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November 5, LB[) 0.
Hot-Beds and Cold Frames. Seneca and Pliny informs us, that the Homans attempted the forcing of vege tables by means of artificial heat, using thin plates of talc or mica in lieu of glass. Asa rule, the first vegetables and fruit of a season bring the best prices, and the grower is prompted to use all available means to push forward his crops to ear ly maturity. Florida, being more ex empt from frosts than other States, can place upon the market any vegetable that, in less favored sections, requires glass, earlier, more plentifully and with less cost than the gardeners of more Northern States. Since Florida garden ers have taken up truck growing for the Northern markets, those in the vicinity of Charleston and Savannah require less glass than formerly. Hot-beds are rarely required as far south as Charleston and Savannah to forward and protect tender seedlings, like tomatoes, egg plants, pep pers, etc. Cold frames, under proper management, not onlj r suffice for this, but are preferable. When any animal or vegetable matters undergo rapid fermen tation with partial admission of air and moisture, a considerable amount of heat is evolved, and the gardener takes ad vantage of this chemical process in his forcing operations. In the management of crops under glass, and the removal of young and tender plants to the open ground, his knowledge and observance of the changes of the weather will serve him better than in any of his other opera tions. In the vegetable kingdom, the heat of the sun is the cause of growth, and its light that of maturity. Animals may live with little or no light, but no vegetable can come to perfection without it. The sun’s rays are both those of heat and light. Were it not for the wise pre vention of the accumulation upon the earth of the heat received from the sun, all life upon our globe would be destroyed. DEW AND FIiOST. Evaporation and radiation of heat into space from the earth during the night, when it receives little in return, accom plish this purpose; and these means are the source of benefit. When the surface oftheearth has, by this radiation of heat, become colder than the surrounding air, the moisture of the air is condensed upon it in the form of dew, as when moisture appears on the outside of a glass of ice wa ter, or upon a- gun barrel, etc., upon being brought from the cold outside air into a warm room. The value of dew to vegetation is manifested in such dry rain less seasons, as those of 1880 and 1881. This moisture gathers where it is most needed, on low plants, the roots of which do not penetrate the earth deeply, and on foliage near the ground. The precipi tation of moisture upon tender vegeta tion, must diminish the cold which occa sioned it, and thus prevents the injury that might arise from that cause. The partial prevention of cold on an object near the ground, by the interposition of a screen between it and the sky, is due to the reflection of heat by the lower surface of the screen back to the object. This compensates in part for the loss by radia tion. The gardener avails himself of this, in protecting his plants in cold and clear nights by the interposition of screens, which are most effective when not in con tact with the vegetation to be protected. Clouds similarly prevent injury from cold at night, by radiating heat to the earth in return for what they intercept from the earth. The lower the clouds the more effective they are. Fog, or clouds of smoke, have the same effect as clouds of vapor. Coast lands and islands, from their situation, are more subject to a THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. cloudy sky, to movement in the air, and are therefore less exposed to cold by radiation; but the chief reason why is lands are more temperate than continents and inland situations, is, that the water of the ocean, a little below the surface, is uniformly in all latitudes above 45°. Florida as a long peninsula, with an ocean east and west, and Bermuda, as evidenced by her extremely early crops, although lying in the same latitude as Savannah, enjoy these advantages in an eminent degree, besides having the wann waters of the Gulf Stream flowing near their coasts. The cooling of a body ex posed on a clear night, depends in part upon the readiness with which it receives heat by conduction from bodies warmer than itself in contact with it. Bodies thus exposed must radiate as much heat during a wind as in a calm, but in the former case the constant contact of warm air will return to them nearly as much heat by conduction, as they lose by radiation, and only a slight agitation of the air is suflicient to thus prevent dew T and frost. The reason why depressed locations suffer most from cold by radia tion is, that they are more becalmed ;and there must also be lees dew in them, be cause of the calm atmosphere which provides the moisture. It is true that at considerable altitudes the air becomes colder as the height increases, but on hills, in cold and clear nights, the frosts are less severe in consequence of the move ment in the atmosphere. The dew, which has been deposited upon vegetation by condensation from the atmosphere, will become hoar or white frost, when the object upon which it has settled is cooled by sufficient radiation to congeal the water into crystals of ice. This can only occur in this latitude up to 44° F. of the surrounding atmosphere; or in