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Rise ami Progress of Bee Culture. BKA p BEFORE THE AMERICAS’ BEE KEEPERS ASSOC! AT I OS, OCTOBER Bth, 1878, BVA. .7. KISC4, EDI Toll BEE keepers’ maoazixe, s. y. Concluded. V At one time in France, bee-keep ing was deemed of so much impor tance that in some places laws were enacted rendering it imperative on every cottager, to keep at least three hives of bees, or in lieu thereof to pav a certain fine into the j treasury. In England large rewards were giv en for the finest display of honey and bees wax of one’s own raising, and obtained without sacrificing the lives of the bees. Prominent men wrote books on the subject designed entire ly for the benefit of the cottagers, and the same unselfish course is still pur sued in Europe. A brief mention ot some of the most useful inventions and discover ies must close our notice of the prog ress of bee.culture in Europe. Dziert zon discovered the parthenogenesis of the queen bee, and Siebold, Leu kart, Berlepsch and other eminent German naturalists demonstrated it. Dziertzon also discovered flour to be a substitute for pollen. Mehring made the first artificial honey comb foundation. Major Aon idruschka invented the honey extractor. The inventions of bellows smokers adapt ed to the apiary, have been used in all parts of Europe for the past one hundred years or more. Some had straight and some bent nozzles, and some of the nozzles were hinged to the bellows and were turned at right angles for draft when not in use, and also to receive the materials for the smoko. These might have been ap propriately called, breech loaders. Reaumer first describes artificial fertilization or queens in confinement. His experiment called the “ Amours of the Queen Bee,” made under a glass vessel with the drones, is ex ceedingly funny and sounds very modern, but is too lengthy for inser tion in this notice. Bees came with the Pilgrim Fath ers to America, and were carried by portion of the Western Continent, but owing to the many toils and cares incident to the development of anew country, together with their lack of knowledge of the subject, little attention was paid to bees until within the past thirty or forty years. The first record of a movable frame hive in America may be found in the Cultivator, for June, 1840, by Solon Robinson, now of Jacksonville, Flor ida. The second invention may be found in the Sicentific American for March 6th, 1847. The inventor, Mr. Shaw, ot Ilinckly, Ohio, I believe is still living. Movable frames were also used by Marcus ltobinson, at Ja maica Plains, Massachusetts, in 1848, and varied in no respect from the Laugstroth frame and hive. This on the affidavit of j Solon Robinson. The same style of frame was used about the same time at Danvers, Mas sachusetts, as pc-r the affidavit ol Mr. Putnam, of Galesburg. Illinois. These affidavits are on record in the office of the lion. A. F. Perry, cor ner ol Main and Third streets, Cin cinnati, Ohio. Harbison, Townley, Flander, Met calf and some others claim to' have known of movable frame hives between 1845 and 1850. A few books were written on bees about this time, but possessed but little merit cither in theory or practice. About 1852 the Rev. L. L. Laugs troth patented the hive which still bears his name and which many prominent bee-keepers still use with but slight modifications. This gen tleman took hold of the matter in earnest. He sold large portions of the territory covered by his patent to influential and wealthy men who, in connection with himself, intro duced the hive far and wide and thus demonstrated that a patent is not necessarily an evil, as many seem to suppose, for it proved, in his hands, a powerful means of advanc ing the true science of bee culture. This he soon followed up with his book “The Hive and the Honey Bee,” which is perhaps, the most complete and scholarly production of its kind ever written in any age or country, and shows its author to have been perfectly familiar with the best literature on this subject in the Old World, and a perfect master of both the science and practice of bee-keeping. To Mr. Laugstroth although not the first —more than to any other man, are we indebted for the introduction of new races of bees to mix with our own, and thus prevent the evil of in and in breed ing* The “Mysteries of Bee-keeping Explained ” appeared simultaneously with Mr. L’s book. The author, the late lamented M. Quinby, showed in this work a familiarity with the economy of the bee truly astonish ing to one writing at that time. It was eminently practical, and did much valuable work for the advance ment of rational bee culture. He also invented the best form of bel lows smoker then in use and this has been further improved by the addi tion of the direct draft principle in vented by Mr. T. F. Bingham, which leaves nothing more to be desjred in this line. M. Quinby wrote largely for the agricultural press of the country. He freely gave all his ideas and in ventions to the public for the promo tion of the cause he loved, and labored faithfully to raise bee-keep ing to the dignity of a distinct pro fession. The quiet, noble, self-sacri ficing spirit manifested by this truly great man will be talked ot and cherished and felt so long as the keeping of bees shall engage the attention of men. The