Fob tbe Florida Agriculturist.
Some TimeW Topics.
"WHEN MUCK IS PROFITABLE —JUICY AND
DRY' SWEET POTATOES SETTLERS
FROM CASTLE GARDEN.
I do not doubt that many attach an
inordinate value to muck; handle it and
haul it wet and so make it cost far more
than it is worth, but if economically
handled, and hauled a short distance, it
often pays well. Mr. G. 11. Turner says
it contains but a trace, if any, of ammonia,
when the chemists tell us it has more
than the average stable manure—about
twice as much.
Two years ago a grove in fhis vicinity
had one two horse loads ot wet and very
raw muck—of recent formation I mean —
dumped in each square in the fall; next
summer —in six or seven months—that
muck was spread and was found so full of
orange roots that it could not be broken
up; roots often half an inch in diameter,
were found. Now supposing there was
no potash, no phosphoric acid or am
monia, what business had those roots to
completely fill the whole interior of those
Whether it pays to haul muck depends
on several things. In the first place it
must be muck and not sand. Small shallow
ponds are pretty sure to have too much
sand to pay for moving at all. Bay
muck is of much less value than pond for
obvious reasons. But given large ponds
susceptible of perfect drainage, so the
cart may drive up to the bed and so save
all handling over, an idle mule and
muck getting is a healthy occupation.
DOES WANT SETTLERS FROM CASTLE
1 cannot agree with your remarks in
regard to immigration and a commis
sioner at New York. I think it is high time
to sift the immigrants to this country.
Bo we want to turn the hordes from for
eign shores in our direction ?
It seems to me a very poor scheme to
impose a prohibitive tariff on foreign
goods produced by pauper labor and
leave the gates wide open to the pauper
laborer. Philanthropists and congres
sional committees need not look far for the
cause of strikes and labor troubles when
we allow the oppressed and down-trod
den and impecunious and live-on-ten
cents-a-day laborers of other lands to
flood our country ?
Suppose the protective theory is true,
and that it is policy to manufacture
everything within our own borders and
by ourselves, in what way are we bene
fited when we shovel the workmen by
the shipload into the country.
And as to Florida, what she wants is
not ignorant laborers, we have plenty
now, but what you term “settlers at sec
Settles from the North, East, West or
South, men who are intelligent_and al*.
ready Americans, suit Florida^.^^st.
[Of course we do not want m * .ai
vicious and impecunious laborers, and'n.
would be the duty of our commissioner
at New York to sift the hordes of foreign
ers which are annually dumped upon
our shores, and select for Florida only
the best. Some of our most enterprising,
intelligent and best citizens landed at
JUICY Y'S. DRY SWEET POTATOES.
There seems to be some confusion in
the remarks of the* Northwestern corre
spondent of the Home and Farm, quoted
in your number of October 22nd. It will
be news to Florida people that Florida
does not produce the syrupy potato of the
cotton belt. That depends solely on the
variety, if you grow nansemonds or Jer
seys, they will be dry and flourv, just the
same as grown in the sand of New Jersey
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
or of Indiana or of lowa. In the Missis
sippi River, at Muscatine, is an island of
many thousand acres in extent largely
devoted to the crop, as dry and sweet as
any grown in New Jersey or elsewhere,
while on loamy or clayey lauds in all
those States they are watery and poor.
I have raised nansemonds here with
precisely the qualities of the Northern
grown on proper soils. But they require
a richer soil than the distinctive South
Few persons on coming here and using
our rich syrupy sorts retain their taste
for the dry sorts, and I thing it would
not be difficult to find a large market
North for our kinds.
If the Northern markets require a dry
potato, and our railroads will carry them
at fair rates, we can supply them, or we
even in Florida can raise and sell the
richer sorts peculiar to the South.
I). It. Pilsbry.
[Will Mr. Pilsbry kindly tell our read
ers by what name the syrupy, juicy, wa
tery, or whatever-he-may-call-it-potatoes
goes by, and where it can be obtained?]
For the Florida Agriculturist.
