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The Florida agriculturist. [volume] (DeLand, Fla.) 1878-1911, November 15, 1899, Image 2

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it, tilling the tube with coarse sand,
shell or gravel, ('ontinue to set out the
rows of plants, and water as you pro*
.coed, keep raising the tube in center,
after packing inside and outside, as di
rected, until within the length of the
tube from the top it should be left
empty, to be tilled with water daily,
and about two quarts of water added
for the top tier, the lower ones being
watered through the tube. The tube
should be three or four inches in diam
eter and ten or twelve inches in length.
The berries will grow on the outside
of the barrel, be clean and nice and
yield about half a bushel per barrel.”
Fertilizer Notes.
Acid phosphate is often sold under
1 1 10 following names: Superphosphate,
Soluble Hone, and Dissolved Bone. The
first expression is good, but the last
two are trade names which are a little
misleading. Probably not one acid
phosphate in one hundred comes from
bone, and if it did, the available phos
phoric acid would have no more value
than from any other source. Similar
names are used for mixtures of acid
phosphate and potash.
Acid phosphate can be used in place
of kainit to prevent loss of ammonia
from stable manure.
A number of linns blacken their
goods-by means of some such useless
material as lignite or graphite. The
claim is made that the farmer wants
black fertilizers. The chief objection
is that the farmer must pay for this
extra rich appearance. It should be
stated, however, that a black phos
phate is mined in Middle Tennessee.
Ammonia and nitrogen, as trade ex
pressions, are often used interchange
ably. The latter is the more accurate
term, as in reality ammonia is seldom
found in fertilizers. Nitrogen is the
element desired, so that an
compound is valuable only for the ni
trogen it contains. Nitrate of soda
acts the most quickly and is the most
available of all forms. The nitrogen
of ammonium sulphate is nearly as ac
tive, while it is less easily lost from
the soil. Cotton-seed meal and dried
blood come next in availability, and
are still less liable to be lost by leach
ing. On the whole, tankage contains the
most unavailable form of nitrogen, and
along with tankage should be put most
of tlie bone meals.
It would be to the farmer’s interest
to insist on knowing the source of the
nitrogen in complete fertilizers. The
chemist of the Fertilizer Inspection
could nearly always tell this without
extra trouble.
The value of a bone meal depends
largely on its fineness. If we demanded
finely ground bone, it would be forth
Do not mix acid phosphate and
ashes, but apply them at different
times. The lime in the ashes tends to
render the available phosphoric acid
insoluble and unavailable if mixed.—
Tenn. Ex. Station Bulletin.
How to Grow Fine Peaches.
Last spring I wrote an article ad
dressed to Southern Peach Growers,
.ailing their attention to what 1 con
sidered, was our opportunity, as the
fruit crop was gone for the year, we
could put our trees in shape for anoth
er year by trimming and cutting out
the dead and superfluous wood, white
washing to keep off tin* borers and
properly fertilizing. Since that article
was written I have received many in
quiries as to my method of growing
All of roj old trees have been cut
back and have grown new tops. I have
'some Elberta trees cut back two years,
1 ihai have now as large and healthy
tops as when they were first grown
(all new healthy wood.) 1 have some
that were cut back this spring that
have made a growth of over five feet,
tliev will be shortened in tills fall, and
next year they will have grown an en
tire new head, capable of bearing a
line crop of peaches. These trees are
fourteen years old and have borne
eleven crops, the most of them full
crops. The trunks and roots of these
trees are perfectly sound and free
from borers. There has been sold from
a single tree over ten dollars’ worth of
fine peaches in a season.
My method is not to allow my trees
to overbear. When they hold a full
crop, too full for the health of the
trees, they are thinned out early in
the season, leaving the fruit about six
inches apart. These trees receive a
heavy application of muriate of potash
and acid phosphate every year, crop or
no crop, and is generally put on in the
fall: edwpeas are planted between the
rows of trees, we generally plant the
unknown variety. The cowpeas fur
nish Ihe nitrogen and humus to the
soil, as well as a growing mulch. Dur
ing the fruit season, they keep the
ground cool and moist by their heavy
foliage, which aids the maturing and
ripening of the fruit.
During dry seasons I have noticed
that if it had not been for this grow
ing mulch there would have been a
serious loss from fallen immatured
fruit. Nature furnishes a mulch in the
forests by fallen leaves around the
>oots of trees, and under these leaves
there is always moisture and fertility
brought up by the capillary attraction,
and for the orchard trees there is no
better mulch than the southern cow*
peas planted between the rows. The
planting of orchards with crops that
"equire long cultivation, exposing the
“mil to sunlight and heat, without any
•egard to the mulch or the baking pro
pensities of the soil, in my opinion is
all wrong.
As to the method of trimming, I cut
back one-half of each year’s growth;
the object is to keep the head of the
tree in proper shape and to keep every
year, as much new growth of wood as
possible. Cultivation of orchards
should cease by the last of June in the
South, to lot the new wood ripen by
It may not be amiss for me to again
give my method of fighting the borers.
Tn the fall I dig around my trees and
expose the roots thoroughly, examine
•i 11 indications of borers, and if any, dig
them out with a small wire, then in the
spring I whitewash the tree from
crotch to roots with a preparation of
the following ingredients: To every
five gallons of wash, add one quart of
soft soap, one pound of sulphur, one
quart of crude carbolic acid with a
handful of salt. This I spread on
thick, especially at the roots; after the
wash gets dry, draw the soil around
the roots, leaving it cone-shaped about
one foot high. The preparation seems
to check the ravages of the borer, as
I have trees that are fourteen y r ears
old and over, that are as sound as
need be to grow anti mature large
crops of fruit, which cannot be done if
the vitality of the tree is lessened by
the destructible borer.
