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Bermuda Grass—lts Origin and Value in the South. JSY D. IV. KICK, CLINTON', MISS. In the beginning of this letter I desire to say I am not endeavoring to create a sensation or a demand for this grass that will advance my pe cuniary interests, but, on the contra ry, to introduce a grass into a stock country that will eventually prove of paramount value to those engaged in such an enterprise. In view, then, of these facts, I have chosen this medium to comma: nicate my knowledge of Bermuda grass to those who have already inti mated their desire to try it, etc. Bermuda grass, when first intro duced into this part of Mississippi, was brought by the car loads to plant on railroad embankments to prevent them from washing, and has proven to be an infallible preventive. It was imported from the island of Bermuda in North America. A geo graphical examination will show this island to be situated in latitude 33 deg., and Clinton, Mississippi, in 32. In view of the fact that it grew lux uriantly in a more northern latitude when it was scattered on these em bankments, I am forced to believe it will grow in other more northern states. Asa forage for stock, it is equal if not superior to red clover, because it is of an everlasting growth, and not quite so woody. It furnishes fine grazing for cattle, sheep, hogs, etc., during the winter in this climate, and with a fovorable spring can be mown as early as April. It resembles blue grass in foliage, and grows from six to fifteen inches high, and so dense that it is a difficult task to cut it witli a scythe. It is so tenacious of life and of such vigorous growth that it is re garded among some classes of cotton planters as a great pest. It grows luxuriantly in a lazy farmer’s cotton fields when the cotton is young, and under these circumstances crowds it out. It was brought here tweny-five years ago, and, for reasons stated above, it soon became unpopular with the more indolent classes of cotton nlanters. while the_industripu3 apd nutritious food for their stock, en riches and preserves their lands,nd, ■when once broken, the land will pro duce more cotton, corn, etc., per acre than other land. Its immense yield, its rapid growth, its nutritious prop erties, its endurance of cold or heat, its ability to grow and spread even on our poorest soils, while undergo ing the process of ordinary plowing, . force me to claim that it is the peer of any grass grown in the South or Southwest. Since its introduction into this community it has spread for miles north and south of the railroad, and now covers many thousand acres of valuable lancL 1 have received many letters propounding the follow ing interrogations: “ How is Bermu da grass propagated ? Will it grow on clay lands ? will it grow in sedge, other grasses or weeds ? and what time is best to plant it ? ” etc. In re ply to these questions 1 will sav, Ber muda grass is produced in the island of Bermuda from seed; but in this latitude they do not mature, conse quently it is produced from the roots. 1 have reason to believe it will grow ou any soil that will produce peas, corn, oats, wheat or clover. It may he planted in a field of sedge, other grasses or weeds, and it will even tually crowd them out; and no other implement of less capacity than a two horse plow can turn over the grass sod. It flourishes here when planted in any season of the year. As to the advantages it has over other grasses, 1 will venture to submit a tew of its claims, etc.: First—The roots are as large as wheat straw, measuring from two to five feet in length, running in every conceivable direction and in the spring, when the root joint sends out a sprig or shoot, that "portion ot the root between the joints decays, and enriches the land. Second —Because it can be mown three or four times per annum and will yield from three to five tons of hay. Third —It will enrich land and flourish under constant pasturing of cattle and sheep. Forth—Because it will grow (un like all other grasses) when once planted until you kill it by constant jflowing in mid Winter or Summer. Prior to the introduction of Ber muda grass into this country the fearful malady of murrain, dry mur rain, bloody murrain, staggers, etc., prevailed among cattle, but now such a disease is not known to cattle raisers. The disappearance of these cattle diseases is imputed to the fact that Bermuda grass grows luxuri ently during the entire Summer and Fall seasons, and so there is compar atively no dry or decayed grass for them to eat to produce these dis eases. lam of the opinion that it will act as a preventive in sections where cattle are afflicted with these maladies. This conclusion is based upon the fact that when other grasses are perishing from excessive drouth this grass will be found to retain its green color and a close investigation will show the earth moist where it grows. This grass grows so dense as to protect the roots from the heat, and the roots are so compact as to retain the moisture in the earth. Upon this hypothesis and in view of its willingness to grow, spread, and crowd out weeds, etc., and flourish when under ordinary pasturing 1 am prompted to recommend it to others who need such a grass in their enter prises. It can not be made a com modity, because it grows so sponta