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The Florida agriculturist. (DeLand, Fla.) 1878-1911, August 29, 1906, Image 1

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S P I mgr mgrO
O S epartmentof Ag re
Seere Jel fir firD 1J of
dypyf0 dypyf0JOURNAL s sVOL
VOL XXXIII No 33 82 S > > Jacksonville and DeLand Fla Wednesday August 291906 Whole No 1663
The Big Leffingwell Lemon IiemonOrchard LemonOrchard LemonOrchard
Orchard OrchardThe OrchardThe OrchardThe
The Citrograph copies < a long ac account account account ¬
count of this thi grove roc from the Fullerton FiillertoiiXews rullertonXews FullertonNews
Xews It is quite interesting and andmay andnNl andmay
may nNl be valuable to our our South Florida Floridasubscribers ForidasUbscribers Floridasubscribers
subscribers subscribersRanching sUbscribersImncbing subscribersRanching
Ranching in Southern California has hasmany hasman hasmany
many man big bigprobemsmany problems many still nn nnsilved unsilocdand tunsilvedand
silved silocdand and it is gratifying gratic ng to chron chronicle chronicle chronicle ¬
icle the sncessful solution of one of ofthem orthem o othem
them If the rancher is content to take takethings t takethings I Ithings
things as they come and not bother botherabout botherabout botherabout
about the why wh of it he has an easy easycarefree eayLrefree easycorefree
carefree existence e istence compared with the theman theman theman
man who works not only on his hands handsbut handsbilt handsbut
but his brain in constantly trying to tomake tomake tomake
make the product of his acres of the thevery thcvery thevery
very highest typo ty C known and I1 then thentrying Uwntrying thentrying
trying to better that thatIn thatIn t tIn
In the past ten years lemon cultur culturists cultnrists culturists
ists have passed through various varioustroubles yurioustroubles varioustroubles
troubles and vicissitudes In many manycases manycases manycases
cases growers owers were ere discouraged by bythe bythe bythe
the obstacles which beset them and andwhich audwhich andwhich
which scented sL > enwd insurmountable and anddug amIdug antidug
dug out their lemon trees or budded buddedthem buddeelthem buddedthen
them to oranges But some persisted persistedsought persistedsought persistedsought
sought the solution of their troubles troublesand troublesamI troublesand
and this article is intended to describe describethe
the methods of one grower who has hassucceeded hassucceeded hassucceeded
succeeded to a remarkable remarIm le degree in inlocating inlocating inlocating
locating the trouble finding a remedy remedyand remcd remcdand remedyand
and developing the lemon along alongscientific alongscientilic alongscientific
scientific lines to a i point > oint which means meanssubstantial meanssubstantial meanssubstantial
substantial financial returns for his hispains hispains hispains
pains I am speaking of the Lefling Leflingwell LeflingI LeflingIwell Leftingwell
well ranch of 100 acres located at atAVhittier athittier atWhittier
Whittier hittier and owned by b Rev fRe C W WIeflingwell iVLeflingwell 1VLeflingwell
Leflingwell of Illinois and his son sonC tronC sonC
C NV V Leffingwell Jr The latter is isthe isthe isthe
the resident partner and manager of ofthe ofthe ofthe
the property and it is his energy and andability andability andability
ability that have brought about the theresults theresults theresults
results given in this article articleThe articleThe articleThe
The lemon tree is a constant pro producer producer producer ¬
ducer there being blossoms and andmaturing andmaturlng andmaturing
maturing fruit steadily on the trees treesBut treesBut treesBut
But the heaviest crops come in the thewinter thewinter thewinter
winter months when the demand in inmost inmost inmost
most parts of the United States is islightest islightest islightest
lightest and in the summer when whenthe whenthe hen henthe
the demand is greatest the crops are arelighter arelighter arelighter
lighter lighterOne lighterOne lighterOne
One great problem confronting the thegrower the thegrower thegrower
grower was to so handle his fruit fruitthat fruitthat fruitthat
that it might have good keeping keepingqualities keepingqualities keepingqualities
qualities so that the winter crop cropmight cropmigbt cropmight
might be held for the summer mar market market market ¬
ket This necessitates a careful carefulstudy carefulstudy carefulstudy
