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The Florida Agriculturist.
A JOURNAL DENOTED TO STATE INTERESTS. * . - • ‘v -i A ’ • Vol 1. Contents of this Number. Paue 193—Tropical Nurseries; Guava Jel ley at Indian River; Kerosene for Scale Insects j From our Sorrento Correspon dent; Larye Strawberries. Pape 194—A Visit to Muppur Peer, in the Scinde Frontier Province of India; A Bip Mistake; Postape Stamps How They are Made—An Interesting Study; An Unfortunate Colonel: Recipes. Pape 195—Legal Notices; Advertisements. Pape 196—Work for November; To Protect Orange Trees from Frost; Some Tall Sugar Cano ; Some Interesting Figures: 1 rom William Allan ; Answer to Corres pondents; Flondiana; Locals. Page 197—A Probable Cure for the Cotton \V orm; Advertisements. Page 19s—Rise and Progress of Bee Cul ture; Making Philadelphia the Great r.ruit Center; Notes on European Rai sin Making; Improvement of Common Sheep. Fage 199—The Nice Man in Politics: Injur ious Reading For Children ; What Soup is Wholesome. Page 200—Telegraphic ; Advertisements. TROPICAL NURSERIES. British India. Editor Florida Agriculturist: To get a favorable insight into the modes and usages current amongst poople who make it their business to cater to the wants of the vast num ber of residents and sojourners in terested in fruit culture for their own necessaries or as a profitable specula tion in the Indian Empire, the ob server must Wend his way to the sub urbs of nearly all the large cities. There he will find a class of men (Hindoo and Mahomedan) engaged in manipulating by seeds, cuttings buds, grafts and other modes of pro pagation all the kinds in demand— fruit trees, medicinal, economic, or namental and useful plants, that are capable of being grown to perfection throughout the land. Through this means, aided likewise by the various societies devoted to the agricultural and horticultural interests, the free distribution of plants and seeds by the government botanical gardens, it will be seen the humblest and the affluent are alike in pro curing, with little trouble, all the most choice varieties of fruit and other plants and seeds that the most fastiduous could wish. And as a consequence the varieties can be re lied upon as being true to their kind and named and sold accordingly— seedlings as seedlings and “worked,” i. e., by buds, grafts, cuttings Ac., the utmost exactness is complied with, therefore the purchaser is in no uncertainty about getting just what he asks for. The benefit of this rec titude in their dealings is obvious and particularly valuable to any one who, as regards fruits, has in view setting a few trees with the object of getting his own speciality of flavor, form, size Ac. in the fruit; or to take a more extended scale, those who grow for profit have to consider the marked capabilities of disposing of superior over inferior fruit. With “worked” plants a nomenclature is observed, the characteristics of the plant are recorded and the produce may be expected to be identical with the parent plant from whence it sprung. *Any cutting from a root or a branch, whether rooted itself or engrafted on another stock, except in rare cases of sports, will be identical with that of the original form from which it was taken, in fact it is only a separate part of the same plant , while the plant raised from see*d is a distinct individual.” It is not my purpose to dwell on the subject of this seeming inconsistency of Na • Practical Floriculture, Peter Hender son, pane 84. ture, but we do know that plants un der cultivation develop varieties en tirely different from the original and become what is technically termed * 4 broken ” and these diverge by seeds for better or worse in their progeny—the selection of the fittest and the fixing of it by cuttings and other ways is man’s work. And thus we come to have a catalogue of cultivated fruits, etc., suited for va rious purposes, and having proper ties different from what they had in their normal form. Without premis ing further it is enough to say that tropical fruits vary as much as do those familiar to Europeans or Americans, and in a country such as we are dealing with it is to the culti vator’s interest to consider what will suit his purpose, as it is for an Amer ican cultivator growing his apples, pears, etc., and choose such as are on their own roots or “ worked,” dis carding seedlings, unless, in some few instances, seedlings are used where the variety is prone not to vary , or where it comes true from seed. Instances of these comprise the various shade trees, African Mangosteen, Alligator or Avocado pear, Allspice, Cofiea, Anuota Dye plant, Dread Fruit tree, Cabbage Palm, Camphor, Cocoa Nut, Date Palm, Gamboge, Jack Fruit, Durian i.oquat, Mangosteen, Rose Apple, Nutmeg, Sour Sop, Catechu, Brazil ,fln 4 ot'o. Ai) ulxi JI *,* 1 1 W it. said, comes under the category of “ worked ” or plants on their own roots. Continued uext week. Guava Jelly at Indian River. Editor Florida Agriculturist : In my letter published in your issue under date of August 28th. the print er made me say, “It is well known that the guava seed will sprout, Ac.” Of course