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The Florida agriculturist. [volume] (DeLand, Fla.) 1878-1911, November 06, 1878, Image 6

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Rise ami Progress of Bee Culture.
BKA p BEFORE THE AMERICAS’ BEE
KEEPERS ASSOC! AT I OS, OCTOBER
Bth, 1878, BVA. .7. KISC4, EDI Toll
BEE keepers’ maoazixe, s. y.
Concluded.
V At one time in France, bee-keep
ing was deemed of so much impor
tance that in some places laws were
enacted rendering it imperative on
every cottager, to keep at least three
hives of bees, or in lieu thereof to
pav a certain fine into the j treasury.
In England large rewards were giv
en for the finest display of honey and
bees wax of one’s own raising, and
obtained without sacrificing the lives
of the bees. Prominent men wrote
books on the subject designed entire
ly for the benefit of the cottagers, and
the same unselfish course is still pur
sued in Europe.
A brief mention ot some of the
most useful inventions and discover
ies must close our notice of the prog
ress of bee.culture in Europe. Dziert
zon discovered the parthenogenesis
of the queen bee, and Siebold, Leu
kart, Berlepsch and other eminent
German naturalists demonstrated it.
Dziertzon also discovered flour to be
a substitute for pollen. Mehring
made the first artificial honey comb
foundation. Major Aon idruschka
invented the honey extractor. The
inventions of bellows smokers adapt
ed to the apiary, have been used in
all parts of Europe for the past one
hundred years or more. Some had
straight and some bent nozzles, and
some of the nozzles were hinged to
the bellows and were turned at right
angles for draft when not in use, and
also to receive the materials for the
smoko. These might have been ap
propriately called, breech loaders.
Reaumer first describes artificial
fertilization or queens in confinement.
His experiment called the “ Amours
of the Queen Bee,” made under a
glass vessel with the drones, is ex
ceedingly funny and sounds very
modern, but is too lengthy for inser
tion in this notice.
Bees came with the Pilgrim Fath
ers to America, and were carried by
portion of the Western Continent,
but owing to the many toils and
cares incident to the development of
anew country, together with their
lack of knowledge of the subject,
little attention was paid to bees until
within the past thirty or forty years.
The first record of a movable frame
hive in America may be found in the
Cultivator, for June, 1840, by Solon
Robinson, now of Jacksonville, Flor
ida. The second invention may be
found in the Sicentific American for
March 6th, 1847. The inventor, Mr.
Shaw, ot Ilinckly, Ohio, I believe is
still living. Movable frames were
also used by Marcus ltobinson, at Ja
maica Plains, Massachusetts, in 1848,
and varied in no respect from the
Laugstroth frame and hive. This on
the affidavit of j Solon Robinson.
The same style of frame was used
about the same time at Danvers, Mas
sachusetts, as pc-r the affidavit ol Mr.
Putnam, of Galesburg. Illinois.
These affidavits are on record in the
office of the lion. A. F. Perry, cor
ner ol Main and Third streets, Cin
cinnati, Ohio.
Harbison, Townley, Flander, Met
calf and some others claim to' have
known of movable frame hives
between 1845 and 1850. A few
books were written on bees about
this time, but possessed but little
merit cither in theory or practice.
About 1852 the Rev. L. L. Laugs
troth patented the hive which still
bears his name and which many
prominent bee-keepers still use with
but slight modifications. This gen
tleman took hold of the matter in
earnest. He sold large portions of
the territory covered by his patent
to influential and wealthy men who,
in connection with himself, intro
duced the hive far and wide and
thus demonstrated that a patent is
not necessarily an evil, as many
seem to suppose, for it proved, in his
hands, a powerful means of advanc
ing the true science of bee culture.
