Newspaper Page Text
The Florida [Agriculturist.
A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO STATE INTERESTS. Vol. 1. Contents of this Number. P®£® 105-An Orange County Correspond ent on his Travels: Agriculture. Pa?®i 108—Some One’s Bervant Girl, poet ry; roiling a rival; A Fancy Farmer: Rec ipes. Page 107—How a Great Orchard was Made; Adv’mte. Page 108—Fruit and Yellow Fever; Edi torial ; Floridians ; The Fruit Scare. Page 109-Locals; Republican Conven tion ; Cost of a Home in Florida; Adv’mte. Page 110—Natural and Artificial Fertiliz ers ; Dariying Among Ants; Liquid Manure for Flowers; Celery; New Metnod of Pre serving Fruits; Food for Horses; Legal Notices. Page 111—The Kiss of Peace; Honorable Employment; Adv’mts. Page 113—Telegraphic ; Adv’mts. AN ORANGE COUNTY CORRES PONDENT ON HIS TRAVELS. Editor Florida Agriculturist : Seating ourselves in our little row - boat, my brother and I pushed out from Moutrosc Spring, which is so beautifully situated on the banks of the Wekiva, in the rapidly growing settlement of Altamonte, in Orange county, and glided down the stream. It was one of July’s freshest and love liest mornings. The clouds, hang ing low, were fast drifting from the Atlantic, ready at any moment to form in one black mass, and pour out their suspended waters upon us. The river looked its prettiest bound ed bv its semi-tronical shores, where the graceful cabbage palm mingled its foliage with evergreens of many kinds. The water was nearly as clear as crystal; aud as we floated we could look down into its depths and sec countless numbers of the fin ny tribe playing around. The bot tom of the river was a sealed ourios vegetation. Tu places a long leaf grass was growing, whose ends came up to the surfaco no matter how deep the water was; in others, mosses were waving, whoso beauty was lost > the moment they were pulied up. ] Here and there were large patches of bonnet lilies, whose large leaves lay on the water, a field of green; one large patch lias the express vc name of “fiddlers green." In still places the queer little water lettuce was growing, which, as the plants grow larger, push themselves over and out into the current, then drift on down into some narrow, stili place and bod over the water, and become the dread of the boatmen, on small craft. There were but few birds on the river. Lumpkins were very scarce. A few years ago they were very plentiful, but have been hunted too much. They now seldom made their peculiar cry. We were much amus ed at one old blue heron; he would choose his perch upon the tallest tree and upon the approach of the boat he would lift himself gracefully upon his broad wings and seek another farther down. > We followed him bo far that lie concluded wo were going all the way, and decided to leave ns. j Turning a bend in the river sudden ly wo came right on a water-turkey sitting on a limb, he dropped as il shot and disappeared in the water. While wondering what had become of him, we saw some distance below what seemed to be the head of a snake, but soon found it was the tur key. Flocks of ducks occasionally rose before us, but it wa3 difficult to get a shot, so we succeeded in get ting only one. Often wc would star tle alligators sunning themselves, when they would plunge iuto the liver with tremendous noise. Wc saw ono old fellow laying on a log and a few feet above him was a hard shell turtle. Wo passed within a few feet but could not scare them off. LV e had the benefit of two good showers on us that day and after pulling twenty miles wo camped at Jake Smith’s bluff early in the after noon. Wc put out some lines and 60on had fish enough for supper and breakfast. We rolled our duok, feathers and all, in mud, and covered it with fire, and when cooked, we found it to bo delicious. As soon as the sun went down the mosquitoes began to swarm around us, but bc iug provided with a portable bar we passed a comfortable night in spite of tho concert they kept np around it. We left early next morning. Near the St. Johns we found a lettuce bed half a mile through, which wc struggled in half an hour or so. At la6t wc came in sight of St. Johns, the little mail boat, Pastime, was beautifully steaming up the river, and passed just before we entered it. Go ing across where Capt. Lous was building a wharf for the Wekiva freight, wo learned that tho David Clark, tho boat I wanted to go down on, had not come up, and there was nothing for me to do but wait all day lor the Ilattic. In the aftcruoou tho barge Apopka, came down the Wc kiva from Clay Springs, and until the arrival of the Hatjie I was entertain ed with discussions of Wekiva freight busiucss by tho two rival barge Cap tains. Sundown found us aboard the Hattie going up into Lake Monroe. T v itiff frharv'efl /arjafe *■ fjnUtX;: ■dr~r^ r freight were put off. Wc lay'ail ni"ht at Mellonville and at five on O the morning of the 4th we moved out from tho wharf, wont over to Entcr j prise and at last wc turned our heads ! northward aud I realized that at last I was leaving grand old Orange county aud its thrifty orange groves. We had a pleasant lot of passengers down. The gentlemanly