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HOW THE WEATHER IS FORETOLD. In former times, the chief herald of the weather was the almanac, which ambitiously prophesied a whole year of cold and heat, wet and dry, dividing uj> the kinds of weather quite impartially, if not always cor rect v. Out the almanac, good as It was now and then, and the weather-wise fanners, correct as sometimes they might have been, were not always able to impart exact information to the conntry; and they have been thrown quite into the shade of late, hv one who is popularly known un der the somewhat disrespectful title •of‘‘Old Prob, '■ or “Old Probabili ties. ” He has become the Herald of the Weather to the sailor, near the rocky, dangerous coasts: to the farmer, watching his crops, and wait ing for good weather to store them; to the traveller, anxious to pursue his journey under fair skies; and to the boys and girls who want to know be fore they start to the woods for a pic-nic, what are the “ probabilities ” as to rain. Every one who reads the daily pa per is familiar with the “Weather Record, ” issued from the “ War De partment, office of the Chief Signal Officer, ”at Washington. These re ports give, first, a general statement of what the w eather has been, for the past twenty-l'our hours, all over the country, from Maine to California, and from the Lakes to the South At lantic States, and then the “ Proba bilities,or “Indications,” for the next twenty-four hours, over the same broad territory. The annual reports of the Chief Signal Officer show that in only comparatively few instances do these daily predictions fail of ful fillment. The reason these prophesies are so true is a simple and yet a w onderful one. The weather itself tells the ob server what it is going to do, somo time in advance, and the telegraph sends the news all over the country, 1 from the central signal office at Washington. We shall see, presently, how the weather interprets itself to “ Old Probabilities. ” Although it has proved such a fruitful subject of dis course in all ages, yet I am afraid many people who pass remarks upon it do not really think what the weath er is made of. Let us examine its different elements. The atmosphere lias weight, just as water or any other fluid, although it ipeems to he perfectly bodiless. We must comprehend that, the transpa rent invisible air is pressing inward toward the center of the earth. This pressure varies according to the state of the weather, and the changes are indicated i*v an instrument called a barometer. ' Generally speaking, the falling of the mercury in the tube of •the barometer indicates a raiu. and its rise heralds clear weather. Some times the rise is followed by winds, frost and ice. V\ hat these changes really indicate, however,can only be determined by comparing the baro jnetic changes, at certain hours in a number of places very far apart. This is done by the Signal* Service. Obser vations are made atone hundred and forty stations, in different parts of the country, at given hours, and the re sults telegraphed at once to Wash ington, where our faithful “ weather clerk ” receives them, reasoning out •of them the “ probabilities ” which he pubiihes three times in every twenty-four hours, Bui the atmosphere varies not only 311 weight, but also in temperature. The thermometer tells us of such changes. Besides this the air contains a great amount of moisture, and it shows as much variation in this characteristic #9 in the others. For the purpose ot making known the changes in the moistureof the atmosphere, an instru ment. has been made called a “ wet bulb” thermometer. We are thus enabled to ascertain She weight or pressure, the tempera ture, and the wetness of the air, and now it only remains lor us to meas ure the force, and point out the di rection, of the wind. This is done by She familiar weather-vane and the anemometer. The vane shows the direction, and the anemometer is an instrument w hich indicates the veloc ity of the wind. It is by a right understanding of all these instruments that the signal service officer is enabled to tell what the weather says of itself; for they arc the pens W’ith which the weather writes out the facts from which the officer makes up his reports for the benefit of all concerned. Thus, how ever wildly and blindly the storm may seem to come, it sends messen gers telling just where it arose, what course it will take, and hew r lar it will extend. But it tells its secrets to those only who pay strict atten tion.—James IT. Flint, in fit. Nicho las for July. How to Plow. A great deal of false doctrine has been promulgated upon the subject of subsoil plowing. This was a great mistake, as many soils do not need it at all. On land which has a hard crust at the bottom of the furrows, subsoiling, to break the crust and let the water and air through it, is exceedingly beneficial, and the clay lands need subsoiling for the same purpose. We should understand the principles of plow making. When I take my boy to the field and set him j to plowing, I must first tell him how ! to set up his plow so that it will take a furrow of the proper width and depth. Tie must be taught to have the draught in the center so as to re quire the least labor of the plowman in keeping the plow in its place with the furrow neither too narrow nor to wide. He must also know how to construct the plow so as to get the right depth and keep the plow level all the time. To make