other words, frost is impossible, unless the thermometer falls as low as 44°. The different effects of the several solar rays are yet imperfectly understood ; but there is no doubt that the heating and illuminating rays produce different re sults. Plants supplied with heat and moisture may grow for a short time in darkness; but there will be no develop ment of chlorophyll, or leaf-green, and they cannot thrive. Plants,in all stages of growth, need the presence of atmos pheric air, from the seed requiring oxy gen for its germination, to the plant which acquires its chief supply of carbon from the air. Water is absolutely neces sary in the economy of vegetation. The management of plants under glass, whether they are to be transferred to the open ground or not, requires an acquaint ance with the effects of these various agents and phenomena, so that they may be made to harmonize in the pro duction of a sturdy and healthy vegeta tion. If a relative excess of either is permitted, failure is certain. A spindling growth will result from too much light or heat; too luxuriant growth from an excess of moisture and heat; and the plants are apt to damp off from much moisture and deficient light. Having succeeded in producing satis factory plants, it is the policy of the gardener to transfer them to the field as early in the spring as possible. Oemler in Truck Farming at the South. Anew process has been discovered and is now being used by which oranges may be picked green and colored rich yellow in forty- eight hours, the fruit retaining all of its delicious flavor. Capt. Carney and other gentlemen of Lake Weir are now using the process, which is highly satisfactory. They are now shipping such fruit, for which they receive $4 per box.—Polk County News. riL. InL. HHWKINS St SONS, 1 PROPRIETORS OF THE Liaise (Secure Nurseries Wish to call attention o the fact that they have GENUINE RIVERSIDE. OR WASHINGTON NAVEL, oranges, budded direct from one of the finest groves in Riverside, California. We have one-year-old buds carrying from five to eight specimens of the fruit. We have two fine varteiies of the Blood orange—the Maltese Blood and the Round Sweet Blood; they are both extra f nefrtiit. We also have the two finest varieties of early oranges— The Centennial and Parson Brown. Also the JAFFA, the variety which took the first prize at the South Florida Exhibition las February. We have a full line of other cUrus varieties; also other fruit and ornamental trees. Cat alogue free upon application. W. W. HAWKINS & SONS, Lake Ceorge, Fla. (SeoFgetowr) Nurseries. ) ORANGE AND LEMON TREES BUDDED TO THE BEST VARIETIES. —ALSO— PEARS, JAPAN PERSIMMONS, PEACHES, GRAPES, FIGS, ETC. —SEND FOR CATALOGUE TO— AARON WARR, - Georgetown, Fla. Sunset Hill Nursery HAS FOR SALE THE CHOICEST VARIETIES OF BUDDED ORANGE, LEMON AND LIME TREES Grown. I have spared no pains or money to get the best known. I have made my selections from over sixty choice varieties which I have grown and tested. I have had a long and extensive experi ence, and am carrying one of the largest nursery stocks in the State. I think I can suit you. Please give us a trial. Thornless and Early Fruiting Varieties a specialty. Peaches, Pears, Plums, Grapes and other fruits. Send for catalogue, with practical hints to new beginners; free on application. IN. W. PIERCE, Indian Springs, Ula, NURSERIES OF THE i Milwaukee-Florida Orange Cos. Choicest Strains of Distinctive Varieties of Citrus Fruit Trees a Specialty. Our Stock is large and complete. PROMPT ATTENTION TO CORRESPONDENCE. For Catalrcu and Price-List, address, A. L. DUNCAN, Manager, - - - Dunedin, Florida. GLEN ST. MARY NURSERIES Offer for the Season off 1890-91 Tie Largest Stock of Muons Bruit Trees Erer Grown in Florida. Comprising all the standard kinds and valuable new varieties. 52 varieties Peaches 14 varieties Ori ental Plums, 15 varieties Pears, 10 varieties Japan Persimmons. 11 varieties Figs IS varieties Grapes Also, Apricots, Olives, Satsuma Oranges, Quinces, Pecans, Mulberries. Japan Medlars Ornamentals" etc. Can furnish buds of most varieties. Write for prices or either buds or trees Correspondence solicited. Catalogue free. G. JL. TABER, CJlen SI, Mary, Fla. SEVEN OAKS NURSERIES, BAY VIEW, FLA,, Offer everything In the TREE and PLANT LINE ADAPTED TO FLORIDA AT LOWEST PRICES Tropical, Semi-Tropical and Hardy Fruit Trees. Hardy and Exotic Plants of every description Hedge Plants, Bamboos, Conifers, Palms, Agaves,Cacti, Orchids, Ferns,etc. Write us before placing your orders elsewhere. New illustrated catalogue for 1890 sent for 10c in stamps. Post free to cus. tomers irf.. X3. 3EXO ~V'"JL* , IVtanagcr, ?0O OPQ NIAGARA 3-BUD CUTTINGS ™W WI WW W j FI SALE. “ ‘‘ , ?C" ’I ''ls, These cuttings are all from bearing vines. • , jorders must be in by December 1, 1890. $2.50 per 1,000 Orders of 10,000 and upwards, 25 per cent, discount. State agents for the sale of Niagara and Green Mountain Grape Vines. Send for circulars and prices. HAYNES, YOUNG & BAILEY, NIAGARA WHITE DIAMOND, DELAWARE, IVES, CYNTHIANA, NORTON, EATON, MOYER, And all leading and new varieties of Grape Vines, native and foreign. XXig;liest Standards EQUAL TO ANT, INFERIOR TO NONE ! For Price List and estimate with SPECIAL DISCOUNT on large orders, address E. DUBOIS, Man’r San Luis & Andalusia Nurseries & Vineyards, TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA. ASTSend also for Price List of T~*~* A ‘\7^7"I3XTIE3JOI. 627