officers, Coxetler and Scaring fully maintain ed their high reputation for courtesy and regard for tho comfort of their passengers, and thanks to their kind ness, wc had a most delightful trip down the noble old St. Johns. Yours truly, S. P. S. AGRICULTURE. Editor Florida Agriculturist : The International Agricultural Congress only skimmed rural econo my, and that not very profoundly. It is to be hoped that some compila tion of the documents and essays not read, will be made, so that some ex act, although only general ideas, may be had of the 6tate of agriculture over the world. It is not necessary j to weight these coming official doc ! uments with the history of agricul ture —leave all that to the antiqua ries ; wc want the living present and the possible future. The Congress did not touch upon the systems of culture and farm management, pecu liar to various nations, nor on the habits, the agrommical manners, in a word, of a slate. Now these are just the essentials the practical farm er requires to know; what are the phases through which modern farm ing has passed, to arrive at its pies ent scientific and remunerative stand point, for if schemes of cultivation be Deland, Florida, Wednesday, August 14, ,1878. not profitable, all the soiecce at their back will never lead to their adoption. Agriculture can never be other than in a progressive condition.— There must be no sitting still, as with the Egyptians of old. To succeed, the agriculturist must work bard, possess a great spirit of order and a perseveranco that will never fail. Even these qualities do not always lead to sneoess. To intelligence must be added capital, and it is not so much the amount of the latter that is required, as it is judicious applica tion. Farming is becoming an in dustry, very much akin to manufac tures, where the eye must ever be on the watch for improvements to chea p en production and secure economy. In France, for example, the road to success Jies in a mixed system of cul ture ; that is, where the rearing of stock will enter as an imporant factor- Sheep, not for wool, but for meat, ei ther in theformof mutton or of lamb, and the dairy products in the form of milk,butter,acd cheese,to say noth, ing of the poultry yard. The produc tion of cattle implies an increased production of fonder. Tho demand for meat is greater than tho supply, while the price of grain, owing to its greater facility of transport, must remain at some., lung like a common average. Peris, os'the same remarks will apply in a dative sense to hay. At the Congress, the most popular question, because extremely vital, was that respect log the importation of meat, whether on foot or preserv kih*.- — 1; A,-O "• "u . UttXlllLU l Übn nisiinliE r .<A-(f "applies to the markets of old Europe, but the cry is, still they do not come. Liebeg s Extract dominates the mark et, One speaker asserted that Aus tralia could place in the French mark et, mutton at six sous the pound, and that only twenty-five days were re quired to ship it from New South Wales to this country. People who are aware that letters take about six ty days to reach us, and that Austra lian mutton is only to be had for twenty eight sous a pound, may be excused for smiling at tho prospect. The fact is, the meat does nGt reach us, cither in the shape of live bullocks, or tics, beiow butcher’s prices. J ust now Paris groceries aro stocked with canned American meats —Australia does cot show. The lowest priced can of two pounds, costs two francs and fifty centimes. The labels are all in English, and so are the ohow bills! Consignments should be made up specially for the French mar ket,and shippers should bear in mind that excepting ham and bacon, the French abhor salted meats, and have rather an aversion for such as are boiled. Avery natural question to aßk, touching the Exhibition, is, what progress agriculture made since tho last—that of 1867. In replying on the part of the part of the Continent, the answer will mark the advance for the art in general. Manures and machinery, occupy the first letters in the first line. * There has been an ex traordinary extension in tho use oi commercial fertilizers, notably of mineral phosphates, as extracted front several beds throughout Eurupe.— Vegetable and animal fife appear to receive anew stimulus, from the dot- covery of this unlimited supply of phosphorous, and that chemistry ren ders soluble and assimilable. The fertility of farms has been doubled and quadrubled by these manures, especially when employed as com plements, following the system of M. Chevreue, and not that of M. Ville, who regards live stock as an evil, and grain crops the ore thing need- ful, if manured after a kind of medi cal formula, replacing the salts car ried away by the grain, by a like proportion of mineral fertilizers. Ir- rigation, in conjunction with com mercial manures, has made way in Belgium, and the plowing down of green crops is in much favor of late years, Relative to machiuerv, it tends to displace manual labor in cul tivation ; the day is coming when farm servants will consist wholly of engineers and carpenters. Live stock has made vast strides in the way