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Fob tbe Florida Agriculturist. Some TimeW Topics. "WHEN MUCK IS PROFITABLE —JUICY AND DRY' SWEET POTATOES SETTLERS FROM CASTLE GARDEN. I do not doubt that many attach an inordinate value to muck; handle it and haul it wet and so make it cost far more than it is worth, but if economically handled, and hauled a short distance, it often pays well. Mr. G. 11. Turner says it contains but a trace, if any, of ammonia, when the chemists tell us it has more than the average stable manure—about twice as much. Two years ago a grove in fhis vicinity had one two horse loads ot wet and very raw muck—of recent formation I mean — dumped in each square in the fall; next summer —in six or seven months—that muck was spread and was found so full of orange roots that it could not be broken up; roots often half an inch in diameter, were found. Now supposing there was no potash, no phosphoric acid or am monia, what business had those roots to completely fill the whole interior of those piles-with feeders? Whether it pays to haul muck depends on several things. In the first place it must be muck and not sand. Small shallow ponds are pretty sure to have too much sand to pay for moving at all. Bay muck is of much less value than pond for obvious reasons. But given large ponds susceptible of perfect drainage, so the cart may drive up to the bed and so save all handling over, an idle mule and muck getting is a healthy occupation. DOES WANT SETTLERS FROM CASTLE GARDEN. 1 cannot agree with your remarks in regard to immigration and a commis sioner at New York. I think it is high time to sift the immigrants to this country. Bo we want to turn the hordes from for eign shores in our direction ? It seems to me a very poor scheme to impose a prohibitive tariff on foreign goods produced by pauper labor and leave the gates wide open to the pauper laborer. Philanthropists and congres sional committees need not look far for the cause of strikes and labor troubles when we allow the oppressed and down-trod den and impecunious and live-on-ten cents-a-day laborers of other lands to flood our country ? Suppose the protective theory is true, and that it is policy to manufacture everything within our own borders and by ourselves, in what way are we bene fited when we shovel the workmen by the shipload into the country. And as to Florida, what she wants is not ignorant laborers, we have plenty now, but what you term “settlers at sec ond hand.” Settles from the North, East, West or South, men who are intelligent_and al*. ready Americans, suit Florida^.^^st. [Of course we do not want m * .ai vicious and impecunious laborers, and'n. would be the duty of our commissioner at New York to sift the hordes of foreign ers which are annually dumped upon our shores, and select for Florida only the best. Some of our most enterprising, intelligent and best citizens landed at Castle Garden.] JUICY Y'S. DRY SWEET POTATOES. There seems to be some confusion in the remarks of the* Northwestern corre spondent of the Home and Farm, quoted in your number of October 22nd. It will be news to Florida people that Florida does not produce the syrupy potato of the cotton belt. That depends solely on the variety, if you grow nansemonds or Jer seys, they will be dry and flourv, just the same as grown in the sand of New Jersey THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. or of Indiana or of lowa. In the Missis sippi River, at Muscatine, is an island of many thousand acres in extent largely devoted to the crop, as dry and sweet as any grown in New Jersey or elsewhere, while on loamy or clayey lauds in all those States they are watery and poor. I have raised nansemonds here with precisely the qualities of the Northern grown on proper soils. But they require a richer soil than the distinctive South ern sorts. Few persons on coming here and using our rich syrupy sorts retain their taste for the dry sorts, and I thing it would not be difficult to find a large market North for our kinds. If the Northern markets require a dry potato, and our railroads will carry them at fair rates, we can supply them, or we even in Florida can raise and sell the richer sorts peculiar to the South. I). It. Pilsbry. [Will Mr. Pilsbry kindly tell our read ers by what name the syrupy, juicy, wa tery, or whatever-he-may-call-it-potatoes goes by, and where it can be obtained?] ■ ■ For the Florida Agriculturist. Notes from Southern Polk. Our rainy season has ended and with the calmest change I have seen for thirty years. The mechanical spiders filled the woods with their ingenious fly traps about tw'O weeks ago, which has been my sign for a close-up of the rainy season for many years. It has been as lino a fall for gardening as I ever saw, I believe, up to the present. All who wish to protect anything from frost should be ready a little before the twentieth of November. The first frost, if we have any in autumn, almost invari ably comes about thaj time. Cassava seed should be put up by then in frost lo calities. I wish once more, Mr. Editor, to call your readers’ attention to cassava and sweet cane as forage for stock. I will soon be feeding both to my horses and milk cows, and I am now convined that with plenty of each, corn may be almost entirely dispensed with. I see no reason why farmers cannot have both almost the year around, if not entirely so. And don’t forget, my friend, to turn the chil dren, too, into the cane patch by the middle of November, at furthest, and fatten them. By Christmas you may leave off all pafent tonics after you turn them in. In about six weeks you will see blood in their cheeks and fire in their eyes. I calculate to be able to exhibit at the Ocala show,some fine canes grown on my sand hill, in full tassel. A number of people have been writing me about their lands in these sand hills. I can tell them all, that if fertilized they , will make big canes of the best quality; .o pineapples, limes, lemons and ;avas. Some of the finest lands for rhese purposes and all others, border on Lake Reedy on the North, in these sand hills. There is a beautiful border of ham mock, rich as a bird’s roost, high and lovely to build ou, near the water —fine for gardening and the pine woods back of it all right for all kinds of fruit raising. Our section here, around Lake Reedy, has been under some excitement about the conduct of “old cuffy.” He has been eating beef most too freely. Several head of small cattle have keen killed be longing to different persons, 1 guess. Some ineffectual drives have been made for bear lately. Another is to take place next week. lam specially fond of such sport, but at this time I have an en gagement, as manager of the Crooked lake drainage for Mr. J. M. Krakmer, and having charge of the work am not at liberty to get off so easily. As