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he rlor id a Agriculturist.
A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO STATE INTERESTS. Yol. I Contents of this Number. Page 209—Science; Tropical Nurseries. tomr ’ fiassr lsc Paije 212 'I he Value of Guinea and I’ara Grasses; The iirock House: The New Liberian Coffee; Floridiana; Locals. Page 213 Advertisements. Pa ge 2i4—Bermuda Grass—lts Origin and \ ahie in thuSoutli; Vitis Vnlpina, South em r ox, or tlie class of the Scunpernong (irapes; Setting Strawberries; \Vc Want *i Acw 1 ronoun; Legal Notices. Page 215—Tkanksgiveu I)av; A Wayside Courtesy; Advertisements. Page 21(1 Telegraphic; Advertisements. SCIENCE. in PROFESSOR, ,r. H. FOWLER. Editor Florida Agriculturist : In your paper of the 2nd inst., “ Some Facts from a Practical Agri culturist. ’ concerning orange culture are well stated and cannot be over estimated, \\ hat the author savs, concerning one of these inportant facts, leads him to the subject of this article, and affords me an excellent opportunity to approach it, at the same time, to say something also im portant, concerning orange culture. ON HP I)IIN(t sweet fSEEIIbINGS to make them bear sooner, the author says; "Ihis is another error. Instead of fcai 'lyi Rearing being a desirable thing,; ill uuj yiMiigv *''-/ be deplored ” * * “ But if you wish to have a few trees put on fruit prem aturely take a limb from the top of a tree and bend it down and tie it; it will be very apt to bear the next sea son ; an upright limb rarely bears fruit. I simply state and leave it ior the scientific to explain. I have long since ceased to be a dev otee at the slirine of Science. I have found her to be an arrant humbug. ’ SCIKXCE EXPLAINS every movement of matter, organic, or purely physical —is anactofhoice or Energy. To quote from a dis tinguished Scientist. “The propo sition that the entire energy existing in the universe is a magnitude as def inite and unchangeable as the quanti ty ol matter which it contains, is now considered one of the most fundamen tal aud far reaching in natural philos ophy.” * * “ The conversion of one manifest ation of energy into another, takes place with as great certainty and absence of waste and with the same integrity of elementary magnitude, as the more formal conversion of foot pounds into kilogrammetres: ”i. e. Force or Energy, whether exhibited as head-light, electricity, mechanical, power, living vitality, or motion of whatever kind, or existing in what is called a latent or concealed form, is always an indistructable and, in es sence, unchangeable element, c. y. The Sun is perpetually dispensing Energy to the Earth in the form of heat and light. The entire energy thrown off from the Sun being esti mated scientifically, to be that of a 60 horse power engine for cvery square inch of its immense surface. A definite portion of this energy is absorbed,—not lost—but changed in form, in the growing of a tree as well as in every physiological action in the vegetable or animal kingdom. If the tree be burned without loss of wood and the heat derived be ap- plied to a steam engine, the mechani. cal power thus derived will not only be the exact equivalent of that de rived from the sun in the growth of the tree, but it will be essentially the same, —l do not mean merely that identical heat, which was communi cated to the elements of matter from the Suu.s rays, during the time of the growth of the tree, but to include all employed in the preparation of all the elements of growth, and working foi ages prior to the tree's existence. I simply mean to say that a certain and definite quantity of energy is ab sorbed by the growth of each tree, and this same.' energy—now in the tree once in the Sun—may be con veyed to, or converted into the me chanical power of a steam engine.— It is as inclistructable and in essence as unchangeable as the atoms of wa ter themselves. And that quantity or magnitude absorbed in the growth of a tree, is as capable of exact state ment, as the numbers of mathematics, or the number of pounds of wood contained in the tree.— It is very easy to see that if the power of a steam engine is employed to drive a mill saw, that same power cannot be employed to drive a planer, and that il the power of the engine is only sufficient for the saw, what ever is given to any other work must detract just so much from the saw it ut ' ••w employ force beyond ‘a limited quan tity, and when an individual is build ing up its own structnre or growing, its normal or natural maximum limit of available force is required for that purpose ; so that if any part of that force be diverted to any other use, the growth of the individual is by so much, retarded precisely on the same principal that the speed of a mill saw would be retarded by diverting a portion of the force of the engine to planing. When the young orange tree is growing, all the force it can command is required to build up its own structure and Nature orders, that while this is