study not only of market conditions conditionsbut cUlIl1itionshut conditionsbut
but of the soil and its needs the trees treesirrigation treesirrigation treesirrigation
irrigation cultivation pruning pick picking illeking picking ¬
ing curing and packing In fact factevery factevery factevery
every step from the fertilizing of the
soil to the marketing of the fruit had hadto hadto hadto
to be considered consideredThe consideredThe consideredThe
The Leflingwell ranch consists of
500 00 acres sediment soil lying on the thesouth thesouth thesouth
south slope of the foothills east of ofWhittier ofllittier ofWhittier
Whittier llittier One hundred acres of this thisis thisis thisis
is in bearing lemons lemonsI
I went into the orchard with Mr MrLeffingwell Ir IrLef r rLeffingwell
Leffingwell Lef ingwell and saw sa the fruit on the thetrees thetrees thetrees
trees which were loaded down withblossoms with withblossoms vithhiossoms
blossoms and small green lemons lemonswith lemonsIyilli lemonswith
with now and then a yellow one onewhich onewhich onewhich
which had escaped the pickers A Agang Agang Agang
gang of men were at work pruning pruningas
as they are nearly nearl every ever month in inthe inthe inthe
the year on this ranch ranchtrimming trimming to toencourage toencourJge toencourage
encourage the low broad roatl shape of ofthe ofthe ofthe
the tree us much as possible The Thepruning Theilrunin Thepruning
pruning may lU3 seem excessive to some somepeople somelteople somepeople
people but in this orchard has proved provedto
to be the right thing thingCommercial thingCommereia thingCommercial
Commercial fertilizer is used and andalso andaiso andalso
also all the stable st he and sheep manure mnImreobminl manureobtainable manureobtainable
obtainable obminl ie besides peas and other othercrops otherops othercrops
crops < ops high in nitrogen which are areplanted I1repanted areplanted
planted in the fall and later turned turnedunder turnedunder turnedunder
under underThe underThe underThe
The long rows of trees stretch away awaynearly I1waynearly awaynearly
nearly as far as the eye e e can reach reachhave reachha reachhave
have ha ve a l thrifty thriCt wellfed appearance appearanceand
and are absolutely absolutel free from scale a acondition acondition acondition
condition necessary necesmr for best results resultsThe resultsrIm resultsThe
The leaves are green shiny and clean cleanand cleanantI cleanand
and the blossoms large and perfect perfectThe perfectlhe perfectThe
The fruit is full smooth and wellnourished wellnourished well wellnourished
nourished in appearance This heal healthy healthy healthy ¬
thy condition puts life and vitality vitalityinto yitalityinto vitalityinto
into the lemon and makes it keep keephard kCLP kCLPhard keephard
hard and linn for months so that thatit thatit thatit
it commands a ready re1tI market at su superior superior superior ¬
perior prices pricesIresent pricesPres pricesPresent
Present Pres en t Indications lndiea Uons show an im immense immense immense ¬
mense crop for the coming season seasonThe seasonThe seasonThe
The picking which is done every everyfour everyfour everyfour
four to six weeks according to growth growthis
is performed by two gangs fings of men menone menone menone
one gang ng going ahead of the other otherEach otherKnch otherEach
Each man rail has a ring which he uses nseson useson
on every lemon There are two twosizes twosizes twosizes
sizes of these rings the first gang gangbeing gangbeing
supplied with those of 2 510 510inches v16inches 1G 1Ginches
inches in diameter and they clip all allfmit np npfmit allfruit
fmit that will not pass throubh this thisring thisring thisring
ring The following gang is supplied suppliedwith suppliedwilli suppliedwith
with rings of 2 IxtS 1 18 inches in dia diameter tUameter diameter ¬
meter and they pick fruit which is isbeginning isheginnin isbeginning
beginning to color slightly and which whichwould whichwould whichwould
would be too ripe before the next nextpicking nextpicking nextpicking
picking pickingThe pickingTire pickingThe
The reason for the use of the two tworings tworingS tworings
rings is that the tb trade in the East Easthas E3sthas Fasthas
has become accustomed to two sizes sizesJOO
300 and 300 ro to the th packed box boxsince hoxsince boxsince
since the Sicily Sici > lemons were imported importedand imlOrtetland importedand