I find in fruit growing that to con
tend against insects and the fungous
diseases, we must follow the old rule,
that an ounce of prevention is worth a
pound of cure, and in order to over
come these we must take more pains
with our orchards, and fertilize heavy
to have a healthy growth and to as
sist the tree and the vine to overcome
the effects by strong growth.
Peach trees require a well drained
sandy soil with a clay subsoil and
should be fertilized with potash and
acid phosphate or ground bone every
year; in order to grow line fruit grow
ers should bear in mind that the mar
kets are always full of inferior fruit;
but llie markets in the leading cities
of the South or North have never been
oversupplied with extra fine fancy
fruit? Will the market ever be sup
plied? We think not, for this reason,
our constantly increasing population
and better facilities for transportation
that we have in this country of fruit
eating people, there will always be a
demand for the fine fruit that can be
grown now with the present acreage
in peaches or planted hereafter. —C.
W. Morrill, in Tri-State Gardener.
Adaptation of Forage Plants to Soils.
With reference to the selection of
forage plants adapted to different re
gions, the soils of the South Atlantic
and Gulf States may lie classified as
(1.) Yellow loam soils; (2.) alluvial
and river bottom soils; (3.) black prai
rie soils; (4.) pine woods soils.
The forage plants most successfully
grown for different purposes on these
oils are enumerated below:
Forage Plants for Yellow Loam
Soils.—For permanent meadows on
rich, land, Bermuda grass; for a hay
crop to occupy rich land two years, red
clover; for a single hay crop on fair
soils, cowpeas; on poor soils, lespc
ieza. For permanent pastures, Ber
muda grass and lespedeza, to which
may be added on dry soils, orchard
grass, smooth brome grass, and bur
■ •lover; on wet soils the addition
mould consist of red top, water grass,
and alsike clover. Crimson clover,
cseue grass, Terrell grass, and hairy
vetch are recommended for winter
Forage Plants For the Alluvial and
iver Bottom Soils. For permanent
endows, Bermuda grass and red clov
: (tn wet spots, redtop; and on well
'mined soils, alfalfa. For a hay crop
f v a single season, lespedeza or Ger
nn millet. For pastures, Bermuda
ass, lespedeza, redtop, alsike clover,
■ r clover, alfalfa, Japanese rye grass,
large water grass, and Terrell grass.
Forage Plants For the Black Prairie
■■'•oils. —For hay, Bermuda grass, red
•lover, and sweet clover. For a hay
op for a single season,lespedeza. For
i catch crop, following oats, potatoes,
fie., cowpeas or German millet. For
in stores, Bermuda grass, lespedeza,
veet clover, alsike clover, smooth
'nrome grass, orchard grass, redtop,
bur clover, and hairy vetch.
Forage Plants For the Pine Woods
Soils. —For liay, Bermuda grass, crab
mass, Mexican clover, alfalfa, crimson
•lover, and lespedeza. For pastures,
imson clover, Japanese rye grass, or
•hard grass, carpet grass, and large
water grass.
It must be remembered that varia
tions in local conditions of soil and
■innate make it necessary to exercise
•reat care in the selection of forage
dants for particular purposes. The
core complete statements of the con
litions under which different species
have proved successful, given in the
body of this bulletin, should be con
- Mered in detail before definite con
clusions are drawn regarding the
' alue of particular plants for any lo
ality.—“Southern Forage Plants,”
Farmers’ Bulletin No. 102.
Every cough makes ,
your throat more raw
and irritable. Every
cough congests the lining
membrane of your lungs.
Ceasetearing your throat
and lungs in this way.
Put the parts at rest and
give them a chance to
heal, /ou will need some
help to do this, and you
will find it in
From the first dose the
quiet and rest begin: the
tickling in the throat
ceases; the spasm weak
ens; the cough disap
pears. Do not wait for
pneumonia and con
sumption but cut short
your cold without delay.
Dr. Ayer’s Cherry Pec
toral Plaster should be
over the lungs of every per
son troubled with a cough.
Write to the Doctor.
Unusual opportunities and long ex
perience eminently qualify us for
giving you medical advice. Write
freely all the particulars in your case.
Tell us what your experience has
been with our Cherry Pectoral. You
will receive a prompt reply, without
Address, DR. J. C. AYER,
Lowell, Mass.
I'lie cause of tlie general disuse of
‘•.air powder was the high price of
lour. It was thought little less than
inwnal that flour, which was almost
yond the reach of the very poor,
ould he used by the rich as a mere
nshionable luxury of dress. Volun
tary associations were formed, the
embers whereof bound themselves
■>t to use hair powder. In a similar
ay the abolitionists bound thein
lves not to use any sugar whose pro
iction involved the employment of
u gro slaves. —Notes and Queries.
Pain-Killer as an internal remedy,
lon’t fail to try it. In short, it is a
Pain-Killer. Avoid substitutes, there
s but one Pain-Killer, Perry Davis’.
For the sick headache and toothache,
bad sores, burns, scalds and sprains,
has no equal. In cases of summer
complaints, diarrhoea, dysentery, it
ures quickly. Used as a liniment its
action is like magic, when applied to
Price 25c. and 50c. 13,
+++ •
“Edgar, tell me the truth! Is there
any black spot in your life before you
knew me?”
“Letitia, I will reval all. When 1
was 10 years old I used to piece
quilts.”—Detroit Free Press.

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