This he soon followed up with his
book “The Hive and the Honey
Bee,” which is perhaps, the most
complete and scholarly production
of its kind ever written in any age
or country, and shows its author to
have been perfectly familiar with
the best literature on this subject in
the Old World, and a perfect master
of both the science and practice of
bee-keeping. To Mr. Laugstroth
although not the first —more than to
any other man, are we indebted for
the introduction of new races of
bees to mix with our own, and thus
prevent the evil of in and in breed
ing*
The “Mysteries of Bee-keeping
Explained ” appeared simultaneously
with Mr. L’s book. The author, the
late lamented M. Quinby, showed in
this work a familiarity with the
economy of the bee truly astonish
ing to one writing at that time. It
was eminently practical, and did
much valuable work for the advance
ment of rational bee culture. He
also invented the best form of bel
lows smoker then in use and this has
been further improved by the addi
tion of the direct draft principle in
vented by Mr. T. F. Bingham, which
leaves nothing more to be desjred in
this line.
M. Quinby wrote largely for the
agricultural press of the country.
He freely gave all his ideas and in
ventions to the public for the promo
tion of the cause he loved, and
labored faithfully to raise bee-keep
ing to the dignity of a distinct pro
fession. The quiet, noble, self-sacri
ficing spirit manifested by this truly
great man will be talked ot and
cherished and felt so long as the
keeping of bees shall engage the
attention of men. The writings of
Mrs. Tupper, the Ilarbisous, Metcalf,
X. 11. and 11. A. King, Prof. Cook,
and others, have done a vast work
in bringing about the present ad
vanced stage of bee-keeping in this
country. While A. I. Root, T. G,
Newman, and your humble servant,
realizing that constaut dropping
wears out a stone, are constantly
pelting away at the superstitions
and prejudicies of the people, and
hope, ere long, to end the battle in
complete triumph. The most con
vincing arguments, however, are
those which appeal to the palate, and
the pocket, and these are being ef
fectually used by Harbison, Ilether
ington,* Doolittle. Betsinger, Clark,
C. J. Quinby, and many others, in the
shape of tons of honey, as beautiful
linc-tar'which Jupiter
all over the world by Thurber,
by, E. & O. Ward, Thorn & Cos., of
this city, Muth, of Cinn., Vincent, ol
N.O.,and by the large dealers in other
cities. We learn from statistics that
there are now in the United States
about;l,000 different|beejhives covered
by patent, and a still larger number
unpatented. Nearly all the inven
tions of European origin have been
greatly improved by our Yankee in
genuity, and men everywhere are
waking up to the importance of this
industry as never before. The aggre
gate yield of honey is largely on the
increase, besides the quality and
quantity, and the methods used in
America, are far superior to any other
country, and these facts, taken to
gether, are creating a fear in the
minds of some of our most thoughtful
Apiarians that the price received for
r.oney may fall below fhe price of
production, so we will- present a few
facts which we think may tend to ;
alay these apprehensions. Great
Britain consumes annually about 9,-
000,000 lbs. of sugar for brewing pur
poses. Other foreign countries, as
well as our own country, a propor
tional large amount. It is a fact that
extracted honey contains a much
larger precentage of the elements
needed as a substitute for malt than
sugar does, and is cheaper at 90 cents
a gallon, than sugar is at the lowest
prices it has yet reached. A desira
ble change by substituting is now go
ing on and may be greatly hastened
by well directed efforts on the part
of honey dealers. 2d. Not more
than two-fifths of our people have yet
learned to eat honey, not because it
is not generally acceptable,Jbut it has
never been brought to their notice as
a staple article which may be had at
the same price as the best quality of
syrup, and that it is far more health
ful.
3rd. A large percentage of the
syrups in general use in our families
are badly adultered, and positively
unfit for the human stomach, ana
particularly the stomach of children.
This fact is fast being recognized by
the most intelligent of our population,
and only needs a little judicious press
ing through the papers to display it,
and in its room put extracted honey.
4th. Laws against the adulteration
of honey, affixing such penalties of
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
fiue and imprisonment as shall afford
complete protection to the producer,
the honey dealer and the consumer.
Steps should be a once taken to ef
fect this desirable result, before
some other unprincipled honey dealer
shall cause Great Britain to give us
the second slap in the face through
their leading papers, by branding us
as a set of swindlers, and warning the
English people against the use of
American honey.