to the drainage of Crooked lake, it proved to be ineffectual in carrying off the large collection of water through the rainy season, and work had to be re newed on it. Mr. Keller, the surveyor, constructed a log dredge, which was put in near the head of the canal and for ten or twelve days I have had charge of hands working it and it has done more in moving sand, muck and hard pan than 100 hands could have done with ordi nary fools in the same length of time. lam yet hopeful of seeing cane growing in Crooked lake muck instead of saw grass and rushes. I do not think that any one w T ho owns land around Crooked lake need be alarmed as to pros pects of the country’s improvement. The muck lands will be rich enough for any thing, when dried, and the hill land, around the east and north of the lake, is generally passable pine land which, when fertilized, will produce cane to perfection and all kinds of Southern fruits. A friend complained to me lately about shabby treatment at Lake City in the Agricultural Station in a private letter, concerning an examination of diseased guava plants, and I fear his complaints w T ere too well founded. I could send some, too, but the encouragement is not, flat tering. S. AY. Carson. Midlaud, I’olk County, Fla. Setting Out Orange Trees. Some weeks ago Mr. S. Bigelow an swered an enquiry through these columns in reference to transplanting orange trees, and in reply received the following letter. S. Bigelow: I have read your suggestions in the Agriculturist in answer to my note with pleasure and instruction. I agree with you in most of the points, but differ from you in some, at least as far as my preference is concerned. But as I under stand you, your suggestions are not arbi trary rules to be applied to every tree. For instance, in taking up the tree there might be so many lateral roots as to render it very difficult to sever the tap root unless same of them were cut nearer than thirty inches from the crown. Again, in cutting back the top, as you say, we must be governed by the kind of tree, whether a sweet seedling or a bud ded tree, and by the shape of either. I prefer to take off all branches below two feet from the crown and to rub off all the sprouts that make their appearance on this part of the trunk afterwards. I con sider this heading a tree low, as it will be a very few years until these branches will be on the ground. I have no fear of bad results from the direct rays of the sun on the bark of an orange tree. 1 head low not to protect the trunk, but to shade the ground, and for convenience in gath ering the fruit. As the leaves are only a continuation and expansion of the two outer coatings of the bark, the functions of the latter must, in a measure, be simi lar to those of the former. In trans planting smaller trees, I have had a most vigorous growth where I have cut off all the top and left nothing but two feet of the trunk. I prefer to transplant after the wood has matured, or, in other words, while the tree is dormant. Others wait until the young growth begins to start. The trouble I find, in transplanting either ivben activity is just starting or before it stops is, that you are likely to loosen the bark for a short distance where you make your cuts both on root and top, while when in what is termed the dormant state tliebark adheres more firmly to the wood. I intend to do the work in Novem- ber and am glad to have your opinion to back me, as I will have to run counter to the usual custom of my neighbors, who have moved a great many quite large trees, but who do it as late as February and March. Levi Oberholtzer. Emeralda, Fla. For The Florida Agriculturist. Sub-Dividing Land and Numbering Lots. In looking over the delinquent tax sales awhile ago, and realizing the difficulty of locating any tract of land less than a forty, and studying over the matter, this idea of anew sub-division, or rather a new way of describing small parcels of land, came to me. Let every quarter section be divided into five acre lots; on the north and south line the lots are to run 330 feet, and on the east and west lines to be 660 feet, or the number of feet to divide the quarter section into thirty-two lots of equal size. Then commence at the north east corner and number the lots in the same order that the sections are numbered in the township. Any one buying five or ten acres or less they would be sold and designated by the number or numbers. Then even your correspond ent could tell if he w ? as paying taxes on his own or some one’s else, which he could not do on a quarter section, nor could the deputy surveyor, the assessor or the county clerk, and the only way to settle the matter is to get an abstract of title, which makes it all right for the abstrac tor. Dr. Heath. Geneva, Orange County, Fla. Hops in the South. Several times during the past eight years the Baltimore Manufacturers’ Rec ord has urged Southern cultivators to pay some attention to hops. It says it has been shown that this plant was an indigenous product in many sections, that it had been generally grown—not cultivated—for domestic use in yeast-ma king and for a pain alleviator, and that there w r ere few r old fashioned homes in the Southern country places that did not have near them one or two roots that sent up vines and bore crop annually. Inquiries made in many localities failed to find a single instance in which the fruit had been injured by mildew or insects, tw r o serious troubles that frequently de stroy the crops of the New r York hop dis trict. It has also been sliow'n that South ern hops mature much earlier than at the North,and that in many localities they could be sun and air cured, thus saving the cost of the dry-houses, and the ex pense of the processes employed else where ; and that finally the cheap labor that abounds in the South would be greatly in favor of the hop growers at that section; while, because of the cot ton presses on every plantation, there would be no need of purchasing other bailing machines. For The Florida Agriculturist. Irrigation for the Garden. First secure an ample supply of water as near the centre of the garden as pos sible. A drive well is best and cheapest where it can be had. Over the well build a platform say six feet square and eight feet high. Place on this platform a kero sene barrel with an inch nipple inserted as near the bottom as possible. Place your pump so as to have the water flow into it. A pitcher pump will answer every purpose. Get a sufficient length of one inch hose to reach every part of the gar den. I have one hundred and fifty feet and can easily water tw r o acres with it. With the apparatus I have described, by having a lad to pump, one man can dis tribute four thousand gallons of water in ten hours. This is the poor man’s friend. Dr. E. F. Brown. November 5, 1890.