the intelligent reader will know that sport was the word written and this brings me to the guava ques tion again. A neighbor of mine says that Dr. Mays of the St. John’s, ob tained seed from the genuine jelly guava of the West Indies, but they all had a tendency to produce the large Florida guava. This being the case we can only get the variety spo ken of by obtaining the plants them selves, andtheu propagate exclusive ly by layers or cuttings. Ido not see however, why we should be so par ticular about the genuine jelly gua va of the Indies, for I am satisfied we have a fruit fully equal it not supe rior for that purpose. When Mrs. “ Ex-Alabamian,” com menced her jelly making the present season, she was totally inexperienced, consequently, we hunted over the files of the Old Agriculturist, W e read everything we could find regard ing guava jelly, and took a good deal of trouble to get everybody’s advice and opinions, who had ever made any. The different recipes followed, were far from satisfactory, so throw ing them all aside she commenced experimenting. The great trouble she found, was to get the jellies made at different times, of a uniform color. That made to-day for instance would be dark while some made yesterday, would be three or four shades lighter. This showed that there must be some rule to be strictly adhered to, in order to DeLand, Florida, Wednesday, October 30, 1878. obtain a unifirtm Jesuit, leaving noth ing to chauce. a few trials she cried Eureka t and not without cause. The article presented for our inspection seemed perfection, and all made since has been of uniform color and concistency, leaving nothing further to be desired. With this we send a sample to the Editor of the Agricul turist, for his critical analysis,and su perior judgment. Of course to make a uniform jelly, the same variety of guavas must be used. We use what we call the pear guava, white and very acid, and so .great is our faith that there, jq money in it, that we have thousands oi young plants with which to extend.onr grove. We shall put a "few dozen glasses on the market this season, so as to test the public pulse, and if there is a sale for it, such as we believe there will be, all the waste places in South Florida will be in demand ere long. Before the next guava season, “ Mrs* Ex Alabamian,” will forward he.i formula for the benefit of the public. In the meantime, if any readers of the Agriculturist have suitable places, let them plant largely of this valuable fruit. When young they are easily transplanted, at any time from January Ist. to April Ist. Set twelve feet apart, phltivate thorough ly, and with no*mishap, you will have a little fruit in two years. -t ; ''vV.Aß.Vr r 13’.. irocK Jjeg:e. t’lonoh, tico. zuru. io/BT.‘ Kerosene for Seale Insects. Editor Florida Agriculturist : In your issue of October, 2nd. I no tice a letter from Mr. H. D. Bracey, who classes the use of kerosene on orange trees, as one of the “errors going the rounds of the papers, etc.” Neither of the cases he cites, is any evidence of the fact. Both he and his neighbor, according to his own confession, were like the quack doc tor who reasoned that if thirty drops of laudanum were good sixty must be better, and acting on the theory, killed his patient. Now we have not only recommended but used kerosene for the destruction ot the scale insect) some of bur neighbors have used it, and always, as far as I learn, with per. feet success. • r i, My own experience has been limi ted, as I never bad but one tree affect ed with the scale, yet with that I took a little kerosene in a cup, made a swab by tying a small rag on a stick and with it, painted the parts affect ed, but never putting on enough to cause it to run. A week afterwards I examined the tree and where I found the scale alive I repeated the dose, and it most effectually killed every insect without injuring the tree a particle. A neighbor treated a number of trees iu the same way, and not a tree was the least injured. If however we should have occasion to apply it again, we would dilute it about one-half. Mr. Bracey is right, about the pen ning of hogs around trees. I know of no more effectual way of killing them, or what is worse, giving them the very worst case of die-back. Yours truly, H. S. Williams. An old sailor boastingly said, “ I began the world with nothing, and I have held my own ever since.” From our Sorrento Correspondent. Orange County. Editor Florida Agriculturist : Thinking that some of the outer world would like to know what is going on in Sorrento. I shall through the medium of your paper try to in form them. I do not suppose all know where Sorrento is, so will state that it lies eighteen Ida. miles S. W. from Hawkinsville. The village is situated on the highest and most healthy land there is in the State. We have a special post-office and store at which you can buy anything from a stove to a box of matches. There are several fine young orange groves coming up and give promise of putting their owners “ on the top shelf” in a few years. We have a Literary and Musical society of 41 members, who meet every Tuesday night at the house of