neously, and covers an unknown number of acres of land. Yitis Viilpina, Southern Fox, or the Class of the Scupper nong drapes. The uses for which this class of grapes may be utilized in hybridizing and mixing with our other classes ot northern grapes, have not been ap preciated. They are called the lazy man’s grapes, allowed to run at will over rude post and pole trellises a few feet above the ground, are gener ally untrimmed ana otherwise almost uncared for; yet they yield heavy an nual crops. The clusters are small, but the berries are large. They flourish only upon the low, flat lands of the South Atlantic sea-board, from Virginia to Texas. They pos ess a rich, juicy, vinous flavor, * a are without pulp, and have a coarse, thick skin. They are a good table grape; tail what is of vital importance, they seem to be more nearly exempt from all sporadic diseases than any other known sort. When we add to these merits the other important characteristic, that Vitis vulpina is the only grape com paratively exempt from the insidious depredations of Phylloxera vastatrix, it would seem that it should be made to come in and supplement some of the leading deficiencies of our other classes of foreign and native grapes; for none of these flourishes in such low malarial districts, and all are more ot less affected by Phylloxera vestatrix. If, by careful and judic ious mixing and hybridizing, we can avoid to cure these defects, great good will result to our agriculture. Should we attempt this by grafting the Eumelan—an mstivalis grape, and one of the very best for this purpose, upon Scuppernong roots, using pollen for hybridizing from Concord and others of our popular Labrusca grapes, the root power of the V. vul pina, acting upon the sexual functions of the pistillate and staminate organs of the other classes, should give us the highest attainable immediate re sults. Then these improvements should be followed up by again build ing other combinations, using for the purpose Yitis cordifolia vines in some of the experiments, as anew clement, and varying the old combin ation, so as to obtain root-powder from one class, staminate, pollen, or male principal from another, and pis tillate,, or female force from a third, doing all with the greatest care and utmost possible precision. There would seem to be no appar ent or sufficient reason against carry ing out these important suggestions. They should by all means be attempt ed ; for if the best elements of the Southern can be united with the good that is in our Northern classes, one would supplement the other's de ficiencies, and wonderful practical re sults would doubtless fitly reward and crown the skillful operator. But herein lie the difficulties; hor ticulturists who understand the sub ject, and who have spent the neces sary time in studying out its sur rouudings and bearings, and in ac quiring the skill needed lor such del icate and operations, THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. from the very nature of their employ ment are not usually men of sufficient means to be able to go into the cli mate required, and devote the neces sary years ofuime attending to such enterprises. . Indeed, it would be well that any person who may be em ployed on such a labor, should be freed from all other cares, and be in this way enable to lay aside all thought of other business, in order to devote his exclusive attention to the work in hand in studying it out more deliberately and carefully in all its intricacies and bearings. The peculiar exigencies of this department of our agriculture would seeni to de mand this. Such a person would find ample occupation for all the physical and higher faculties ot which man is capable of attaining. Carrying on a commercial grape vine nursery in these hard times, to my certain knowledge, does not afford sufficient time for such work. I would there fore earnestly commend the subject to the Commissioner of Agriculture, for Washington is situated in the region where these important experi ments can be best conducted. The several Southern agricultural univer sities endowed by the Agricultural Act in the Southern States, should also give careful attention to so im portant a subject. Moreover, pri vate individtusi in the region indi cated, who are situated so as to be able to experiment, should by all means do so. There might be for tune and fame in the first experiment, with the consciousness of haying been of use to the world thrown in. It is a mistake to say that the Scuppernong will not live in the North, as we have all repeatedly been told. Though residing in the forty fourth parallel of latitude, I have three vines, set out three years ago protected by a slight covering of earth during the winter, just as other vines are protected in this climate. They are making a rather slow growth but seem healthy. lam not entirely without hope that I may be able to utilize the roots by grafting to obtain root-power, although disappointed in my first intention, which was to util ize them to obtain pollen for hybridi zing. The difference in climate, bow- I— mimm ii ■mi fat jJuf llf blossom, entirely too late for hybrid izing, but during the coming spring the attempt will be made to graft them. Pollen sent from the South next spring could be used, and if some horticultural friend will