being done, while the tree is growing, fruit bearing shall be suspended. It is the same with animal as with plant. But by man often, and sometimes by natural courses, an abnormal condition, of what may be called prematurity is brought about, consequently fruiting or reproduction takes place, but always at the expense of individual growth, often of health and some times of life. To gather up, to pre pare or digest and convey to grow ing tissue the necessary elements of j matter, requires energy or force, and | when all the energy that a plant or animal can command is required, for the healthfnl performance of its own proper physiological functions, as is usually the case with every young plant or young or working animal, it is not possible to divide this force with offspring without detriment to the parents. ' Hence early bearing should be deplored. THE MAX IF EST AT 10 X OP MATIKITV, in plants and animals are usually very conspicuous. E. g. The author says: “An upright limb rarely ever bears fruit,” ‘‘A limb bent down and tied down will be very apt to bear the next season.” All upright limbs are young and rapidly growing. Bent down limbs indicato age and Deland, Florida, Wednesday, November 13,1878. grow slowly, usually all the limbs of a young tree are upright, while those upon older trees curve downward hence an orange tree pruned to a clean stem three feet high with limbs nearly upright at four to ten years or age will be likely to trail the ex tremites of the lower limbs on the ground, at twenty, or the full bearing period. It is evident that the slow growth of the bent down limbs leaves unused such a proportion of energy in the tree or curved parts that a certain condition and action not yet. clearly understood, is produced which diverts a portion ol this force from producing wood to producing fruit. Tiie most active vital parts of the bent down limb on the buds- The energy in these no longer used to increase size and multiply those parts, may now be .used to produce fruit, and m coraformity with the order of Nature above referred to. One of the effects of bending down the limbs is to check the flow of sap and doubt less other currents are also cheeked. The same or similar effects are pro duced by pruning the roots away, by girdling or otherwise mutilating the limb or whole tree. I have had very young trees bear fruit the next sea son after a severe frost had so gird ed the small trunk 'that they have died the coming Fall loaded with the Bmntner~*ft , to fruit. I!\" GK.VFTINW OH BUODIN'G, there is produced a structure of woody tissues, at the point of uniou, so d' Terent’from that of the other parts of the tree, that there is always a sort of node formed, and doubtless the circulation is there modified, so that the condition of the inserted sci on or bud, becomes similar to that of a girdled or beat down imb, or of an older tree. This modifii ation hastens the bearing period. Tilat this result is produced at the point of junction, i3 evident, from the fact that a scion or bud, inserted in the t ee whence it is taken, will hear just a isoonas if ta ken from any other tre<, TROPICAL Ni l SERIES. British Im in. Editor Florida Agrio turist: Continue Having said this r itch without exhausting a most p fific subject, to which I hope again 3 recur, I will bring under notice ; ,( ways and means employed by p industrious class of people who m n the require ments of the fruit gr Pers by sup plying the plants wli uvith to set out. One city will f Ice and will give an idea of the bduce of all the rest. In the sJ abs of Cal- j cutta, in Bengal, mai hundreds of] Hindoos and Mahd dans make , their living by raising hits for sale. | The chief resort is : )lace called i Mannicktollah situaU our miles to i the north of the city lore congre- ] gated within an ar< i>f about a j square mile probabl hundred or j more of industrious 1 intelligent Hindoos of the Mall< >r gardening | caste ply an activei l increasing trade, and all of tin owner and workmen, live in cofcrt in their hut iu the midst < fheir several piats or gardens. Each, one of these men. is familiar with the names j of the plants both in the native lan guage and in that known in garden ing in Europe and America although few can hold conversation in Eng lish. It becomes rather amusing under the circumstances, to hear them pronounce the names of roses and other French specialties, and their mimic of Parisian is better than their hearers. No label distin guishes one plant from another, yet amid so much similarity, habit and 1 repute lias rendered them exception- i ally sensitive regarding distinctions and they arc never puzzled nor put out by the most difficult subject and at once name it correctly. All the operations of propagation are in progress at all seasons of the year, although the months cf rain, from June to November, are those of the greatest activity. Warehouses are supplied on the ground and to order with plants, and besides a whole host of itinerant venders with bas kets