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The Florida agriculturist. [volume] (DeLand, Fla.) 1878-1911, October 23, 1878, Image 6

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190
A New Process for SugarJtokiiig.
We are always anxious to give our
readers the earliest information on all
subjects likely to affect their well
tare. There have been very few inven
tions, of recent date, more likely to
do this than anew process for crys
talling sugar from corn stalks and
sorghum, the discovery of which is
claimed by F. L. Stewart, a chemist
of Pennsylvania, and which has re
cently been successfully tested on a
small scale by Professor Collier,
chemist of the Agricultural Depart
ment at Washington. Professor
Stewart claims to have discovered
certain chemical preparations, by the
use of which every farmer will be en
abled to undertake the manufacture
of sugar from his own corn stalks
and sorghuni, without the large out- i
lay necessary to produce sugar from i
sugar cane. The nature of these ;
chemicals, and the method in which <
they operate, are as yet secrets, and
the inventor expects to derive his <
profit from the use of these articles, <
of which he has the monopoly. <
The following is a condensed ac
count of the process of making sugar
by this sew method:
First —So soon as the juice has
been pressed out of the corn stalks
or sorghum, heat it in a copper or
tin lined vessel to a temperature of
185° Fah., as shown by a thermone
ter, the bulb of which is immersed in
the juice.
Second—Wheu the juice has at
tained this temperature, stir into it a
fluid ounce of lime to each gallon of
juice, or from five to seven pints of j
the former to each hundred gallons of
the latter.
Third—Then heat the whole rap
idly to the boiling point.
Fourth —So soon as it begins to
boil, if heated by steam, shut off the
steam, or otherwise remove the juice
from the fire, and when the sedi
ment begins to settle, draw off with
a siphon the clear liquid from the
top until nine-tenths of the whole
quantity has been removed, leaving
a thick, muudy sediment at the bot
tom.
it through the bag to the clean liq
uid that has been siphoned off
Sixth —The clean liquid which has
been obtained by siphoning and
filtering should be allowed to cool to
150° Fah., and then there should he
added to itSolutionß, —one of Profes
sor Stewart’s preparations—at the
rate of one fluid ounce to a gallon of
juice, or from five to seven pints to a
hundred gallons. Enough of the so
lution should be added to meutralize
the lime in the juice, and this point
can be determined by dipping a piece
of blue litmus paper into the juice,
when if enough of the solution has
been added, the color of the paper
will change to red.
Seventh—The juice must be rapid
ly evaporated and skimmed frequent
ly to remove any scum from the sur
face, while small quantities of Solu
tion B. must he added, if the boiling
juice will not turn the bine litmus
paper red.
Eighth—When the boiling syrup
lias attained a temperature of 235°
Fah., as shown by a tliemometer im
mersed in it, it must be removed
from the fire, and kept to crystallize
in a room whose temperature should
be about 80 Fab. To promote crys
tallization a lew grains of granulated
sugar may be added to the cooling
syrup when it has reached a temper
ature of 100® Fah.
Should this discovery prove as
efficacious on a large scale as it is re
ported to have done on a small one,
it will be of vast importance to the
agricultural community, and conse
quently to the nation at large. The
subject is, therefore, one in regard to
which the Rural will keep its readers
constantly informed of the latest de
velopment.—Rural Nm Yorker.
Honey and Marketing it.
The subject of honey and market
ing honey is one that concerns nearly
every bee-keeper throught the land;
and very properly too, because in
these, aside from pleasure, rest the
just reward of study and labor ; for
it is fallacy to think, without study
anil labor in bee-keeping, as in ali
other pursuits, great results can he
accomplished. In marketing honey,
two points should never be forgotten
that a good article in an attractive
form will always command the high
est prices, the best reputation and a,
r steady demand. '
| ‘We see these facts illustrated every
. day. The confectioner assorts and
■ classifies his candies and fruits, in
i fact arranges everything in his store
in the most tempting style to capti
vate human taste and appetite. ihe ;
adorns his packages of pow
der°with lithographs of beautiful
women, his toilet soaps are put up in
delicately perfumed boxes; and thus
it is in every branch of human indus
try—the great aim of the “ know
ing ones ” is to make things look at
tractive.
At the present time, in largo cities
Jiarticiilarly, there is more demand
or comb honey in frames and
boxes than for extracted. The re
sults due, in a great measure, to thd
frauds that were practised in former
rears by manufacturers of what was
called “ strained ” honey.
Extracted honey is the purest hon
ey possible, and physicians have often
denounced the idea of eating honey
and comb also; and when the useless
and injurious effect of eating comb
is generally understood we shall
shrink from eating it as we would j
from eating glass.