Mr. A. K. Reive. The members of the associa tion are now at work on a hall 25 x 35 in which to hold their meetings. They hope to have it finished next month. I will not forget to say that after the meeting closes terpsichore is courted until a late hour, by the lads and lassies. There are a great number of homesteads in this vicinity that have been taken up by specula tors who never mean to settle here but hold the lands and let them lie idle, while other men are working tj'pirs.. Some hare .never, even built a HGiiec o Cicai ua £ . they still hold the warrants thus keeping honest men out. These lands are open for contestion but that involves so much trouble and time that few like to undertake it. Notwithstanding the pine are being dotted with “ shanties ” which we hope some day to see superseeded by brick mansions. If you should send any emigrants this way first enquire if they are bachelors, if they are for the lords sake do not send them. It would be like carrying coals to New t * ° castle. Mars. LARGE STRAWBERRIES. New and Popular Varieties. Editor Florida Agriculturist. During the last year or two an un usually large number of desirable va rieties of this fruit have made their appearance. For many years back the “ Wilsons,’ ” has reigned supreme in most of our gardens, its acid and moderate sized berries being only tol erated because no better variety for' general use was known. Then the “Monarch of the West” appeared, winning many an admirer by means of its beautiful, bright red berries. It still remains a favorite, but stands out like a solitary star, to mark the period between 1872 and 1876—the time when all other varieties were eclipsed by it. Very different have been the past two years, as fully a dozen varieties of unusual merit have appeared in the fruit world during this time, bringing joy and pleasure to those who grow them,and causing many an exclamation of delight from those who see them. Fruit growers and lovers of this fruit have a bright outlook before them, and it may not he long before in nearly every house hold, will be seen mammoth berries measuring 5 to 10 inches around, in stead of the diminutive fruitthat is too often permitted to occupy our tables. KING OF THE NORTH is the first of these newer varieties that I will now describe. Sometimes and perhaps more generally it is known name of “ Pioneer,” owing to its taking the lead over many varieties in its time of ripening. The vigorous growth of the plants, and the beautiful bright color of the berries, would also entitle it to this name, even if it were not an early variety to ripen. The fruit is of quite large size,—sometimes over 6 inches in circumference, which added to the vigor with which the plants grow on warm sandy soil, will prob ably make the variety a favorite in southern gardens. GREAT PROLIFIC. The beautiiul appearance of the vines when loaded down with ripen ing berries, very quickly causes this variety to attract the attention of the visitor. The productiveness of some of the plants is so great, that a num ber of the bushes last summer ap peared as if berries had been emptied out of baskets, and heaped up around the plants. The berries average quite large and are of a bright red color and among the best in quality. Their excellent adaptation to different soils, is a merit that is well worthy of note. SIIAUPLESS. This beautitul berry is creating sirable qualities that it could hardly do otherwise. Quite a number of specimens have been grown measur ing seven inches around, while two or three have had a measurement ot nine inches and a little over. In shape tney are very different from most strawberries, and are therefore easily distinguished from other varie ties. Tbe fruit besides hieing suitable for table use, is also excellent for shipping, and has the merit of keep ing in salable condition much longer than most berries. The plants seem to thrive nicely on either sandy loams or heavier soils—a fact that is rapidly making them very general favorites. CAPTAIN .TACK, IH'CHESSE, CTHUtR- T.AND, TRIUMPH, MONARCH OF TIIE WEST AND HOYDEN NUMBER THIRTY are varieties that my correspondent at the South reports as succeeding finely with them. It is very pleasant for me to know this, as when sending them a few plants by mail a year or two ago, I recommended them quite highly for their soils,.the same as I have the first three varieties that 1 have just described. The fiue qual ity and large size of these varieties will long continue to render them quite popular. GREAT AMERICAN, FOREST ROSE, CENTENIAE FAVORITE, AND PRESIDENT LINCOLN with their five to fourteen inch ber ries are perhaps as noticeable as any of the other fifty or sixty varieties that are growing upon my grounds. At the South the safest time to make plantations of this fruit is in October or during the first weeks of IS ovember. Enrich the ground, using barnyard manure if possible. Culti vate during the winter, where the ground does not freeze, and when no too wet; and if good varieties have been selected then by next Spring quite a crop of beautiful large berries should be obtained. 11. 11. llaines. Sailßertios-on- Hudson N. Y. No. 25.