A petition setting forth this matter
in its true light should be presented
to Congress at the next session. All
the members of the National Con
vention, including all dealers in hon
ey should be asked to sign this peti
tion, and a refusal from any cause
whatever, should be regarded as fa
vorable to honey adulteration, and
producers should be warned against
selling such persons their honey.
Such a petition, praying for so laud
able an object, and backed by so
many honorable names, could hardly
fail in obtaining the desired law,
when extracted honey wqjild at once
advance to its true position in all our
markets. Bee-keepers everywhere
should be united in bringing about
these needed reforms, and imitating
the politicians, should “ keep it before
the people ” till the end is attained.
The journals devoted to bee-keeping
should be bold and outspoken on ths
subject, regardless of all present em
oluments for a contray course, and
for one, I here and now peldge the
Bee-Keepers Magazine to this policy
without the least equivocation or
mental reservation, and I expect to
see friend Newman, of the A. B. J
join hands, and then, by a rising vote,
test the sense of this Association, and
thus make a significant stride in the
true progress of bee-keeping in this
country.
Figs.
Mr. Lainpkins, of San Bernardino
says, that in the propagation of figs,
cuttings should always be used, and
not sprouts , as those propagated from
sprouts will drop their fruit before it
is matured, while cuttings are known
to do well and produce. —George A.
Armstrong , in Southern California
Too Close by Half.
We don’t refer to the old fashioned
sleigh ride “ down. East,” where it
was usually very necessary to sit
close together (in fact used
to be made too narrow, we thought)
and the young ladies never objected
that we ever heard of, but to the quite
prevalent custom of planting too
many orange trees on an acre of
ground. When we came to River
side, 25 feet was considered the right
distance for oranges and lemons and
10 or 12 feet 'for limes. That was
the usual distance in the orchards in
the Mission grounds, and old Califor
nia orchards generally, and the outer
branches of the trees
to very nearly pr quite touch each
other at that'short distance ; but with
the introduction of budding a change
(ook place. Travellers in Italy stated
that the custom there was to put
them only 15 feet ppart, the quincunx
being preferred; and mature trees
were stated to have room enough.
In the Levant it would appear, that
budded oranges do not attain any
thing near the size of seedling trees
and therefore did not need so much
room; but in Southern California it is
still an open question, whether our
budded trees will not require as
much room as the seedlings—at least
the 25 feet granted the latter, The
conditions of soil, climate and water
with us are different from the Med
iterranean countries and may result
iu giving us a larger tree of the same
species. In a land like onrs, where
the ordinary productions of agricul
ture and horticulture so far exceed in
size and vigorous growth those of
many other countries, it is at least
worth considering, whether the re
sult of our very fine and careful sys
tem of cultivation may not exceed
our expectation? in regard to size, as
well as quality. ; Is it safe to plant
them bo near together, that we al
ready suspect they may touch each
other at 12 years of age ? Is it not
wiser to give them so much room that
we shall Teel sure the tops and roots
will have abundance of unappropria
ted earth and air ? Some orchards
in Riverside, display seedling trees
one rod apart ! Only one possible
result can follow. In a very ;few
vears the alternate trees must be eut
out, or serious injury will follo w.
Just a word on this cutting-out
plan. We know of several who
plant 16 feet one way and 18 ieet the
other, saying that they are planting
for themselves and not tor posterity.
They are planting for themselves to
di up if they live long enough to
realize a full crop. After the first
full crop, the odd trees will he crowd
ed out, and it will he seen that they
must go. Then comes the labor of
cutting out, and worse yet the bother
with the roots. Add to this, that the
strength of the ground has been
largely exhausted by the doomed
tree and the amount oi enriching
needed to bring the soil up to its or
iginal productiveness will be the logi
cal “ straw,” that will break this ar
gumentative camel’s back. Ihe late
B. D. Wilson, the pioneer San Ga
briel orange grower, used to say that
30 feet apart was nearer right than
less; and m fact his later orchards
were planted on that basis, lhe
beautiful, useful and noble looking
orange tree is the king of fruit trees.
