullet found through the year, or only during a certain time, and for what time ? 2. If resident, is it more abundant at certain times of the year, and at what times? ABUNDANCE, 3. How abundant is it compared with other fish ? A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO STATE INTERESTS. 4. Has the abundance of fish di-1 minished or increased within the last ten years ? 5. If diminished or increased, what is the supposed cause ? SIZE. 6. What is the greatest size to which it attains, (both length and weight) and w hat the average ? 7. State the rate of growth per an num, if known: and the size at one, two, three or more years. 8. Do the sexes differ in respect to | shape, size rate, of growth etc. ? MIGRATIONS AND MOVEMENTS. 9. By what route do these fish come hi to the shore, and what the subse quent movements ? 10. By what route do they leave the coast ? 11. Where do they spend the sum mer season ? 12. When are the fishjfirst seen or known to come near the shore, and when does the main body arrive ; are the first the largest; are there more schools or runs than one coining in, and at what intervals ? 13. When do the fish leave shore, and is this done bv degrees or in a body ? 14. Is the appearance of the fish on the coast regular and certain, or do they ever fail for one or more seasons at a time, and then return in greater or less abundance; if so, to what cause is this assigned ? 15. How do the runs differ from each other in number and size ? 16. hat sex come in first, and how far advanced is the spawn in the female on first arrival ? 17. Do the schools of fish swim high or low, and is their arrival known otherwise than by their cap ture; that is, do they make a ripple on the water, or do they attract birds, etc. ? .isVwvW say length, breadth and depth; what is the quantity of the fish in relation to the amount of water in any given channel when they enter it from the sea? 19. What is the relation of their movements to the ebb and flow of the tide ? 20. Does spawn ever run out of these fish when captured in a net ? 21. Are these fish anadromous; that is, do they run up from the sea into fresh water for any purpose, and, if so, for what ? 22. If anadromous, when are they first seen off the coast ; when do they, j enter the mouths of the rivers, and I what is the rate of progression up j stream? ! 23. Ifanadromouß what is the length j of their stay in fresh water, and when do they return to the sea ? 24. Do the different sexes or ages ' vary in this respect ? 25. Do these fishes come on the j breeding grounds before they are | mature, or do you find the one or two- i year-old fish with the oldest ? 26. What are the favorite locali ties of these fish; say whether in still water or current, shallow or deep water, ou the sand, iu grass, about rocks, mud, etc. ? 27. What depth of water is prefer- ■ red by these fish ? 28. What the favorite temperature i and general character of water ? RELATIONSHIP. 29. Do these fish go in schools after they have done spawning, or throughout the year, or are they at times scattered and solitary ? 30. Have they any special enemies? 31. To what extent do they suffer from the attacks of other fish or an imals ? FOOD. 32. What is the nature of their food ? 33. Are their any special peculiar ities in the manner of feeding of these fish ? 34. What amount of food do they cousnme ? REPRODUCTION. 35. Is there any marked change in , the shape or color of either sex dur- I DeLand, Florida. Wednesday, May 29.1878. ing the breeding season, or any pe- ; cnliar development of, or on any por- j tion of the body, ns the mouth, fins, j scales, etc. ? 36. Are there any sptteial or unus ual habits during the spanning season? 37. Is spawning interfered with by lines or nets, or otherwise? 38. At what age does the male be gin to breed ; and at vfhat age the female? . 39. For how many years can these lisa spawn? 40. Does the act of spawning exert an injurious effect ? , . 41. Where do these-, lish spawn, , and when ? 42. Can you give an amount- of the process, whether male and female go in pairs, or one female and two males; whether the sexes arv mixed indis j criminately, etc. ? • > 43. Is the water eve * whitened or : colored by the milt of life male ? 44. What temperature of water is most favorable foivhateijng ? 45. At w hat depth ater are the eggs laid; if on, or neanfhe. bottom ? 46. What is the size ind color of the spawn ? 47. What is the es tin mod number for each fish ; and how ? 48. Answer the quejpion for one season, and for the lifetiitio ? 49. Do the eggs, when spawned, sink to the bottom and become attach ed to stones, grass, etc.; or do they float in the water until batched ? 