and the pickings are regulated every everyfour eYer eYerfour everyfour
four ito six weeks according to togrowth togrowth togrowth
growth to get the right sizes The
best keeping lemons are picked abso absolutely 3bsolutely absolutely ¬
lutely green and cured in the packing packinghouse pack packinghouse 1l 1lhouse
house houseThe houselhe houseThe
The orchard is divided into seven sevenblocks sevenblocks sevenblocks
blocks for picking purposes and a arecord IIrecord arecord
record is kept each day da of the block blockin
in which the thepickin picking is done the thenumber UICnumber thenumber
number of men employed emplo ed number of ofpicking ofpickiJ ofpicking
picking pickiJ gb boxes xes turned in etc so that thatthe thatthc thatthe
the manager knows each day daywhat da dawhat daywhat
what each man averages and what whatit
it costs This system s stem also nso enables enablesthe enalJesthe enablesthe
the picking crews t tp get over the theorchard theorchard theorchard
orchard during the proper time as asthe asthe asthe
the superintendent can tell each day J jtjayjust dayjust JY JYJUSIt
just haw 110 the work is progressing Jlro essing and nrulregulate andregnlate andregulate
regulate the help accordingly accordinglyAs accordingly accordinglyAs 1c ortlingl ortlinglAs
As the lemon is picked from the thetree tbetree thetree
tree after having Ja ing been tested tested for forsize forsize forsize
size by b the ring it iscarefully iscarefuil carefully placed placedin
in it a special picking sack and handled handledas
as gently cntl as if it were an egg From Fromthe liromthe Fromthe
the sack they the are carefully earefuil removed removedto
to boxes and taken to the packing packinghouse Itaclinghonse packinghouse
house on spring wagons wagonsThis wagonsThis wagonsThis
This great rrea t care is noticeable noticel ble in inhandling inhandlin inhandling
handling handlin the fruit all through thiou h the theprocess theprocess theprocess
process our nn has had much influence influenceon
on the keeping qualities which have havemade Imvemade havemade
made the product of this ranch fa famous ftlmous famous ¬
mous It also insures proper sizes sizesand sizesallti sizesand
and keeps the lemons picked so closely closelythat close closethat closelythat
that the they do not have a chance to toripen toripen toripen
ripen on the trees treesIt treesIt
It seems seel ls a little thing to notice noticebut noticetmt noticebut
but if the rind of a lemon is bruised bruisedever bruisedmoer bruisedever
ever so little it impairs the shipping shippingvalue shippingalne shippingvalue
value of o that tha t lemon and may mn endan endanger emlanger endanger ¬
ger others othersAt othmst othersAt
At t the th packing house the lemons lemonsare iemonsare lemonsare
are washed at once in it a machine machinewhichhas nlftchinewhich machinewhich
whichhas which has been worked over adjust adjusted Hljustetl ¬
ed and changed ei ah d until the builder builderwould builderwould builderwould
would hardly hardi know kno it all with a aview aviw aview
view to IliJlltllin handling the fruit without withoutbiyiising withoutbruising withoutb4uising
bruising From the washer they theycome the thecome theycome
come qut on a moving sorting table tabledivided ta tabledivided ie ieiYitlCtlinto
divided iYitlCtlinto into four grades ades for color colorand colorand OloraDll
and keeping quality and are placed placedin
in tile boxes in which they will after afterward afterwnrtl afterward ¬
ward be shipped in truts for curing curingThe cmingThe curingThe
The packing house Is a big hi place placellSxiSK lliace1l2x2 place112x
llSxiSK 112x 32 2 feet with an addition JOx
132 feet and the main part is divided dividedinto dividedinto dividedinto
into canvas it ruts Itlnt > l lOxtiO feet and ten tenfeet tcnfcct tellfeet
feet high each capable of storing ti ticar IIcar acar
car of lemons which from the previ previous previous previous ¬
ous care given come to this stage all allsorted ullsortetl tillsorted
sorted for color and keeping quality qualityand qunlityand qualityand
and will cure evenly Thirtysix Thirtysixthousand Thirtysixthousand Thirtysixthousand
thousand boxes are required to Jill Jillthe tillthe fillthe
the seventyfive truts trutsThis tnItsIhii trutsThis
This Ihii process IIlOCt is i cheaper chen pel than the theold theold
old way WJ of hand washing uhin and puts putsthe pnt pntthe putsthe