Extracted honey may be eaten at
all times -with perfect impunity. Got
Jewish friends use honey in many of
their religions rites, particularly in
the Feast of the Passover, and so
strict are they in regal'd to its purity
that the price to be paid is no object
—the rabbi instruct them to buy ban
died honey as a precautionary meas
ure against its impurity.
And when we consider that pure
honey is the very essence of flowers
an' 1 plants, in which we are told there
is a remedy for every disease, surely
we can not .doubt the happy combi
nation of honey and medicine. The
scriptures tell us in many passages of
the wonderful efficacy of honey as
food and medicine; and I believe as
the treatment of disease becomes
more and more rational, so will the
value of honey asm medicine become
more and more apparent. Honey
has generally been looked upon as a
;* “’consequence leTttiat
fashionable golden syrups have been
filling the place that honey ought to
occupy, and which honey is now fast
superseding as the injurious effects
of these syrups become more gener
ally known. We have often won
dered what discolored our teeth after
eating certain syrups and drinking
tea. Can we doubt but that it was
the chemical action of the acids used
in the manufacture of these syrups ?
llow often it has been proved by an
alysis that these syrups are adulter
ated with injurious chemicals, in
order to give them that bright golden
color so inviting to look at —while
pure extracted honey is as free from
all impurity as the dew drops of
morning; and I believe that the time
is not far distant when the use of
honey in every home will become as
common as “ household words.” —
Win. Williamson in Bee-Keepers'
Magazine.
“ Bene ” or “ Wangle. ”
This is the same plant that is known
in commerce as “ Sesame,” “ Til ” and
“ Gingelly.” It grows luxuriantly in
any part of the South, and is culti
vated in many places, the seeds be
ing used for making confectionary.
There are several varieties of the
“ Bene,” the white, the red and the
black, all of which are extensively
cultivated in India and Siam. The
seed are largely consumed for food
in many parts of the world; when
parched and pounded they make a
rich soup, they can be baked in the
oven and sprinkled over cakes and
pastry. The seeds after the oil is
extracted are also kneaded with hon
ey and eaten. The roasted seeds can
be made into a beverage resembling
coffee. They form a component part
of the church bread eaten by the
“ Orientals ” during fa6ts. They con
tain fifty per cent, of oil, and so ex
tensive is the trade that at the port
of Marseilles, the chief manufacturing
place for the oil, 700,000 cwts. are
used up annually, the oil cake made
from it being over 450,000 cwts. The
oil can be used as a substitute for
olive oil, and its congealing points
being below that of olive, it is more
suited for cool climates. From the
soot of the oil Indian Ink is mado
and the residue after the oil is extract
ed is used as food by the poor of In-
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
dia and is,also eagerly devquyed; by
cattle. The pflant is of quicfcgtowth,
dotting to maturity in three or fonr
months, having capsules containing a
number of small flat seeds;: The
plantsßhould.be cot down directly
the capsules begin to get brown, and
thrown on a sheet or floor to dry, for
if allowed to dry in tbb fieidj the
seeds fall out and are wasted on the
ground. When - beaten from the
capsules, tiiev are found to separate
from the refuse matter, and this is a
very 1 delicate bperation, as the seeds
are so .light they are liable to be
blown away with the dust. The
leaves are very mucilaginous. One
of them placed in a tumbler Of water
soon turns it quite ropy. It is used
to check severe vomiting. Thg .cul
tivation could be extended in the
: southern States" with profit. The
culture is simple, nor does it require
very much fertilizing.— C. Codrington
in Savannah Kerrs.
A Plant Pretext for War.
It is commonly reported that the
pretext which the Idaho Indians
make for beginning the war which i s
now raging, was encroachment by
settlers upon “Big Camas Prairie,”
npon which grew large quantities of
the “ camas” bulbs, which the Indians
esteem highly for food. The Indian
claim that the war was undertaken in
this defense of their food resources is
strongly denied by the settlers, who
assert that the “ camas ” was only a
pretext, and that the war really
sprang from the evil dispositions of
the aborigines. However this may
be, the “ cames ” becomes a subject
of peculiar interest, as being ostensi
bly the bone of contention, and there
fore we choose it and several kindred
bulbs and roots for illustration this
week.
Camas root or “ wiki hyacinth ”
(Camassia esculentd .) This root re
sembles an onion in shape and a hick
ory nut in size. It bears a pretty
blue flower. The root is dug in June
at) ,1 I w ] 9
is pleasant and mucilaginous ; when
boiled it somewhat resembles the
common potato. The Indian mode
of preparing it for future use is to
dig a pit, line it with rocks, upon
which a fire is made, and, when
heated sufficiently, the heated stones
are swept clean and the roots are
heaped upon them; grass or twigs
are next laid over the pile, and, final
ly, a covering of earth. After sever
al days the pit is uncovered, when
the white roots are found to be con
verted into a thoroughly cooked,
darkbrown, homogeneous mass, of
about the consistency of softened
glue, and as sweet as molasses.