Notes from Southern Polk.
Our rainy season has ended and with
the calmest change I have seen for thirty
years. The mechanical spiders filled the
woods with their ingenious fly traps
about tw'O weeks ago, which has been my
sign for a close-up of the rainy season
for many years.
It has been as lino a fall for gardening
as I ever saw, I believe, up to the present.
All who wish to protect anything from
frost should be ready a little before the
twentieth of November. The first frost,
if we have any in autumn, almost invari
ably comes about thaj time. Cassava
seed should be put up by then in frost lo
I wish once more, Mr. Editor, to call
your readers’ attention to cassava and
sweet cane as forage for stock. I will
soon be feeding both to my horses and
milk cows, and I am now convined that
with plenty of each, corn may be almost
entirely dispensed with. I see no reason
why farmers cannot have both almost
the year around, if not entirely so. And
don’t forget, my friend, to turn the chil
dren, too, into the cane patch by the
middle of November, at furthest, and
fatten them. By Christmas you may
leave off all pafent tonics after you turn
them in. In about six weeks you will see
blood in their cheeks and fire in their
I calculate to be able to exhibit at the
Ocala show,some fine canes grown on my
sand hill, in full tassel.
A number of people have been writing
me about their lands in these sand hills.
I can tell them all, that if fertilized they
, will make big canes of the best quality;
.o pineapples, limes, lemons and
;avas. Some of the finest lands for
rhese purposes and all others, border on
Lake Reedy on the North, in these sand
hills. There is a beautiful border of ham
mock, rich as a bird’s roost, high and
lovely to build ou, near the water —fine
for gardening and the pine woods back of
it all right for all kinds of fruit raising.
Our section here, around Lake Reedy,
has been under some excitement about
the conduct of “old cuffy.” He has been
eating beef most too freely. Several
head of small cattle have keen killed be
longing to different persons, 1 guess.
Some ineffectual drives have been made
for bear lately. Another is to take place
next week. lam specially fond of such
sport, but at this time I have an en
gagement, as manager of the Crooked
lake drainage for Mr. J. M. Krakmer,
and having charge of the work am not
at liberty to get off so easily.
As to the drainage of Crooked lake, it
proved to be ineffectual in carrying off
the large collection of water through the
rainy season, and work had to be re
newed on it. Mr. Keller, the surveyor,
constructed a log dredge, which was put
in near the head of the canal and for ten
or twelve days I have had charge of
hands working it and it has done more
in moving sand, muck and hard pan than
100 hands could have done with ordi
nary fools in the same length of
time. lam yet hopeful of seeing cane
growing in Crooked lake muck instead of
saw grass and rushes. I do not think
that any one w T ho owns land around
Crooked lake need be alarmed as to pros
pects of the country’s improvement. The
muck lands will be rich enough for any
thing, when dried, and the hill land,
around the east and north of the lake, is
generally passable pine land which, when
fertilized, will produce cane to perfection
and all kinds of Southern fruits.
A friend complained to me lately about
shabby treatment at Lake City in the
Agricultural Station in a private letter,
concerning an examination of diseased
guava plants, and I fear his complaints
w T ere too well founded. I could send some,
too, but the encouragement is not, flat
tering. S. AY. Carson.
Midlaud, I’olk County, Fla.
Setting Out Orange Trees.
Some weeks ago Mr. S. Bigelow an
swered an enquiry through these columns
in reference to transplanting orange
trees, and in reply received the following
I have read your suggestions in the
Agriculturist in answer to my note
with pleasure and instruction. I agree
with you in most of the points, but differ
from you in some, at least as far as my
preference is concerned. But as I under
stand you, your suggestions are not arbi
trary rules to be applied to every tree.
For instance, in taking up the tree
there might be so many lateral roots as
to render it very difficult to sever the tap
root unless same of them were cut nearer
than thirty inches from the crown.