the right width of furrow, the iron work and the beam must be set at cross pur poses —that is the land slide, from point to heel must cross the line of the beam. The great difficulty with swivel plows Ims been that they would not take sufficient land. They are not set sufficiently at cross purposes, so when at work they easily run into the last furrow. The boy should un derstand all these things before he starts his team; then, if the plow fails to run steadily and easily, he will know how to remedy the diffi culty, and not be like a man I once knew, who used a plow for a whole year, grumbling all the time about it because it took too small a furrow, but did not see that the clevis pin was in a side bole all the time. (.roundpeas or Peanuts. I was never in a hurry te forsake old friends for new acquaintances, and have therefore been slow 7 to aban don the groundpea aud tako up with the chufa. The elmfa may be all that is claimed for it, and I do not intend to decry it, but, with my limited ex perience, it is not equal to the ground pea Having learned to farm under the ante helium regime, I keep up my old habit of raising my own bacon, and the groundpea is one of my main reliances in fattening hogs. I put my fattening hogs on the pindar patch early in October, and keep them there until they are seal fat; and when they are killed, there arc still peas enough left to support the stock hogs for months. And there is no crop more easily cultivated, or more certain in its yield. I prepare tho land with a thorough broadcast plowing, then open furrow's with a round shovel, three and a half feet apart, in which I throw cotton seeds at a rate of ten or twelve bushels to the acre, composted with a barrel of lime, and list on it w ith 3 good turning shovel furrow on each side- About tho Ist of April open this !i9t with a scooter, and drop the peas at intervals of one and a half to two feet, covering with a board as you would cotton. The only trouble I have ever had with the groundpea crop is in getting a stand; they ought to be covered very lightly, the pea having been previously broken in two, and the twm pieces dropped in a place.— The first working should be done w'ith a turning plow’, barring off the peas as you w'ould corn, and follow ing with the hoe, to clean out all the young grass. In ten days or two weeks throw the earth back to the vines, and plow out the middles with a round shovel. Tho third and last plowing may be given with a single solid sw'eep furrow, followed by the hoes to clean out the grass not reach ed by the plow. This lays them by, and they will require no more atten tion until the crop is ready to be gathered. —Firm Journal. THE F I,OI!.’DA ACEICULTUEIST. The C'<ht of Cotton Culture. One goid. active hand can culti vate twelvt acres in cotton or twenty five acres >f corn, which may be in creased or, diminished, according to the character of the soil. The length of time required will be about eleven months fo- the cotton and seven months for the corn. Putting the wages of this hand at eight dollars per month, eighty-eight dollars; with rations, say three and one-half pounds of bacon per week and one peck ol meal, say twenty dollars; feed of the mule to plough at forty dollars and the smith ill at five dollars would make the whole cost of cultivating twelve acre >in cotton, $153. If these twelve acres would yield only four hundred pounds of seed cotton per acre, then the amount made would lie 4,800 lbs. in seed, or 1,000 in lint- So the expense of making 1,000 of lint will be $153, which at 89.50 per one hundred pounds would simply cover the cost. But if the land should make one thousand pounds per acre, the whole yield would be 12,000 pounds in seed or 4,000 pounds in lint; but as the one hand could not pick over half the crop, the cost of picking the balance, 6,000 pounds, would be about 827, making the cost, SIBO, which, at $4.50 per hundred, will cover the amount, SIBO. So it is evidebt the expense of making one hundred pounds cannot be uniform as to the cost The richer the lands the greater will be the reductions of the expense, and th reverse; for if only two hundred pounds had been made per acre, then the expenses wotild hat e run up to niiitecn dollars, and if tnb yield had been two tbous sand pounds, the cost would have been two dollars and fifty cents per one hundred pounds: the cost of the hired hand and the feed of the mule being the same in both cases. This plan of estimating the cost will hold in making corn, though less than that of cotton, as the time of work ing and gathering crop need not be over seven months instead of eleven. —Southern lTome. THE VALLE OF CHARCOAL. The value of Charcoal as a fertil izer consists pi its quality of absorb ing gases and other matter under certain conditions and giving them out under other conditions.—.ll. M. W. Huntington, Vermont, writes: Charcoal will absorb many times its own bulk ol gases and condense them in its pores when it is dry and warm. It will absorb three times its bulk of atmospheric air, and in addition, oxygen gas, 2.8 ; of nitro gen gas. L 6 5; of hydrogen gas, 1.9; of carbonic acid gas, 14.3 ; of nitric oxide. 5.8. Nearly' all these gases are expelled unchanged by a heat below 212°, and a portion of them by immersion in water. Besides this, charcoal has a st rong affinity for pu trid matter, insomuch that it will, in powder, tleanse putrid water, taint ed vessels, restore slightly tainted meat, and sweeten a foul stomach.