send this, I shall be duly thankful. There is some uncertainty; but it may turn out that all the benefits can be obtained from root-power. It is a fortunate circumstance that this power of grafting can be utilized in these operations; for it is far greater, more potent, and more under control than any power in the hands of the breeder of domestic animals. The horticulturist is enabled to take short cuts.towards final results; the breed er, with but two individual animals at a time, must work for generations through the sexual functious aud ameliorating circufnstances of food and climate. If be could dissect the osseous structure aiid the form of the best of the Short floras, splice into it the viscera of ad Ayrshire, add the lacteal organs of the Jersey, and breed from such a imaginary animal, it would be somei ring like what the horticulturist is en bled to accomplish through the mean of grafting and hybridizing.— l). S'. Marvin , in Ru ral New Yorhr. Jefferson Com y, N, Y. [Any readers i ho have not seeu Mr. Marvin’s fon er articles, which we deem of mu i importance, and who desire to c< itinue the subject are referred to tt -Rural New Uork er, of April 13 ai 1 J.Tune 29, last.— Eds.] Setting S awberries. Where one has slants of their own to set, it matters ot whether done in dry or wet weat r, providing it is rightly done. F r heavy, stiff soil however, we pre: r to set them out when the surface dry, for if worked when wet, the soi around the plants becomes hard, id checks plant growth. One of the ma requisites of set ting strawberries i dry weather, is to spread the roots ut well when Bet, and water .the i ne; and the best way to spread th roots is to have them rinsed free >m soil, and with a trowel dig out hole, and in this, place the root, am hen pour in water enough to partly fill the hole, or so, that the roots will he covered, and on this, draw earth quickly. The roots will float around, and the earth being thrown in, they settle down, well spread out. Then, all that is necessa ry, if the weather be hot and dry. is to shade for two or three days with paper or leaves. If set in this way and shaded, they should not be wa tered. More newly set plants are ruined by too much water and shade than in any other way. The cover ing retains the moisture at the sur face, and that is all that is needed. If watered when shaded, they “ damp off.” Plants received by mail or ex press, should be unpacked at once, and spread out in a cool cellar, if not ready to set out. Of course “ pot plants” that have a lump of dirt adhering, can be set out at once, by merely soaking the earth with water. Stirring the soil around newly set plants is often very advantageous. After shading two or three days they may be uncovered, and then, if the surface gets dry, water with wash water, or night slops, afttr reducing so as to have three parts rain water. —Fruit Recorder . We Want n New Pronoun. The need of a personal pronoun of the singular number and common gender is so desperate, urgent, imperative, that according to the established theories it should long since have grown on our speech, as the tails grew off the monkeys. When I was a child, and spake as a child, reckless of grammar and rhetoric, there was no trouble; but, growing mind ful of the proprieties of speech, I became conscious of a need, dimly felt at first, and hardly recognized, but ever growing more imperative, until now it calls loud ly every time I open my month to speak, or take a pen to write. For instance, I am writing a story, and come to the fol lowing sentence: “Then they had a delightful time reviewing the whole transaction, each stoutly defending the course of the other, and severely blam ing ” —I pause. “Himself” will not do, because one of them is a woman. “Her aaU"ia tha qneation- for the other “themselves,” bnt now I know better. That sentence can never be finished. I must write it over again, using “both” instead of “each,” and failing to express my exact meaning. Again, I am writing a business letter. I say, “If there are any farther prelimi naries to be arranged, • let Mr. or Mrs. Smith come out on the ten o’clock train, and we will meet”—Here I stop. Not “him,” for Mrs. Smith might come; not “her” for it might be her hnsband. I will not reconstruct my sentence, and say “them,” when I particularly wish they should not both be present. And so lam tormented at every tarn, my only comfort being the fact that I am not alone in my misery. How often do I see a fellow mortal pause in the middle of a sentence, groping blindly for the missing word, and then begin over again, or flounder miserably and ungrammatically through to the bitter end! Why should we not have anew word? What is the use of such men as Profes sor Whitney, or Professor Max Muller, or Mr. Bichard Grant White, if they cannot help us in a real trouble like this? They are like the entomologists who spend years of patient research in find ing out the scientific name of the potato bug, and cannot tell us how to get rid of him. Let the eminent linguists leave the spelling reform and such trifles long enough to coin us a word which shall spare a preacher from saying, as I heard one once, “Let every brother or sister examine himself or herself, and looking into his or her heart find out his or her besetting sin, and resolutely cast it from him or her." I do not believe there is a writer in the country that is not hampered every time he —no, she— There! I’ve run against the old snag.