50. Do the fish heap up or con struct any kind of neat.' whether of sand, gravel, grass, or otherwise, and if so, is the mouth, the snout, or the tail used for the purpose, or what, aud if so, how* is the material trans ported ; or do they make any excava tion in the sand or gravel ? 51. Do they watch otter fh.eir nest, it made, either single o® in pairs ? 52. When are the iggs "hatched, ing laid ? 53. What percentage of eggs laid is usually hatched ? j 54. What percentage of young at i tains to maturity? j 55. What is the rate of growth ? ! 56. Do the parents, either or both, watch over the young after they are hatched ? 57. What enemies interfere w ith, or destroy the spawn of the young fish ; do the parent fish devour them? 58. Are the young of this fish found in abundance, and in wbat localities ? 59. On what do they appear to feed? PROTECTION. 60. Are these fish protected by law or otherwise ? DISEASES. - 61. lias any epidemic or other dis ease ever been noticed among them, such as to cause their sickness or death in greater or less number ? 36. When have these epidemics taken place, and to what cause have they been assigned ? PAKASITE*. 63. Are crabs, worms, lampreys or other living animals found attached to the outside or on the gills of these fish? CAPIUItE. : j 64. How is this fish caught; if in | net, what kind ? 65. At what season and for what period is it taken in nets ,? 66. What would be the average daily catch with a net or seine of specified size or length; what is the greatest amount you have ever known caught in a seine; state length of net? 67. Are pounds ever used to cap ture these fish ? 68. Is it caught more on one time of tide than another ? ' ECONOMICAL VALVE AND APPLICA TION. r 69. What disposition is made of the iish caught, whether used on the spot or sent elsewhese, and if so where ? 70. What is its excellence as food, fresh or salt ? How long does it re tain its excellence as a fresh fish ? 71. To what extent is it eaten ? 72. Is it solted down and to what extent? 78. What'are the highest and low est prices per pound during the last season, wholesale for salted lish ? 74. What was the market price for this fish in a fresh state during the past season? 75. Are these fish exported, and to what extent ? 76. Where is the principal market I for these fish ? 77. Are the heads and offal of these j fish utilized, or are they wasted ? 78. Are the refuse fish captured j (when fishing for mullet) utilized for ! oil or fish guano, or are they wasted? 79. What is the average quantity of refuse fish captured daily ? If any, give probable quantity, and name of same ? 80. Are there manufactories of oil, guano, isinglass, or caviar in your neighborhood ? 81. Is the roc of the mullet prepar j ed for exportation, and to what places, | and in what quantity, and what price i is realized for the same ? 82. Are any mullet captured out j side of a line three miles from shore? 88. Do the citizens of any other country capture mullet or other fish on our coasts inside of a line three miles from shore ? 84. If foreigners engage in fishing inside of a line three miles from shore, what is their nationality, and are they ever interfered with by our citizens or authorities ? 85. Are there any other varieties of marketable fish caught in quantity in your neighborhood; if so, what are they, where are they sold, and what is the market price of same ? Name address and occupation of observer; date of statement. The preceding questions have been prepared to facilitate the investiga tion of the natural history and eco nomic value of-the mullet, and reliable data/we solicited from all possessing .-U: nr ,/l f (ie ~ >ll'.yja.fi t~ 1. itr.. State, I hope that numerous persons will respond. C. J. Kenworthy. Jacksonville, April 29,1878. Let Orange County be Known. From tho Reporter. Each person that has been in our county long enough to begin to com prehend how great are the advanta ges we possess, in climate, pure water, healthfulness and an elevation above the St. J ohns river that ensures a natur al drainage for most of our lands, with constantly increasing transportation facilities, but wishes that his friends could be induced to come and enjoy all these advantages with him, and participate with him in the rapid de velopment that is taking place. This improvement is more apparent to us old settlers than to those who have recently made our county their home, because we can contrast the present with the past, and realize that the ad vancement made during the past few years is an earnest of the fnture; an evidence of what Orange county must become in a few years; the greatest fruit producing county in the State. I think that a brief statement of