Again, in cutting back the top, as you
say, we must be governed by the kind of
tree, whether a sweet seedling or a bud
ded tree, and by the shape of either. I
prefer to take off all branches below two
feet from the crown and to rub off all the
sprouts that make their appearance on
this part of the trunk afterwards. I con
sider this heading a tree low, as it will be
a very few years until these branches will
be on the ground. I have no fear of bad
results from the direct rays of the sun on
the bark of an orange tree. 1 head low
not to protect the trunk, but to shade
the ground, and for convenience in gath
ering the fruit. As the leaves are only a
continuation and expansion of the two
outer coatings of the bark, the functions
of the latter must, in a measure, be simi
lar to those of the former. In trans
planting smaller trees, I have had a
most vigorous growth where I have cut
off all the top and left nothing but two
feet of the trunk.
I prefer to transplant after the wood
has matured, or, in other words, while
the tree is dormant. Others wait until
the young growth begins to start. The
trouble I find, in transplanting either
ivben activity is just starting or before it
stops is, that you are likely to loosen the
bark for a short distance where you make
your cuts both on root and top, while
when in what is termed the dormant
state tliebark adheres more firmly to the
wood. I intend to do the work in Novem-
ber and am glad to have your opinion to
back me, as I will have to run counter to
the usual custom of my neighbors, who
have moved a great many quite large
trees, but who do it as late as February
and March. Levi Oberholtzer.
For The Florida Agriculturist.
Sub-Dividing Land and Numbering
In looking over the delinquent tax sales
awhile ago, and realizing the difficulty of
locating any tract of land less than a
forty, and studying over the matter, this
idea of anew sub-division, or rather a
new way of describing small parcels of
land, came to me.
Let every quarter section be divided
into five acre lots; on the north and
south line the lots are to run 330 feet,
and on the east and west lines to be 660
feet, or the number of feet to divide the
quarter section into thirty-two lots of
equal size. Then commence at the north
east corner and number the lots
in the same order that the sections
are numbered in the township. Any one
buying five or ten acres or less they would
be sold and designated by the number or
numbers. Then even your correspond
ent could tell if he w ? as paying taxes on
his own or some one’s else, which he could
not do on a quarter section, nor could
the deputy surveyor, the assessor or the
county clerk, and the only way to settle
the matter is to get an abstract of title,
which makes it all right for the abstrac
tor. Dr. Heath.
Geneva, Orange County, Fla.
Hops in the South.
Several times during the past eight
years the Baltimore Manufacturers’ Rec
ord has urged Southern cultivators to
pay some attention to hops. It says it
has been shown that this plant was an
indigenous product in many sections,
that it had been generally grown—not
cultivated—for domestic use in yeast-ma
king and for a pain alleviator, and that
there w r ere few r old fashioned homes in
the Southern country places that did not
have near them one or two roots that
sent up vines and bore crop annually.
Inquiries made in many localities failed
to find a single instance in which the fruit
had been injured by mildew or insects,
tw r o serious troubles that frequently de
stroy the crops of the New r York hop dis
trict. It has also been sliow'n that South
ern hops mature much earlier than at
the North,and that in many localities they
could be sun and air cured, thus saving
the cost of the dry-houses, and the ex
pense of the processes employed else
where ; and that finally the cheap labor
that abounds in the South would be
greatly in favor of the hop growers at
that section; while, because of the cot
ton presses on every plantation, there
would be no need of purchasing other
For The Florida Agriculturist.
Irrigation for the Garden.
First secure an ample supply of water
as near the centre of the garden as pos
sible. A drive well is best and cheapest
where it can be had. Over the well build
a platform say six feet square and eight
feet high. Place on this platform a kero
sene barrel with an inch nipple inserted as
near the bottom as possible. Place your
pump so as to have the water flow into
it. A pitcher pump will answer every
purpose. Get a sufficient length of one
inch hose to reach every part of the gar
den. I have one hundred and fifty feet
and can easily water tw r o acres with it.
With the apparatus I have described, by
having a lad to pump, one man can dis
tribute four thousand gallons of water in
ten hours. This is the poor man’s friend.
Dr. E. F. Brown.
November 5, 1890.
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