ol amelioration, net so much in the adop tion of any distinct race, as in tho crossing of a selected local herd, with an imported bull, calculated to cor rect inferior points. Perhaps iu sheep farming tho changes within ten years are moro remarkably still; in ISG7 all were iu agony in Austro-" iia, South America, etc,, cutting out tho French clips; the markets have now been left to these countries, and attention turned to the production of meat. There are some spirits that are not reconciled to the abandon ing of the contest, as they are occu pied in securing a breed of sheep, AkSLeffhA il a 7 io meat and woolly and South America, to be convinced how hopeless must be a wool war on the part of continental farmers with these countries. In the feeding of cattle, tho em ployment of preserved green food in trenches, for Autum and Spring feed ing, is a discovery due to M, as this gentleman has proved its feasibility and efficiency; tho plan en ables him to keep more stock, and fat them off more quickly ; the prac tice is becoming very general, and any fodder, no matter when cut, can be successfully preserved, and iu a seaso indefinitely, while tue plan is very suitable for dry climates, tho northern regions 'nave found a kind of counterpart in the employment of beet pulp, excellent for fattening, as for feeding. On the industrial side of agriculture, thanks to the Pas teur process, the silk worm disease pebrene has been conquered. The j same, however, cannot be said re specting the phylloxera; its march is still onward. All honor to 31. Fanchou; a perfect cure is obtained by the autumnal inundation of the vineyard, and generous manurings the following Spring; in the way of specifics, nothing superior has been found to sulpharet of carbon, a neces sity where irrigation cannot bo re sorted to. The “ distributor, ” just invented by the Comte de of Bordeaux, enables the preparation to be deposited at the roots of the vine, with mathematical accuracy, without losing even 3 vapor of it, or injuring the manipulator by the fumes. By American stocks, the vineyards can be replanted. In the models of farm buildings at the Exhibition cue shown by M Cuisiu deserve3 special notice; this gentleman is a manufacturer of arti cles in fancy leather, and coming into possession of- a property, he consid ered that if it was worth managing it ought to be well managed. After clearing away all internal fences, lev - clling, etc., he planned himeeif the farm officios and superintended their erection, then he purchased all essen tial machinery that could dispenso with manual labor. His efforts havo been successful I notice that in tho distribution of the manure pump, it can be made to act as a fi re engine* hi case of necessity, and also, that tho pump for supplying the houso with water, can be made to flush stables, byers aud piggeries. At Molenbeck, m Belgium, au ex cellent practice has been inaugura ted by the local agricultural society. It delegated a commission to exam ine tho pupils and teachers on agri cultural subjects, as taught in tho primary school. The examination was public; each teacher was judged by his giving a lecture to his pupils, and the latter are tested by a series of written questions. Farmers in the South of France and Italy, are commencing to em ploy the caronbier for feeding pur poses. This leguminous plant has been ever a favorite aliment for j mules and horses. M. Cheortn has analyzed the fruit; he finds it very rich in sugar and poor in nitrogen, and hence, ought to be given mixed with oil cake. In Arabia, during the fruit, jkxrnm/- * which eaten by strangers, to make them forget their own country. Mushrooms arc now cultivated iu Paris wine cellars; the beds are made up in due form, and hung in iron rims, against the walls. Perhaps it if not a joke that some people raised their own mushrooms iu chests or; drawers in the attic. Refuse lime from gas works, or the refuse matter from the same, has been found most efficacious in de stroying those small white snails, that devour young spring crops. Paris, July 34tli 1810. Hints About Water. No water that has stood in open vessels during the night should be used for drinking or cooking, By exposure to the air it has lost its ‘aeration,’ and has absorbed many of the dust germs floating in tlio apart ment. If convenience requires water to be kept in vessels several hours before use, it should bo covered, tin less the vessels aro tight. Wher ever practical, all distributing reser • voir3 should be covered. Filtering always adds to the purity of water. Drinking water should not be taken from lakes or rivers on a low lovel Surface water or water in lakes, pools or rivers which receives the sur • faoo wash, should be avoided as much as possible. Do not drink much wa ter at a time. More than two tumb lers full should uot bo taken at a meal. Do not drink between meals uuleaa to quench thirst, as excess of water weakens tho gastric juice and overwork the kidneys. Exces sive potations, whether of water or other fluid, relax the stomach, impair its secretions and paralyze its move ments. By drinking little at a time the injury is avoided. No. 14.