containing an assortment ol plants on their heads go from hence each morning and parade the city and vicinity from door to door sci- j ling what they can. Plants are sent 1 by rail and other modes of convey- ance over the whole country and their mode of packing is so perfect that plants arrive at their destination iU'i&~to“ttt\eiia-‘ntfe •OrtvaJ .v4 d n>v- fairs and gatherings of people and in the excitement attending such, “ catch customersare secured who would not otherwise buy. These agents may be seen with their stock hundreds, and in some cases, thous ands of miles from the place where the plants are raised. This region of nurserymen is en tered from the road beyond the fam ous Mahratta ditch(the latter giving in slang parlance a name to the city and its inhabitants as the “ ditch ” and “ ditchers The approach does not impress the casual observer ac customed to the aspect of the vege tation ol the jungle in this part of India, but to a stranger it has fea tures incomparably grand. The mass of vegetation comprising cocoa nut palms from the germ issuing from the husk to the Patriach of the grove towering 50 to 100 feet, the great nuts nestling aloft in large clus ters among the leaves in all stages of ripening. The Betie palm, lik ened by some writers “to an arrow shot from heaven—its shaft and plumes of feathery leaves graceful in the extreme, the Bengal Date Palm, scarified on its trunk and dwindled in its growth by the annu al incisions made to obtain its juices for intoxicating purposes and to manufacture sugar, is almost unrec ognisable from its graceful propor tions when grown for its fruit, the gigantic stems of the llamboo GO to 70 feet high bending to every breeze while the massive foliage of the Banana hides the vista at every turn. “ From sccus like these the mind might steal . , . , „ More charms than painters’aits reveal.” Issuing along the narrow path ways that lead to the nurseries un der notice, brushing against a laby rinth of undergrowth as diverse as could be wished—flowers and fruit everywhere till we reach the gardens, entering one of them we find the | ' j different varieties of Mangoes, Lit* ’ ciiee, Lime. Lemon, Orange, Shad dock, Guavas and many others, each growing apart as specimen trees, these besides being useful for the i fruit they bear—being select and ■ choice as to kind—are made use of jin furnishing the buds, etc., for propagating a whole host of useful and ornamental plants are scattered over the ground. It is an object here to have the best one representa tive plant permanently planted and thus have the material at hand to work from. Every vacant space not occupied by the permanent represen tathes is put to use, and plants in ail stages oi propagation and prepara tion for sale are scattered promiscu ously throughout. Plants that will grow from cuttings are increased freely under the prevailing shade without protection, the layering and inarching is done wherever a branch is suitable and near the ground, and if distant from the ground, a table of bamboo is made high enough to reach the branches whereon to place the pots containing the earth. 'ln the Botanical Gardens some of these j tables are carried to an elevation of ; oO to GO feet with a separate ladder each to enable the propagator to operate. There you will find some plants that never have been duplicat ed, and aie the sole living represen- ' .. _,y upon which every effort has been made in vain to obtain another. At the beginning of this century it was obtained from a country not now ac cessible and planted out in the place it now occupies, the propagator, a boy when it was planted, was 70 years trying vv ithotit success, every day during that time lie tended upon the layers he was in hopes of rooting. When first operated on the branches were convenient to the ground and before the old man died he had to ascend and descend over 40 feet to and from the nearest branch. It was a labor of love to the last as every other plant was plastic under his care and this defied him; when he died it was his wish and he was put along side of the tree he labored at so long' as unique a memorial as could well be conceived. Dr. Bracey Answered. Editor Florida Agricidturist: Will you please insert the follow ing in the next issue of your paper : 11. 1). Bracey in his article in your issue of Nov. Gth is guilty of slight inacuracy. First. He is not sure the figurers are the preachers, though the preacher is willing to father them. Second. Our statements was “ The first fall crop,’" and had we said the first crop, as yielded, Mr. B's own experience would have belied our figures. We said: “Trees produce thus iu from five to eight years from time of setting, results depending upon age and quality of trees, care, etc. Preacher. LeCoute Pear. In answer to many letters ot in quiry where cnttings.of this pear can be procured, we refer them to Judge G. L. Harden of Walthonville, Lib erty county Georgia, who can furn- I ish them in small quantities. No. 27‘