writings of Mrs. Tupper, the Ilarbisous, Metcalf, X. 11. and 11. A. King, Prof. Cook, and others, have done a vast work in bringing about the present ad vanced stage of bee-keeping in this country. While A. I. Root, T. G, Newman, and your humble servant, realizing that constaut dropping wears out a stone, are constantly pelting away at the superstitions and prejudicies of the people, and hope, ere long, to end the battle in complete triumph. The most con vincing arguments, however, are those which appeal to the palate, and the pocket, and these are being ef fectually used by Harbison, Ilether ington,* Doolittle. Betsinger, Clark, C. J. Quinby, and many others, in the shape of tons of honey, as beautiful linc-tar'which Jupiter all over the world by Thurber, by, E. & O. Ward, Thorn & Cos., of this city, Muth, of Cinn., Vincent, ol N.O.,and by the large dealers in other cities. We learn from statistics that there are now in the United States about;l,000 different|beejhives covered by patent, and a still larger number unpatented. Nearly all the inven tions of European origin have been greatly improved by our Yankee in genuity, and men everywhere are waking up to the importance of this industry as never before. The aggre gate yield of honey is largely on the increase, besides the quality and quantity, and the methods used in America, are far superior to any other country, and these facts, taken to gether, are creating a fear in the minds of some of our most thoughtful Apiarians that the price received for r.oney may fall below fhe price of production, so we will- present a few facts which we think may tend to ; alay these apprehensions. Great Britain consumes annually about 9,- 000,000 lbs. of sugar for brewing pur poses. Other foreign countries, as well as our own country, a propor tional large amount. It is a fact that extracted honey contains a much larger precentage of the elements needed as a substitute for malt than sugar does, and is cheaper at 90 cents a gallon, than sugar is at the lowest prices it has yet reached. A desira ble change by substituting is now go ing on and may be greatly hastened by well directed efforts on the part of honey dealers. 2d. Not more than two-fifths of our people have yet learned to eat honey, not because it is not generally acceptable,Jbut it has never been brought to their notice as a staple article which may be had at the same price as the best quality of syrup, and that it is far more health ful. 3rd. A large percentage of the syrups in general use in our families are badly adultered, and positively unfit for the human stomach, ana particularly the stomach of children. This fact is fast being recognized by the most intelligent of our population, and only needs a little judicious press ing through the papers to display it, and in its room put extracted honey. 4th. Laws against the adulteration of honey, affixing such penalties of THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. fiue and imprisonment as shall afford complete protection to the producer, the honey dealer and the consumer. Steps should be a once taken to ef fect this desirable result, before some other unprincipled honey dealer shall cause Great Britain to give us the second slap in the face through their leading papers, by branding us as a set of swindlers, and warning the English people against the use of American honey. A petition setting forth this matter in its true light should be presented to Congress at the next session. All the members of the National Con vention, including all dealers in hon ey should be asked to sign this peti tion, and a refusal from any cause whatever, should be regarded as fa vorable to honey adulteration, and producers should be warned against selling such persons their honey. Such a petition, praying for so laud able an object, and backed by so many honorable names, could hardly fail in obtaining the desired law, when extracted honey wqjild at once advance to its true position in all our markets. Bee-keepers everywhere should be united in bringing about these needed reforms, and imitating the politicians, should “ keep it before the people ” till the end is attained. The journals devoted to bee-keeping should be bold and outspoken on ths subject, regardless of all present em oluments for a contray course, and for one, I here and now peldge the Bee-Keepers Magazine to this policy without the least equivocation or mental reservation, and I expect to see friend Newman, of the A. B. J join hands, and then, by a rising vote, test the sense of this Association, and thus make a significant stride in the true progress of bee-keeping in this country. Figs. Mr. Lainpkins, of San Bernardino says, that in the propagation of figs, cuttings should always be used, and not sprouts , as those propagated from sprouts will drop their fruit before it is matured, while cuttings are known to do well and produce. —George A. Armstrong , in Southern California Too Close by Half. We don’t refer to the old fashioned sleigh ride “ down. East,” where it was usually very necessary to sit close together (in fact used to be made too narrow, we thought) and the young ladies never objected that we ever heard of, but to the quite prevalent custom of planting too many orange trees on an acre of ground. When we came to River side, 25 feet was