the fruit in shape so that each grade gradecan graIlIeun gradecan
can be shipped at its prime the green greenfruit greenfruit greenfruit
fruit being kept longest and the riper
being shipped promptly In other otherwords otherwortlll otherwords
words each degree of ripeness ri nClg is issegregated isse Issegregated
segregated se reIlted as to keeping quality and andkept andiwpt andkept
kept together In car lots the hand handling hamllin handling ¬
ling lin being hlin thereby therCb simplified and aIllme a amore amore
more even pack lack assured This is one oneof oneof oneof
of the salient points that is putting puttingCalifornia ptlttingCJlifornia puttingCalifornia
California lemons in the lead The Thepercentage Theperccntage Thepercentage
percentage of decay incident to the theprocess tIleIlrocess theprocess
process so so far described in the house houseis
is one in 10000 in winter In the thespring tile8lrin thespring
spring 8lrin when there is more sap it itwill itwill Itwill
will sometimes run as high as 1 per percent percent percent
cent centBeginning centBC centBeginning
Beginning BC innin with January when the thepickings thelickins thepickings
pickings lickins are heavy hea and the demand demandlight demllndlIht demandlight
light the fruit is stored In the truts trutsfor tMltsfor trutsfor
for three or four months In the thesummer theSnmJlll thesummer
summer months the fruit can be beshipped beshippell beshipped
shipped as IS soon as colored say two twoor twOor twoor
or three weeks Along toward towardSeptember towunlptemher towardSepteuilrer
September coloring Oioin is done artificially artificiallyby
by h placing the lemons in tight rooms roomsand roomsalllI roomsand
and subjecting them to a damp heat heatof heatof heatof
of no 0 degres for from three to eight eightdays eightda eightdays
days da 15 The facilities of the ranch will willpermit willpermit willpermit
permit of concentrating threefourths threefourthsof
of the crop in the six wannest months monthsof
of the year eIl retarding the inter Avintercrops wintercrops intercrops
crops and hastening the summer summerThe summercrops summercrops
crops cropsfile cropsThe
The storage capacity of this puck iwcking puckin lucking
ing in house is seventyfive cars and two twocars twoears twocars
cars a day may Illa be packed and ship shipped shipped shipped ¬
ped when desired desiredIn
In packing the lemons are graded gradedfrom gladedflOm gradedfrom
from Use boxes to shallow trays 2x3 2x3feet 2x3feet 2x3feet
feet and three inches deep being beingsorted beingsorted beingsorted
sorted for color quality II naIi ty appearance appearanceetc
etc into two grades and placed placedcarefully pf3cedearefnIi placedcarefully
carefully earefnIi iby iJI hand into these trays trayswhich trayswhich trayswhich
which then go to the packer whereenell whereeach where whereeach
each lemon Is wrapped in paper and andcarefully nndearefnIi andcarefully
carefully earefnIi placed in the packing box boxSpecial box8i1ecii boxSpecial
Special attention is given to placing placingthe
the stem end of the lemon toward towardthe towardthe towardthe
the wood whenever possible as that thatend thatentl thatend
end is much Illu h less easily bruised bruisedWhen bruisedhen bruisedWhen
When hen the lox is ready for closing closingtwo ciosingtwo closingtwo
two cleats are placed under the cover coverinstead cover coerinsteael coverinstead
instead of one that the danger of ofbruising ofIIrnising ofbruising
bruising may nJI be e still further mini minimized minimized minimizetl ¬
mized This is still further empha emphasized emphasized emphasized ¬
sized h by careful < press work in nailing nailingon
on the cover coverKnch lOverEnch coverEach
Each box bears the number of the thepacker thepacler thepacker
packer The packing house is four fourmiles fourmiles fourmiles
miles from the railroad and after the theloads theloads theloads
loads of packed boxes reach the rail railroad railroad railroad ¬
road station one box is picked out at atrandom atrandom atrandour
random from each car and returned returnedto
to the packing house where it is isopened isopenell isopened
opened and examined in the presence presenceof
of the manager This is not only a acheck nelleek acheck
check against the careless carel ss packer packerbut packerbut packerbut
but determines absolutely the condi

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