Cooked in this manner the roots are
often made into large cakes, by mash
ing and pressing them together, and,
when slightly dried in the sun, they
became rather pliable and tough, and
look like plugs of black navy tobac
co. Its color does not recommend
it to the taste, but it is sweet, mucil
aginous, and as agreeable as the fresh
root, excepting a slight smoky flavor
acquired in baking. In this pressed
form it keeps sober than in the raw
state or when simply cooked, and
may be. kept fora year or more. The
roots, when boiled in Water, yield a
very good molasses, which is much
prized, and is used on important fes
tival occasions by various tribes. The
Indians of Cape Flattery, the Nez
Forces, of Idaho, and those of Pitt
river, California, are the greatest con
sumers of this article of diet, under
the name of camas root.
lvouse root ( Peucedanutn ambigu
am.) The root of this plant is dug in
April or May when in bloom. It
grows on hills and mountains which are
so poor that grass will not grow upon
them. When fresh it is like the parsnip
in taste, and as it dies becomes brittle
and very white, with an agreeable
taste of mild celery. It is easily re
duced to flour. When its brown ep
idermis is removed, innumerable
small dots are revealed. Both the
roots and the flour will keep several
months. It is sometimes called bread
or biscuit root by travelers and kouse
root by the Indians of Oregon and
Idaho.
Prairie potato or “ bread root,”
(Psoralen csculenta). It is also called
Indian turnip, pomme de prairie of
the French, and tip-siu-nah of the
Sioux, who use this root very exten
sively. It is generally the size of a
hen’s egg, of a regular ovoid shape,
•with a thick leathery envelope, easily
separated from its smooth internal
parts, which become friable when dry,
and are readily pulverized, affording
a light, starchy flour. It is of a
; sweetish turnip-like taste, is often cut
in thin slices and dried for winter
use, and is very palatable, however
prepared. The Indians ot Kansas
and Nebraska consider this root, an
especial luxury. The Indians of the
St. Croix river offer these roots as a
peace ottering to the Great Spirit.
Wild Sago (Calochartus luteus).
The Utahs call it sago.. The root is
the size of a walnut, very palatable
and nutritious. The Indian children
of California, Utah and Arizona prize
it as children of the whites do con
fectionery. The Mormons, during
their first years in Utah, consumed
this root extensively.
The Idaho Statesman says: “ The
Big Camas'prairie is a beautiful and
fertile valley, from 25 to 30 miles in
length, with an average width of at
least 10 miles. Within these bounds
there is every variety of surface,
nearly all of which is susceptible of
cultivation. There is no portion of
it, which could not be easily drained
and converted into grain fields if
needed. It has all been surveyed in
to sections at the expense of the tax
payers of the nation, and should be
now open and ready tor settlement
It lies contiguous to the Overland
stage road, leading from Boise City
to Kelton, and also to the stage road
connecting the Overland road with
the mines in Alturas county. Its ex
clusive occupation by Indians merely
for the purpose of hunting and dig
ging roots is impracticable in the
present condition of the country, and
would prove a source of constant
trouble and danger. The settlers
have thus far used it only for grazing
purposes during the summer months,
but the advancing settlements will
soon make it desirable and necessary
for the site of permanent homes.
The Indians covet it, not because it
produces the camas plant, but be
cause it is contiguous to the roads
and settlements. Were it isolated
from these, they would never make
it a summer resort as they do. As
to the destruction of the camas by
the hogs, this has merely been used
as a pretext for begging and levying
contributions upon the whites, as all
the hogs that have ever been on the
prairie, have never diminished in any
perceptible degree the yield of the
camas root. This year there were no
hogs on the prairie, or next to none,
while the cattle men and stock raisers
were disposed, as heretofore, to share
with the Indians whenever they killed
a beef, or had other provisions to
spare.” —Pacific Rural Press.
Doing up Men’s Linen.
Some time ago my husband used to
complain that his collars did not set
nicely in front. There was always a
fullness which, in the case of stand
ing collars, was particularly trying to
a man \v ho felt a good deal of pride
in the dressing of his neck, as it
spoiled the effect of cravat, and often
left a gap for the display of either
the collar band or half an inch of bare
skin. While talking with a practical
shirt-maker one day, he mentioned
his annoyance, and enquired if there
was any way of relieving it. t! Yes,”
answered the man; “ the fault is with
your laundress. While doing up
your collars she stretches them the
wrong way. Damp linen is very pli
able, and a good pnll will alter a
fourteen inch into a fifteen incbjcollar
in the* twinkling of an eye. She
ought to stretch them crosswise and
not lengthwise. Then too in straight
ening out your shirt bosom she makes
another mistake ot the same sort.