considered the right distance for oranges and lemons and 10 or 12 feet 'for limes. That was the usual distance in the orchards in the Mission grounds, and old Califor nia orchards generally, and the outer branches of the trees to very nearly pr quite touch each other at that'short distance ; but with the introduction of budding a change (ook place. Travellers in Italy stated that the custom there was to put them only 15 feet ppart, the quincunx being preferred; and mature trees were stated to have room enough. In the Levant it would appear, that budded oranges do not attain any thing near the size of seedling trees and therefore did not need so much room; but in Southern California it is still an open question, whether our budded trees will not require as much room as the seedlings—at least the 25 feet granted the latter, The conditions of soil, climate and water with us are different from the Med iterranean countries and may result iu giving us a larger tree of the same species. In a land like onrs, where the ordinary productions of agricul ture and horticulture so far exceed in size and vigorous growth those of many other countries, it is at least worth considering, whether the re sult of our very fine and careful sys tem of cultivation may not exceed our expectation? in regard to size, as well as quality. ; Is it safe to plant them bo near together, that we al ready suspect they may touch each other at 12 years of age ? Is it not wiser to give them so much room that we shall Teel sure the tops and roots will have abundance of unappropria ted earth and air ? Some orchards in Riverside, display seedling trees one rod apart ! Only one possible result can follow. In a very ;few vears the alternate trees must be eut out, or serious injury will follo w. Just a word on this cutting-out plan. We know of several who plant 16 feet one way and 18 ieet the other, saying that they are planting for themselves and not tor posterity. They are planting for themselves to di up if they live long enough to realize a full crop. After the first full crop, the odd trees will he crowd ed out, and it will he seen that they must go. Then comes the labor of cutting out, and worse yet the bother with the roots. Add to this, that the strength of the ground has been largely exhausted by the doomed tree and the amount oi enriching needed to bring the soil up to its or iginal productiveness will be the logi cal “ straw,” that will break this ar gumentative camel’s back. Ihe late B. D. Wilson, the pioneer San Ga briel orange grower, used to say that 30 feet apart was nearer right than less; and m fact his later orchards were planted on that basis, lhe beautiful, useful and noble looking orange tree is the king of fruit trees. Give it room, stunt not its energies, cramp not its expansive tendencies. Let it toss its outmost glistening twigs in the free, pure air, kissing the crystal blue sky bending down to meet it. It is growing, strengthen ing, expanding daily for your benefit and ours—deal liberally with it and your soul shall be made fat on its juicy and abundant fruit. '* Room for the victor, room. —Riverside Press. A New Plan for a Smoke House. In conversation with a friend, the other day, he gave me a discriptiou of a smoke house—which he saw once while traveling through Texas. As the arrangement was quite new to me and may prove beneficial to your readers I will give you his descrip tion. The house was a frame build ing about fourteen by eighteen tec-t square with walls twelve foc-t high. There were three sets of joists run- ning across the building owe above . tdie other commencing eight feet from rilC/ ILVUL UUU UiCj *f Ox \j p/uwOt *.ts\sx*o four feet apart in each tier. For con venience in hanging up the meat a large number of lath one and one fourth inch by three inches and four and one half feet in length, each lath had an inch hole bored through the center from each edge and from ten to twelve inches apart. In trimming up the peach and plum orchard, the limbs which were of suitable size and which had a side limb which could be cut so as to make a fork were sawed into lengths ten inches long and the fork two aud one-half inches— these were inserted in the holes and made so as to turn around easily and a six penny nail driven through the limb above the lath. The advantage of this is that the person, standing on a ladder, can hold on to the fork to steady himself and turn it in any direction to suit the meat. Around the side of the house were posts seven feet high, of octagonal shape with wooden pins five feet long, (two and a half on each side) and placed spirally, and far enough apart to keep the meat from dripping on that which hangs on the lower arms. When the meat on the joists over head was fully cured aud smoked it was taken down, and hung on the arms of these posts and a large can vass bag made for the purpose was pulled over the post completely cov ering the meat and keeping it free from insects, doing away with the necessity of packing away in char coal, sawdust, salt, etc. The only trouble in getting at the meat was untying the draw string at the bot tom and raising the sack. I am indebted to Capt. 11. F. Long of this place for the above plan. He says it is much superior to the old plan of hanging meat upon nails or tying up with bark and strings, and I fully