Give it room, stunt not its energies,
cramp not its expansive tendencies.
Let it toss its outmost glistening
twigs in the free, pure air, kissing the
crystal blue sky bending down to
meet it. It is growing, strengthen
ing, expanding daily for your benefit
and ours—deal liberally with it and
your soul shall be made fat on its
juicy and abundant fruit. '* Room
for the victor, room. —Riverside
Press.
A New Plan for a Smoke House.
In conversation with a friend, the
other day, he gave me a discriptiou
of a smoke house—which he saw once
while traveling through Texas. As
the arrangement was quite new to me
and may prove beneficial to your
readers I will give you his descrip
tion. The house was a frame build
ing about fourteen by eighteen tec-t
square with walls twelve foc-t high.
There were three sets of joists run-
ning across the building owe above
. tdie other commencing eight feet from
rilC/ ILVUL UUU UiCj *f Ox \j p/uwOt *.ts\sx*o
four feet apart in each tier. For con
venience in hanging up the meat a
large number of lath one and one
fourth inch by three inches and four
and one half feet in length, each lath
had an inch hole bored through the
center from each edge and from ten
to twelve inches apart. In trimming
up the peach and plum orchard, the
limbs which were of suitable size and
which had a side limb which could
be cut so as to make a fork were
sawed into lengths ten inches long
and the fork two aud one-half inches—
these were inserted in the holes and
made so as to turn around easily and
a six penny nail driven through the
limb above the lath. The advantage
of this is that the person, standing
on a ladder, can hold on to the fork
to steady himself and turn it in any
direction to suit the meat. Around
the side of the house were posts
seven feet high, of octagonal shape
with wooden pins five feet long, (two
and a half on each side) and placed
spirally, and far enough apart to
keep the meat from dripping on
that which hangs on the lower arms.
When the meat on the joists over
head was fully cured aud smoked it
was taken down, and hung on the
arms of these posts and a large can
vass bag made for the purpose was
pulled over the post completely cov
ering the meat and keeping it free
from insects, doing away with the
necessity of packing away in char
coal, sawdust, salt, etc. The only
trouble in getting at the meat was
untying the draw string at the bot
tom and raising the sack.
I am indebted to Capt. 11. F. Long
of this place for the above plan. He
says it is much superior to the old
plan of hanging meat upon nails or
tying up with bark and strings, and
I fully believe your readers will coin
cide with him.
Our parish ia remarkably healthy,
no yellow fever, plenty of quarantine
and provisions scarce, not an average
cotton crop, not quite a half bale per
acre, corn crop good, land rent low,
and plenty of room and welcome for
farming tenants. —l Ann Tanner in
Our Home, Journal.
Lesral Notices.
DIVORCE.
IN CHANCERY.
Henderson W. Long, 1 In the Circuit Court
vs. > for the Seventh
Fannie A. Long. 3 Judicial Circuit of
Fla., Volusia Cos.
TT APPEARING TO THE SAT
-I- isfaction oi the court that the defend
ant in tlie above entitled case resides out
of the State, to wit. in the State of Massa
chusetts, so that the ordinary process of
law cannot be served upon her. On motion
of St, Clair, Abrams & Summerlin solicit
ors for complainant, it is ordered that a
bearing on the facts chargedin said bill be
had, at Enterprise, Volusia county, on the
first Mondav in January, 1879. And that
said defendant do appear, plead, answer
or demure to said hill on or before the day
appointed for said hearing and that in de
fault thereof the said bill will be taken
“pro confesso,” provided that a copy of
this order be published in some official
newspaper in this circuit for the space of
three months, at least, before the day ap
pointed for such hearing.
Witness m3- hand and seal of office this
35th day of September, 1878.
John W. Dickins,
Clerk Circuit Court.
Volusia Cos. Fia.
St. Clair, Abrams & Summerlin,
Complainant’s Solicitors.
NOTICE.
United States Land Office.)