They, also, ought to be pulled cross
wise instead of lengthwise, particu
larly in the neighborhood of the neck.
A lengthwise pull draws the front ot
the neck band somewhat directly un
der the chin, where it was never
meant to go, and of course that spoils
the set of your collar. With the
front of your neck band an inch too
high, and your collar an inch too
long) you have a most undesirable
combination.”
The speaker was right. As soon
as my husband ordered the necessary
changes to be made in the methods
of our laundry, a wonderful differ
ence manifested itself in the appear
ance of that most important part of
his anatomy—his neck. Let me com
mend the shirt-maker’s hint to other
distressed —W U, Evening
Post.
When Fowls are Profitable.
Are fowls profitable ? The query
has arisen, perhaps, in many minds,
Without the power to reply. Too
often, perhaps, the answer has come
through a friend or neighbor, and the
conclusion is finally arrived at and
the question settled in the following
manner: “ If such a one says so, it
must be right any way.” Thus many
go on groping in the dark, and never
know for themselves the exact facts
or the real truth of the business.
Fowls may be profitable for one per
son and not for another. We must
decide the case for ourselves. Cir
cumstances and localities are variable.
The first thing to consider is the ob
ject in view, the adaptation of the
situation for our purposes, whether
egg or poultry, or for mere pleasure.
If for the latter object, the profit is
not taken into the account. All that
is necessary is to consult the taste,
and please the eye. When this is
done, the object is attained. With
the majority our handsome birds
must return a good profit. Most
well kept fowls are handsome, Beau
ty alone is not the object, unless
breeding alone for and
then beauty should be u nited with
profit. Exhibition does not pay in
the long run; eggs and poultry are
the things to be depended upon.
The object sought is the profit.
In order to be exact, a strict ac
count should be kept of every quart
of grain consumed, and every egg
and chick produced. This , involves
a little patience, time and trouble,
perhaps, but the satisfaction compen
sates. To be sure the experience of
others is valuable, but the sum does
not seem correct unless it proves it
self It is not necessary that the
whole time be devoted to this thing.
Only a proper portion of time must
be spent, and due care extended to
wards the interest of the different
departments. No one should be
afraid of this labor on a farm. The
occupation of farming is the most in
teresting, responsible and happiest of
all employments. It is all nonsense
to speak of a boy being too smart to
w-aeto himself on a farm ; the thing
will not prove itself; it cannot stand
alone. The cultivation oi the soil
requires wisdom, thought, and study
The care of stock requires still more,
education, and the department of
fowls is no mean one. If the situa
tion be contiguous to a city market,
then eggs and early hatched chickens
pay handsomely; il distant, the ex
pense of getting to market decreases
the profits. The poultry is not as
fresh, and eggs become stale in warm
weather. Much depends also on the
breed of fowls. In regions remote
from market, the expense of making
eggs and poultry, is not so great, as
grain is cheaper.
Crosses are not to be desired for
either poultry or eggs. There is
nothing like the pure breeds for
either. It does not answer well to
engraft the Brahma body and appe
tite on the smaller limbs of the Leg
horn. The cross produces a hen that
is neither good for eggs or sitting,
unless judiciously managed. If this
cross be desired, the smaller speci
mens ot Brahmas should be employed.
One objection to the Asiatics is" the
great length of time required in ar
riving at maturity. The Leghorns
will excel them entirely on this score;
yet the cross makes good poultry for
early marketing. The Leghorns are
not intended for incubation. They
are not adapted by nature lor setting
and it is something abnormal in the
egg-producing organs that ever leads
them to sit at all—a trouble that is
brought on by injuries, heavy feeding
or too much intimacy with the male,
Hens that are laying eggs for market
purposes should not be allowed much
freedom with the cock; neither
should they be kept in confinement
the whole time. They require exer
cise and forage, and no forage given
them is like that obtained by seekin"
it for themselves. In the sitting hen
there occurs a stagnation of nature
for a season, when the full supply of
food is not demanded. Still a Brahma
hen will sit on a full crop of corn all
the time, replenishing it each day if
allowed, and grow fat. Their very
nature appears to be indolent. They
indulge and revel in idleness; hence
they are unexcelled mothers. The
small breeds are active and stirring
continually on the move, and hunting
ior game. They are inverterate
scratchers.
After *lll hat has beeu said, by far
Continued on page 187.

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