believe your readers will coin cide with him. Our parish ia remarkably healthy, no yellow fever, plenty of quarantine and provisions scarce, not an average cotton crop, not quite a half bale per acre, corn crop good, land rent low, and plenty of room and welcome for farming tenants. —l Ann Tanner in Our Home, Journal. Lesral Notices. DIVORCE. IN CHANCERY. Henderson W. Long, 1 In the Circuit Court vs. > for the Seventh Fannie A. Long. 3 Judicial Circuit of Fla., Volusia Cos. TT APPEARING TO THE SAT -I- isfaction oi the court that the defend ant in tlie above entitled case resides out of the State, to wit. in the State of Massa chusetts, so that the ordinary process of law cannot be served upon her. On motion of St, Clair, Abrams & Summerlin solicit ors for complainant, it is ordered that a bearing on the facts chargedin said bill be had, at Enterprise, Volusia county, on the first Mondav in January, 1879. And that said defendant do appear, plead, answer or demure to said hill on or before the day appointed for said hearing and that in de fault thereof the said bill will be taken “pro confesso,” provided that a copy of this order be published in some official newspaper in this circuit for the space of three months, at least, before the day ap pointed for such hearing. Witness m3- hand and seal of office this 35th day of September, 1878. John W. Dickins, Clerk Circuit Court. Volusia Cos. Fia. St. Clair, Abrams & Summerlin, Complainant’s Solicitors. NOTICE. United States Land Office.) Gainesville, Florida, > June 35, 1878. ) pOMPLAINT having been entered V 1 at this office by Charles C. Fuller against Luther S. Caldwell for abandoning bis homestead entry, No. 1,935. made Au gust 35,1875 —upon the s e 1 of the 11 e i of section 36, township 18, range 30 east and lot No. 4, section 31, township 18, s, range 31 east—in Volusia county, Florida, with a view to the cancellation of said entry. The parties are hereby summoued to appear on the 30th day of July 1878 at 10 o’clock a M., to respond and furnish tes timony concerning said alleged abandon ment beforeCharlesß. Bucknor, U.s. Com missioner at Enterprise, Florida. J. A. LEE, Register, JOHN VARNUM, Receiver. The hearing of the above is adjourned to October 17,1878, at ten, a. m. C. B. BUCKNOR, U. s. Commissioner. IN THE CIRCUIT COURT 7th Judicial Circuit, Volusia County, State of Florida. George Sauls } Attachment. vs. > Sum sworn to 8141.19. ( Henry Peters > I The defendant, Henry Peters, and ail other persons interested are hereby notified of the commencement of this suit by r attachment and are required to appear ami plead to tiie declaration tiled in this cause on or before tuc first Monday oi March A. l>.. 1879. E. K. FOSTER, Enterprise, Oct. 16. 1878.™°”**’“ IN THE CIRCUIT COURT 7th Judicial Circuit, Volusia County. State of Florida. William S. Thayer and j John Sauls, partners, | Sum sworn to doing business under 1 Si ,094 87 the name of Thayer & 1 Sauls, vs. Henry Peters. The defendant, Henry Peters, and all other persons interested', are notified of the commencement of this suit and are hereby required to appear and plead to the declaration hied 111 this action on or before toe first Monuay m March a i>., 1879 „ E. K. FOSTER. Plaintiffs Att'v. Enterprise, Oct. 16,1878. 04 4a EXECUTOR’S NOTICE. NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN io oil persons indebted to the estate of the late J. J. Jones, late of Volusia county deceased, to make immediate payment of their debts to us, and all persons havii M ’’ claims and demands against said estate aio notified to present the same duly authen ticated, within two 3-ears from this date. Otherwise the same will lie barred Dated,Btb Oct., a. i>, 1878. Address, ROBERT JONES ? or WILLIAM JONES S Executors. 33 30 TX CIRCUIT COURT of the Sev ; enth Judicial Circuit of Florida, Volusia County. In Chancerv. Nathaniel Hasty aud Elizabeth P. Hastv his wife vs. V . Howell Robinson. It appealing from afildavit made before ine that the defendan t above named resides beyond the limits of this Slate, to-wit. in the State of Illinois, so that ordinary pro cess cannot be served upon him. On motion of C. B. Iluekuor solicitor for complain ant : It is ordered that the defendant do appear, plead, answer, or demur to the bill of complaint filled in this cause, on or before the first Monday in December next, other wise the same will be taken pro confesso Provided that a copy of this order be pub lished weekly for four consecutive months, in an official newspaper published in this Circuit. Witness iny hand and seal, this 24th day of July, A. D. 1878. JOHN W. DICKINS. 12 80 Clerk Volusia Circuit Court. C. B. BLCKNOR. Comp'lts olictor ~ MOTICE—In the County Court and ■1 ’ of Probate. Volusia County, Florida. Notice is hereby given that after six months publication of this notice, I shall apply to the County Jndge of Volusia County, for a discharge from my adminis tration as administrator pf the estate of the late James M. El wood, deceased. Notice is also hereby given that all ac counts against said estate, not exhibited to me withih two years after the date of my lettersof administration of said estate, to wit., the Brd day of July A. p. 1877 will be forver barred. Of which all creditors and persons entitled to distribution will ake notice. A. R. ELWOOD. administrator &c.