— Atlantic Monthly for November. A Denver clergyman, on receipt of the usual half-fare pass, wrote to the Super intendent: “Can not you embrace my wife also ?” To which the railroad man said he did not know, but he would like to see the clergyman’s wife first, as he was rather fastidious.’’ Lesral Notices. DIVORCE. IN CHANCERY. Henderson W. Lons:,) In the Circuit. Court vs. > for the Seventh Fauuie A. Long. ) Judicial Circuit of Fla., Volusia Cos. F APPEARING TO THE SAT isfaction of the court that the defend ant in the above entitled case resides out of the State, to wit, in the State of Massa chusetts, so that the ordinary process of law cannot be served upon her. On motion of St, Clair, Abrams & Summerlin solicit ors for complainant, it is ordered that a hearing on the facts charged in said bill be had, at Enterprise, Volusia county, on the first Monday in January, 1879. And that said defendant do appear, plead, answer or demure to said hill on or before the pay appointed for said hearing and that in de fault thereof the said bill will he taken, “pro confesso,” provided that a copy of this order be published in some official newspaper in this circuit for the space of three months, at least, before the day ap pointed for such hearing. Witness my hand and seal of office this. 35th day of September, 1878. John W. Dickins. Clerk Circuit Court, Volusia Cos. Fla. St. Clair, Abrams & Summerlin. Complainant’s Solicitors. NOTICE. United States Land Office, ) Gainesville, Florida, > June 25.1878. ) OOMPLAINT having been entered O at this office by Charles C. Fuller against Lather S. Caldwell for abandoning his homestead entry, No. 1,985. made Au gust 35,1875—up0n the s e i of the n e l of section 36, township 18, range 30 east and lot No. 4. section 31. township 18. s, range 31 east—in Volusia county, Florida, with a view to the cancellation of said entry. The parties are hereby summoned to appear on the 30th day of July 1878 at 10 o'clock a M., to respond and furnish tes timony concerning said alleged abandon ment before Charles B. Bucknor, U. s. Com missioner at Enterprise, Florida. J. A. LEE, Register, JOHN VARNUM, Receiver. The hearing of the above is adjourned to October 17,1878, at ten, a. m. C. B. BUCKNOR, U. s. Commissioner. IN THE CIRCUIT COURT 7th Judicial Circuit, Volusia County,. State of Florida. George Sauls ) Attachment. Vs. > Sum sworn to §141.19. Henry Peters ) l The defendant, Henry Peters, and I all other persons interested are hereby notified of the commencement of this suit by attachment and are required to appear and plead to the declaration filed in this cause on or before the first Mondav of - ' iyf. FOSTEK. ~ , . „ , Plaintiff's Att'v. Enterprise, Oct. 16.1878. 34 43 IN THE CIRCUIT COURT 7th Judicial Circuit, Volusia County. State of Florida. ’ William S. Thayer and ) John Sauls, partners, I Sum sworn to , doing business under V $1,094.87 the name of Thayer & I Sauls. j vs. Henry Peters. The defendant, Henry Peters, and all other persons interested, are notified of the commencement of this suit and are • hereby required to appear and plead to the declaration filed in this action on or before the first Monday in March a. and., 1879. F. K. FOSTER, Plaintiff’s Att’v. Enterprise, Oct. 16,1878. 34 40 EXECUTOR’S NOTICE. 7VOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN "V t°, al l Persons indebted to the estate of tne late J. J. Jones, late of Volusia county deceased, to make immediate payment of their debts to us, and all persons having claims and demands against said estate are notified to present the same duly authen ticated, within two years from this date Otherwise the same will be barred. Dated Bth Oct., a. i>, 1878. Address, ROBERT JONES ? or WILLIAM JONES \ Executors. 23 30 TN CIRCUIT COURT of the Sev „ enth Judicial Circuitof Florida, Volusia County. In Chaucerv. Nathaniel Hasty audElizabeth P. Hastv Ins wife vs. W. Howell Robinson. It appearing from affidavit made before me that the defendant above named resides beyond the Emits of this State, to-wit. in the State of Illinois, so that ordinary pro cess cannot be served upon him. On motion of C. B. Bueknor solicitor for complain ant: It is ordered that the defendant do appear, plead, answer, or demur to the bill ot complaint tilled in this cause, on or before the tirst Monday in December next, other wise the same will be taken pro confesso Provided that a copy of this order be pub lished weekly tor tour consecutive months in an official newspaper published in this Circuit. r C :'^ ISJOTICE—In the County Court aud x :. of . Probate. Volusia County, Florida hotme is hereby given that after six months publication of this notice, I shall apply to the County Judge of Volusia County, for a discharge from mv adminis tration as administrator of the estate of the late James M. El wood, deceased. Notice is also hereby given that all ac counts against said estate, not exhibited to me within two years after the date of my letters of administration of said estate to wit., the 3rd day of July a. i>. 1877 will’ be forver barred, Of which all creditors •Dd persons entitled to distribution will ake notice. A. R, ELWOOD, administrator Ac.