what inducements we can present to those in other States who think of moving to a more southern clime, may not be amiss, and to offer a few sug gestions to those who are writing about the country. Florida climate,especially upon the peninsula, (lifters so much from all countries that I scarcely know how to describe it, or with what to com pare it. To realize its delightfulness, a person must be present to enjoy it. - In winter we seldom see ice, and a cool spell does not often exceed threo days in duration. That kind of weath er that we call cold and drives us to the fire, would at the North be termed spring-like. Some winter gourd and sweet potato vines continue un injured through tho whole season ; while in other years the frost is suffi ciently severe to kill them by the middle of November. Contrary to tho geneal opinion of those who re side out of the State, Florida summers are pleasant. Though wo are in the same latitude with southern Spain and northern Africa, our climate is entire ly dissimilar; no such hot blasts as take their rise in the Saharean Desert ever blow npon us, but in their place we have gentle sea breezes from both the Atlantic and Gulf to cool the at mosphere, and render it' pleasant, while our nights are cool enough to invite repose, and sleep is sweet and refreshing. The question may be asked : “Why do you tell us these things that wt know from experience to be true ? ’ Because I am writing for the benefit of your subscribers in other States who have never tested Florida climate. To many a visitor our sandy soil preseuts a rather uninviting appear ance, and they ask, “Can such land be productive ?” I point them to the heavy growth of pine timber; the tropical appearance of our hammocks, our beautiful orange trees, and, if in the propper season, to the rich growth of sugar cane, cotton and sweet pota toes, and say, Judge for yourself. Our own citizens scarcely begin to realize the productive capacity of our soil, or the great variety of fruits and plants suited to our latitude whoso Cultivation can be made highly re munerative. Our attention has been directed almost exclusively to the cul tivation of citrus fruits, and we have forgotten that there is money in any other crop. Let us awaken from this forgetfulness and realize that Florida is as well adapted to mixed husbandry as other States; perhaps more so, as we have fewer difficulties to content with. I will merly men tion one industry, which, from its im portance, must, m a few years, occupy a prominent position among Florida products, viz.: Casava and Arrowroot. From potatoes at the North the starch product is 1800 lbs. per acre, while from casava, in our own State, the yield is over 5,000 lbs., and, on rich doubled. Arrowroot is equally pr o duotive. All we require to *ma ko them leading staples is the establish ment of starch manufactories through the country to make a market for the crude root. Almost any of our pine lands will produce a crop of these roots. Another great advantage we possess over other States is in being able to have a constant succession of vegetables during fall, winter and spring, and by varying the mode of culture, to have them during summer. To have vegetables in perfection re quires that the gardeu should be made rich ; poor ground never pays for the labor put on it. In conclusion, I would say to those who write about Florida and wish the country settled : do not color too high; tell your friends what you have found it to be, and give all the disad vantages, for we have some. “Do as you would be done by.” T have laid down the following rule for my own guidauce ; to give]; just such kind of information as I should wish to re ceive in reference to a country I thought of moving myself. Do this, and your friends will not be disap pointed when they come, or, at least, they cannot blame you. Z. H. Mason, M. D. —The Scientific Farmer says that hens like a variety of food, besides all kinds of grain, raw or boiled (better boiled), and mashed boiled potatoes. They are fond of chopped cabbage and onions, once or twice a week; and when they can not get grass, they will eat. quite freely of finely cut hay. They arc not fond of burnt bones, because the fat and marrow are burned out, but raw bones, chopped into fine pieces, they will devour greedily. Animal mat ter, either manufactured or home made, is also very essential to their health and profit. —Do not allow ashes of any kind to bo wasted. It will pay to haul leached ashes several miles, when one has his own team, and a laborer at fair wages. Ashes, when spread around berry bushes of any sort, or around grape vines, will aid mate ri ally in producing large, fair fruit. No. 3.