Gainesville, Florida, >
June 35, 1878. )
pOMPLAINT having been entered
V 1 at this office by Charles C. Fuller
against Luther S. Caldwell for abandoning
bis homestead entry, No. 1,935. made Au
gust 35,1875 —upon the s e 1 of the 11 e i of
section 36, township 18, range 30 east
and lot No. 4, section 31, township 18, s,
range 31 east—in Volusia county, Florida,
with a view to the cancellation of said
entry. The parties are hereby summoued
to appear on the 30th day of July 1878 at
10 o’clock a M., to respond and furnish tes
timony concerning said alleged abandon
ment beforeCharlesß. Bucknor, U.s. Com
missioner at Enterprise, Florida.
J. A. LEE, Register,
JOHN VARNUM, Receiver.
The hearing of the above is adjourned to
October 17,1878, at ten, a. m.
C. B. BUCKNOR, U. s. Commissioner.
IN THE CIRCUIT COURT 7th
Judicial Circuit, Volusia County,
State of Florida.
George Sauls } Attachment.
vs. > Sum sworn to 8141.19.
( Henry Peters >
I
The defendant, Henry Peters, and
ail other persons interested are hereby
notified of the commencement of this suit
by r attachment and are required to appear
ami plead to tiie declaration tiled in this
cause on or before tuc first Monday oi
March A. l>.. 1879. E. K. FOSTER,
Enterprise, Oct. 16. 1878.™°”**’“
IN THE CIRCUIT COURT 7th
Judicial Circuit, Volusia County.
State of Florida.
William S. Thayer and j
John Sauls, partners, | Sum sworn to
doing business under 1 Si ,094 87
the name of Thayer & 1
Sauls,
vs.
Henry Peters.
The defendant, Henry Peters, and
all other persons interested', are notified of
the commencement of this suit and are
hereby required to appear and plead to the
declaration hied 111 this action on or before
toe first Monuay m March a i>., 1879
„ E. K. FOSTER. Plaintiffs Att'v.
Enterprise, Oct. 16,1878. 04 4a
EXECUTOR’S NOTICE.
NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN
io oil persons indebted to the estate of
the late J. J. Jones, late of Volusia county
deceased, to make immediate payment of
their debts to us, and all persons havii M ’’
claims and demands against said estate aio
notified to present the same duly authen
ticated, within two 3-ears from this date.
Otherwise the same will lie barred
Dated,Btb Oct., a. i>, 1878.
Address, ROBERT JONES ?
or WILLIAM JONES S Executors.
33 30
TX CIRCUIT COURT of the Sev
; enth Judicial Circuit of Florida, Volusia
County. In Chancerv.
Nathaniel Hasty aud Elizabeth P. Hastv his
wife vs. V . Howell Robinson.
It appealing from afildavit made before
ine that the defendan t above named resides
beyond the limits of this Slate, to-wit. in
the State of Illinois, so that ordinary pro
cess cannot be served upon him. On motion
of C. B. Iluekuor solicitor for complain
ant : It is ordered that the defendant do
appear, plead, answer, or demur to the bill
of complaint filled in this cause, on or before
the first Monday in December next, other
wise the same will be taken pro confesso
Provided that a copy of this order be pub
lished weekly for four consecutive months,
in an official newspaper published in this
Circuit.
Witness iny hand and seal, this 24th day
of July, A. D. 1878. JOHN W. DICKINS.
12 80 Clerk Volusia Circuit Court.
C. B. BLCKNOR. Comp'lts olictor ~
MOTICE—In the County Court and
■1 ’ of Probate. Volusia County, Florida.
Notice is hereby given that after six
months publication of this notice, I shall
apply to the County Jndge of Volusia
County, for a discharge from my adminis
tration as administrator pf the estate of the
late James M. El wood, deceased.
Notice is also hereby given that all ac
counts against said estate, not exhibited
to me withih two years after the date of
my lettersof administration of said estate,
to wit., the Brd day of July A. p. 1877 will
be forver barred. Of which all creditors
and persons entitled to distribution will
ake notice. A. R. ELWOOD.
administrator &c.

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