— All ll icse things when expelled by heat or moisture furnish food for plants. So much for theory; now for the practical part. I have a piece of ground on which a coal pit was burn ed nearly 40 years ago. I have owned it 11 years; and as far as the fine charcoal is mingled with the soil I have never put any manure; and who! her it is in grass or grain the crop invariably grows so rank that it falls down; and 1 have known numerous cases. The very reason some give why it is worthless as a fertilizer is just what gives it its greatest value, viz., it is insoluble in water and not subject to putridity and decay ; hence it makes an ever lasting and invaluable fertilizer. A Fruit Cellar. The Boston Journal of Chemistry furnishes the following description of a fruit cellar, which may afford some valuable hints to thoso who arc in quiring for information on this sub ject : 'fen years ago w'e constructed a fruit cellar under our stable, and it has proved so satisfactory that we venture to give a brief description of it • The division walls are construct ed of brick, and the apartments are two iu number, an outer and inner room. The outer room is hot partly underground, and is ten hy twelve feet iii area, and eight feet high. The inner room is wholly underground, and frost proof; it has four brick walls and a cemented floor. In this room the fruit is stored eariy in De cember, when the weather becomes cold. The outer room holds the fruit during the autumn months after it is gathered, and is cool, well light ed and dry. The windows are left open and a free circulation of air al lowed so long as no danger from frost exists. When the fruit is taken to the inner room, the door is closed, and no light admitted. Ventilation is secured in moderate weather by opening the inner door and throwing down a window in the outer room. In this cellar we kept apples of last season's growth until the present winter, in perfect condition. Some of these apples exhibited at autumnal agricultural fairs, were pronounced as fresh as those of last seasons growth. To Preserve the Colors of Pressed Plants. It is well known that plants treated with alcohol have their natural colors preserved for a considerable time; but still they begin to fade far to soon, and many assume a blackish color during the tedious process of drying, in consequence of the partial decomposition or fermentation of the sap. To avoid this, resort may be had to the following process : Dis solve one part of salicylic acid in six hundred parts of alcohol, and heat the solution to the boiling point in an evaporating dish. Draw the plant slowly through the liquid, wave gently in the air to get rid of superfluous moisture, and dry between folds of blotting paper several limes repeated. In this manner the plants dry rapidly, which is a great gain, and they thus furnish specimens of superior beauty. Do not let them remain long in the solution or they may got discolored, and renew' the blotting paper often. According to Mr. W. Craig a solu tion of chloral hydrate, in the propor tion of a grain and a half to an ounce of water, serves as a preservative of vegetable tissues, evc-n retaining their natural color. —Journal of C'hem istry. Profits of Bee Keeping.—-Tho considerable profit, arising from tho culture of bees, I believe, greatly ex ceeds any other branch of agriculture, and it is rather to be wondered at that the keeping of them has not been more universal. I know of no busi ness, except this, that will return cent for cent for money expended, and this on trial will be found to ex ceed that. Here the proprietor wants not largo possessions; a small gar den only will answer his purpose, and a little attention, at some partic ular seasons of the year, is all that is required.—Bromwich. Age of Bees.—The ago of bees is at longest but a year, and tho won der is not that they live so short a time, but (considering how many en emies they have, and how many cas ualties they are subject to) that they live so long. lam not rdone in my opinion, that not only bees, but all other creatures having a Cyprus wing, are at most but annuals. Sure we are, that most sort of insects fall much short of that time, many not reaching half that length, some not a month. —Warder. —An old in an said to his sons. ‘‘Boys, don’t you ever speckerlate or wait for something to turn up. You might just as well go sit down on a stone in the middle of a medderwith a pail ’twixt your legs and wait for a cow to back up to you to be milked.” NOTICE —In the County Court and ’ of Probate. Volusia County. Florida. Notice is hereby given that after six months publication of this notice. I shall apply to the County Judge of Volusia County, for a discharge from my adminis tration as administrator ol the estate of the late James Al. Elwood. deceased. Notice is also hereby given that all ac counts against said estate, not exhibited to me witnin two years after the date of roy letters of administration < f said estate, to wit., the Sid nay > f July A. r>. 1877 will bo foivver barred. Ot wfiicu all creditors and persons oi tilled to distribution will tiki notice. A. It. KLLWOOD, 10 35 administrator Ac. Lsaral Notices. ‘lf ASTER’S SALEof Real Est ate. -“*• B.y virtue, of a Decree of, made, and en tered in the Circuit Conti, I will sell at public nntor.v in front of the Court House door at Enterprise, Volusia County, Btate of Florida, on the first Monday, the fifth day of August, a. l>. ! 878, within the usual hours of sale, the following Real Estate., lying in Volusia County, Florida, ana known and described as follows: Known as the Dunlawton place, being a grant by ihc Spanish Government to Patrick Dean, on the 13th day of August, 1804, bv Patrick Dean to Bunch, by Bunch to Lawton, by Lawton to Anderson, by Anderson to John J. Marshall, including Sectional Grants forty-three. Township fifteen, south of range thirty-tl roe, oast, containing two honored and ninety and i inoies-n one-hun dredths acres, more or less, and section thirty-seven, io'wnsliir) sixteen, south, of range thirty-three cast, containing seven hundred and sixty and sixtv-two one hundredths acres. more or less, bounded on the north by lands of It. N Swift, on the cast by lots four and five of section thirty three. Township fifteen south,rango thirty three east, and lots tv-, three and four of seotion four,©! Twonship sixteen, of range thirty-three east, and on the west by lot number one, section eight. Township six teen south, of thirtv-tbreo east, lots one, two, four and five, of section five. Town ship sixteen south, of range east, and the fractional southwest quarter of section thirt.v-two, Township fifteen,, south, of rango thirty-three east, contain ing in the aggregate one thousand and seventy-seven acres, more or less, also the land on which the dwelling of said J J, Marshall is sitnatea, immediately on the 1 liililax river, known and distinguished as lot one of fractional section three. Town ship sixteen youth, of range thirty-three east, containing fifty acres, more or less. Bold under and b.v virtue of a Decree made b.y the .Tudgeof the Ciicuit Court on a bill filed to ioreciosn and inforco the lien of said John J. Marsha 1 oa said land for the purchase money thereof and sold to satiaty said lieu and said purchase money . Sold at the risk and for the benefit of Pomeroy, a purchaser at a sale of said land and premises heretofore uad, who having failed to comply with the require ments of said sale, and pay the pnschase money. Sold under and by virtue of a subsequent decree made bv the Judge cl the Circuit Court, at his risk and for his benefit. Terms cash, purchasers paying for titles- July. 1878. HHZEKJAif E. OSTEEN, 8-11 Special Master in Chancery, TN THE COUNTY COURT Vo lnsia County. In the matter of the petition cf H. B. DeYarman. adminisliator of thestate of the late Abner Shearer, decease and, for the ■ sale of Real Estate. Under and persriant to an order made its tho above matter by Ffedrick J. Lal’eno tiore, County Judge of Volusia C niity and da+ed 18th June a. j>. 1878. ,1 will sell at public auction on Mondav the sth day of August 1878. at the Court He aso at Enter prise, between the usual hours cf sale on that day, the following described promisee to wit: Tho east half of the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 15, Township, range 30 cast, Floi l?s,-bc rrf.-rfrryrti wiih the improvemets consisting of an or ange"grove situated thereon. Terms cash, purchaser paying for titles Dated Jnne 28th. 1878. GEO. 11. PARKER. 8-11 Commissioner. NJOTICE—On Monday, Angnst 19th ’ 1878 I will apply by petition to Hon. \V. A. Cocke, Circuit Judge of the Seventh Judicial Circuit of Florida, at his residence near Fort Reid, Qiango County, Florida, for an order to sell for the benefit of Mar garet Watson, Elizabeth Watson and Fior enco Watson, minors, all their right, title and interest of, in and to certain Real Estate situated in Volusia County,Florida, and known ns parts of n. w. 5 of e. 6, t is\. s. r. 31 e.; and parts of s. 1, 1.19 e. r. £0 e. July 81878. Maijssa Watson, 7-10 Guardian of Minors above named, TN THE CIRCUIT COURT—7 tb -* Judicial Circuit, Volusia county. William Allan vs. M. M. Hedges and J one phene M. Hedges. Amount sworn to. 8517.81 The defendants and altothers are hereby notified of the commencement cf this suit, that an attachment has been issued, sad that they are required to appear, plead or demur to tho deckin', ion filed in said cause, hy the first Monday in October next, the same being rule day, or judgment will be taken b.v default. May 29,1878. JOHN B. RTIOKNEY, C. 15. BUCKNOR. my29ni3 Pill ’s Attys. TN THE COUNTY COURT and -’ of Probate, Volusia county. In the Adininistratkn cf (he Estate of Arthur Rossetter, Jr., decreased: Notice ia hereby given that I have been, b.v the County Judge of Volusia county, appointed administrator of the above estate, and that all persons having claims against the same are requested to file the same with me duly authenticated without delay, and all per sons indebted to the said estate are re quested to make settlement forthwith. Beresford P. 0.. Vol usia co.. Feb’y 26,1878. A. T. ROSBEI TER, feb2S-6m Administrator. On Motion, Ordered that election dis trict No. 16 bocinpcsed of thefoLowingde scribed territory in Volusia county. Alt of township 17 south, range 29 east, less thal portion lying wtstit tie Bu Johns river. Also secticu No’s six, seven, eigh teen. nineteen and thirty, in township 17 south, range 30 east, with voting place at Beresford. On Motio?/, It was ordered that, that portion of tect.on 28, township 16, range 33 oast, lyiug south of Spruce cm k. and sections 33, 34, and that in itiou if sections 35 and26 lying west of Tiutibu 1 crek.in jownsfiip and rangeatori said,nowincluded in district No. 10, fie setoff ana included in district No. 9. , , lt JNO. W. DICKINS, Clerk of Board Cos. Coiumisdcners.